Glossary

Glossary

 

ApartheidSouth African system of segregation based on race
100 Days of Reformreforms undertaken to improve China's social structure as European powers tried to colonize parts of the country
Absolute monarchygovernment system in which a king or queen has unlimited, or absolute power
Admiral Matthew PerryAmerican naval commander who forced the opening of Tokyo Bay to the West in 1854
Armeniansminority group of ethnic Christians living in the Ottoman Empire
Asientosystem in which the Spanish government offered contracts to European merchants to deliver African slaves to the New World.
Auschwitz, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, Chelmnosix death camps created by Nazi Germany in Poland as part of the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish Question"
Battle of El Alamein1942 battle in which the Allies broke through German Forces in North Africa and pushed them back to Tunisia
Battle of Tsushimamajor naval battle between Russia and Japan in 1905 that resulted in a Japanese victory
Bay of Pigs invasion1961 failed CIA operation to remove Fidel Castro from power in Cuba
Bessemer Processa process in the manufacturing of steel
Bloody Sundayevent in which unarmed demonstrators were massacred by the Imperial guard outside the tsar's palace
Boer Warsconflicts in South Africa at the turn of the twentieth century that pitted the Dutch South Africans against the colonizing British
BolshevikRussian communist party led by Vladmir Lenin
Boxerssecret, nationalist society in China that resisted foreign colonization
British and Dutch East India Companiescompanies that established charters to colonize. The British East Indies Company was the major trader in the Indian Ocean and established trade routes with several of the different groups and empires of the Early Modern World. The Dutch Indies company established established trade routes with the Indies and South Pacific Islands.
British RajBritish rule over India in the mid-1800s to mid-1900s
Camillo Cavourleader of the new Italian kingdom established in 1861 that was a result of his diplomatic and political work.
Capitalismsystem of free markets established by Adam Smith as a way to be against mercantilism
Caudillismosystem of government in Latin America in which the government is run by a strongman
Central Powersin World War I, the military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
Closed Country Edictthe edict that the Tokugawa Shogunate issued in 1635 to close Japan from the Europeans and ended European economic, political, and religious influence in Japan
Committee of Public Safetyestablished in the French Revolution to combat the dual threat of internal rebellion against the revolution and foreign invasions. The Committee of Public Safety was chaired by Robespierre, who would put the accused on trial, but unfortunately because of the need to enact justice, had quick ‘show’ trials and would execute over 16,000 people in one year as the head of the committee
Communismclassless political and economic ideology that promotes common ownership among citizens
Congo Free Statemassive colony in central Africa that was created in the 1880s as a private colony for the Belgian King, Leopold II
CoronelismoBrazilian form of government that centralizes power in the hands of one oligarch
Cottage Industrybusiness formed in the individual's home.
Daimyofeudal Japanese group that was most closely compared to the feudal lords of medieval Europe
Decolonizationdeconstruction of colonies
Deng XiaopingChinese revolutionary leader in the mid-1970s-1990s who was responsible for galvanizing the Chinese economy
East Africa Campaignlongest military campaign of World War I
Einsatzgruppenelite groups of German units responsible for the execution of Jews in Eastern Europe by mass-shootings
Empress Dowager Cixi Chinese empress during the Boxer Rebellion
Enlightened absolutismform of absolute monarchy that held that royal power emanated not from divine right but from a social contract. Enlightened absolutism was heavily influenced by the Enlightenment period, and many practitioners were kings like George III and queens like Catherine the Great.
Enlightened despotismform of government in the 1700s in which monarchs conducted social reforms based on the ideas of the Enlightenment
Estates-Generalparliamentary body in France from the 13th-19th centuries. The Estates-General was made of three different social groups: The First Estate, primarily the Catholic Church; the Second Estate was the king and nobility; and the Third Estate was everyone else. These divisions were at the center of the French Revolution when King Louis XVI ordered the return of the Estates General to ask for more taxes and to stop the French Treasury from Bankruptcy.
European Union political and economic union of many European nations
Fascismextreme rightist political ideology that supports military dictatorship, conservative tradition, hypernationalism
Ferdinand MagellanMagellan and his crew are the first people who are credited with circumnavigating the world. Magellan sailed westward from Portugal to South America. At the tip of South America, Magella and his crew found problems with the seas and today the strait is named after him.
First Five Year Planplan of rapid industrialization and collective agriculture in the Soviet Union (1928-32)
Francisco Pizzaro and the IncasSpanish conquistador, Francisco Pizzaro, challenged the Incas in South America. Pizzaro studied many of the techniques of the colonization from Cortez.
Frederick II of Prussia,a key leader in the Early Modern European period; championed Enlightenment reforms. He was a leader that revolutionized Prussia and established many of the norms that were key to understanding the Early Modern World. Also in 1739, he published Anti-Machiavel, an idealistic refutation of Machiavelli and brought many reforms to Prussia.
French Indochinagroup of French colonies in southeast Asia that existed from the mid-1800s to mid-1950s
French Revolutionconflict that was a direct result of the need of France to raise taxes following the American Revolution. Historians generally talk about the four phases of the French Revolution, the first was the Constitutional Democracy. This was when the Estates General was asked to raise taxes and the Third Estate rebelled on principles similar to that of the American Revolution. The second phase was the Committee of Public Safety, which was an attempt to remove "threats" to the revolution but ended with over 16,000 people dead. The third phase was the Directorate that had significant problems with government. Then, the fourth phase was Napoleon.
Giuseppe Garibaldithe military leader of the Italian state that was at the unification of Italy during the 19th century
GlasnostSoviet policy of increased government transparency under Gorbachev
Great Famine widespread famine in China from 1959-61
Great PurgeJoseph Stalin's campaign to eliminate political rivals through murder and torture (1936-1938)
Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphereplan to create a self-sufficient bloc of Asian nations that were free of Western dependence
Gustavