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A 3-in-1 tool for climate change and resiliency assessments
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Climate change is altering our world as we know it. Unfortunately, there’s no one-size-fits-all solution for making our environment resilient. From planners to scientists to farmers and ranchers, the lens through which climate change is viewed is dynamic. So how can anyone plan the best course of action with the best available data? Researchers led by Aavudai Anandhi at Florida A&M University might have just the right tool for the job. Their evidence-based approach combines three climate research methods to tailor action plans to the needs of a given ecosystem—whether that’s an entire country or state, or a single community, and whether for now or for the future. The approach begins with gathering evidence of climate change over a geographical region—the state of Florida for example. That’s done by pulling from trusted research to understand how factors like temperature or rainfall have evolved or are projected to evolve over time..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/20/2019
A 3-in-1 tool for climate change assessments
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Climate change is altering our world as we know it Despite general guidelines for mitigating harmful changes Climate change affects different areas in different ways And those effects aren’t always clear Now, a new evidence-based tool could provide the resolution to tailor plans of action around the globe It starts with a meta-analysis that gathers climate change data for a given ecosystem That data provides the input needed to draw conclusions about future climate trends, or scenarios Such as increases or decreases in temperature The effects those changes are likely to set in motion are then linked together in a causal chain Which can reveal how crops, natural resources, or animal species will fare amid climate change Although the tool becomes limited when data for a given area are scarce It could be a powerful new way to develop custom-made plans for fighting climate change.."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
12/04/2019
Accessing Streamflow Data via the Worldwide Web
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This is a computer-based activity in which students retrieve data from websites maintained by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS), and then use that data to test different hypotheses regarding streamflow and precipitation. Students import data from web sites into a spreadsheet program where they can construct scatter plots and perform simple statistical tests. The activity has two components, the first focusing on relations between streamflow and drainage basin characteristics (drainage area, slope, precipitation), the second focusing on trends in annual precipitation at two locations in the USA: Burlington, VT, and Boulder, CO. As part of the second component, students conduct a statistical test to determine if the long-term trends in precipitation are significant.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Mathematics
Measurement and Data
Physical Science
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
John Pitlick
Date Added:
08/18/2020
Addressing Short- and Long-Term Risks to Water Supply
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
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In 2012, water managers in Fredericktown, Missouri, saw their city's main source of water dwindle. They used the EPA’s Climate Ready Water Utilities program to consider options and develop plans to protect their water source.

Subject:
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Case Study
Provider:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Provider Set:
U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit
Date Added:
08/29/2016
Advanced Water Mathematics
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CC BY
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Learning and Understanding Mathematical Concepts in the Areas of Water Distribution and Water Treatment. From College of the Canyons.

Table of Contents
Section 1: Unit Dimensional Analysis
Section 2: Geometric Shapes
Section 3: Density and Specific Gravity
Section 4: Chemical Dosage Analysis
Section 5: Weir Overflow Rate
Section 6: Water Treatment Math Detention Time
Section 7: CT Calculations
Section 8: Pressure, Head Loss, and Flow
Section 9: Well Yield, Specific Capacity, and Drawdown
Section 10: Horsepower and Efficiency
Section 11: Per Capita Water Usage
Section 12: Blending and Diluting
Section 13: Scada and the Use of mA
Section 14: Water Utility Management

Subject:
Hydrology
Mathematics
Physical Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Michael Alvord
Regina Blasberg
Date Added:
08/06/2020
Alternative futures lesson
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Alternative futures studies are a valuable yet resource-intensive way in which environmental scientists try to conduct informed debates about policies for specific geographic regions. These studies require modeling what the future would look like if different stakeholder groups had their way. The modeling is carried out by applying historical trend data to future projections that are rooted in the preferences of the different groups. Alternative future studies can be controversial due to the limitations of modeling and to the extent to which the models represent fully the different possible scenarios. Yet, they can be especially valuable for decision making about which areas in the region would be most appropriate and most acceptable for the applications of different policies such as development and restoration. Through a series of hands-on classroom activities that are the culmination of a variety of field trips, case studies, and analyses of GIS data about river systems and river restoration options, the students build deep understanding about what alternative futures studies entail and what are the applications of such studies to specific rivers in the Puget Sound area.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Political Science
Social Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Dan Zalles
Date Added:
09/28/2022
Analysis of Hydrochemical Data
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CC BY-NC-SA
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In this activity students examine groundwater flow path based on hydraulic head data/ potentiometric surface and spatial variation of groundwater chemistry. Students analyze the data using AquaChem and Phreeqc which is integrated with AquaChem

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Career and Technical Education
Chemistry
Environmental Studies
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Joseph Asante
Date Added:
08/06/2019
Aquifer Characterization
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Well Field Practice: aquifer characterization through conducting and interpreting of aquifer pump tests.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Marek Matyjasik
Date Added:
08/06/2019
Aquifer Elasticity and Specific Storage
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CC BY-NC-SA
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The goal of this experiment is to measure the specific storage Ss of a balloon, which simulates aquifer elasticity. The experiment is designed to give observational meaning to the variable, increment of fluid content, and the influence of the state of stress on the specific storage. Increment of fluid content is the poroelastic variable defined as the amount of water added to storage per unit bulk volume. It is analogous to quantity of heat added to a unit volume of a material. Specific storage can then be expressed rigorously as the ratio of increment of fluid content divided by the change in head with specified external stress or strain conditions on the REV.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Herb Wang
Date Added:
08/27/2020
Assessing Water Resource Demand in New York City
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CC BY-NC-SA
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An exercise assessing the water demand of New York City and population dynamics underlying that demand is provided. Visualization of first order water resource estimates using precipitation data and a known water storage volume are used to draw conclusions about drought risk and the sustainability of NYC water supplies.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Business and Communication
Engineering
Hydrology
Life Science
Management
Physical Science
Political Science
Social Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Kyle Monahan
Date Added:
07/07/2022
Assessment of Potential Well Yield, Gallatin Regional Park MT
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This project helps familiarize students with data commonly available from well drillers, the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. Such data is often used to produce consulting reports. In this exercise, students practice working with available data and writing a consulting report while working on a real project of local interest. The question involves the probability of success in drilling a large well for a new county park. Students are given various maps and are guided through the use of a statewide database that contains well logs and well data. The outcome is a written report that describes the location and general geology of the site, uses the available data to summarize the types of materials that a driller might encounter, answers the questions that the client is interested in, and identifies problems or advantages presented by the groundwater system as indicated by available data.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Business and Communication
Hydrology
Life Science
Management
Physical Science
Political Science
Social Science
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Stephan Custer
Date Added:
08/28/2019
Assignment
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First assignment of the course

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Tara Kulkarni
Date Added:
08/06/2019
Basic Chemistry Review
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This assignment reviews basic of chemistry for students who should have had 2 introductory semesters of basic chemistry prior to enrolling in the Fundamental of Water Quality course for which the assignment is used. Assignment reviews basic equation balancing and questions about valence and concentration conversion that students will confront regularly in any geochemistry course.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Career and Technical Education
Chemistry
Environmental Studies
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Thomas Meixner
Date Added:
09/06/2020
Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics
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CC BY-NC-SA
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In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Richard Laton
Date Added:
08/27/2019
Building Smart in the Floodplain
Read the Fine Print
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The city of Fort Collins, Colorado, found a win-win solution to problems it faced with 100 acres of abandoned property. The city now enjoys new green space, improved floodwater management, and a boosted economy.

Subject:
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Case Study
Provider:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Provider Set:
U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit
Date Added:
08/29/2016
Calculation of Stream Discharge
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This is a field based exercise that exposes students to streams as a major agent of erosion and to methods of quantifying stream discharge by collecting data in the field. Students also apply basic navigation skills by using hand-held GPS devices and plotting longitude and latitude of the field sites under investigation.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Bruce Rueger
Date Added:
08/21/2019
Choosing Papers
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CC BY-NC-SA
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In an upper-level seminar course, students bear significant responsibility for their learning. This activity provides the framework to help them identify the exact topics that they will discuss throughout a course in Environmental Analysis. The students are given constraints so that they don't either wander completely aimlessly through the environmental literature or pick only papers on their favorite topic. They are instead asked to dip into the literature to find papers that deal with analysis of pollutants in air, water, and solid matrices, and to have at least one that is relevant to climate change.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Environmental Science
Hydrology
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
deborah gross
Date Added:
03/25/2022
Climate Outlooks Help Water Supply Planning
Read the Fine Print
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When water utility personnel recognized their groundwater withdrawals were damaging ecosystems in the Tampa Bay area, they found new ways to reduce their dependence on it.

Subject:
Hydrology
Physical Science
Material Type:
Case Study
Provider:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Provider Set:
U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit
Date Added:
08/09/2016
Climate as Constraint
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Introduction:
Groundwater is key to Texas future and economy. The resource has long been a focus of legislative and economic interest. In the earliest days, the resource was viewed as 'occult and hidden.' That sense of mystery remains even as groundwater becomes more critical to the water resource picture for the state.
Since 1951, the state conducts regional water planning with the involvement of citizen stakeholders. Let's use your science-based knowledge of groundwater flow to see if you can find the right balance for both protecting and planning for groundwater use.
Our Case:
This week we will evaluate a historic court case from June 13, 1904. The case of East versus Texas Central Railroad Company is the Texas Supreme Ruling that provides the foundation for Texas groundwater law -- Rule of Capture.
In the appendix, you will find the following figures to help you determine whether or not Mr. East's well was impacted by the railroad company's pumping:

Platt map showing well locations and possible distances
Schematics of the well dimensions, along with simplified subsurface geology in the area.

In addition, you will be interested in knowing that the Geologic Atlas of Texas shows that the wells were likely completed in the Pawpaw Formation, which is a thick calcareous clay unit in the lower sections and cemented sand in the upper part. Lithologies in the area are reported to yield limited to moderate amounts of water in shallow wells. You can expect that the formation was an unconfined unit and assume that the East well is down-gradient from the Railroad well.
Assignment Part One:

1. Using the information from our last lecture, what do you think a reasonable transmissivity rate might be for the Pawpaw formation?

a. Estimate a transmissvity for a cemented sand unit.
b. Use this value as your first estimate in calculations to calculate the potential drawdown with Jacob's equation. This calculates the drawdown in an nonleaky artesian aquifer, sa, given the observed water table drawdowns.

sa = swt -- (s2st/2m)

c. Calculate swt using a correction equation.

Swt = m-(m2-2msa)1/2

Where m is the initial saturated thickness, which you may estimate at 30 ft.

2. How much water do you estimate that the railroad can extract before the well is impacted? Complete a diagram showing estimated drawdown (ft) on the y-axis and distances from the Railroad well (ft) using different transmissivity values and different distances. What do you discover about the case?
3. With your hydrogeologic analysis, do you believe that the East well was impacted by the railroad well? Can you explain how significant the impact may or may not have been?

Climate Considerations:
Is it possible that climate conditions could have impacted conditions in the well? Visit the Greenleaf website ([greenleaf.unl.edu/downloads/scPDSI.zip]) and access data for Palmer Drought Severity Indices. Looking at this data, complete the next questions.
Assignment Part 2:

4. Looking at the drought severity index maps of Texas from October 1900 to September 1902. What kind of implications might climate conditions have had on the groundwater conditions?
5. If climate conditions worsened, what do you think would happen to the wells?

Reference:
Mace, R.E., Ridgeway, C., and Sharp, J.M., 2004, Groundwater is no longer secret and occult - A historical and hydrogeologic analysis of the East case, 100 Years of Rule of Capture: From East to Groundwater Management, ed. Mullican, W.F. and Schwarz, S., Report 361, Texas Water Development Board, 63-86 pp.
Appendix -- support documents:
Figure 1 shows that Mr. East lived in Denison County, TX. The inset is a plan view map showing the potential locations of the wells in the town.
(in supporting documents)
Figure 2: Schematic of well dimensions and simplified geology.
(In supporting documents)

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Hydrology
Life Science
Mathematics
Measurement and Data
Physical Science
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Suzanne Pierce
Date Added:
08/29/2019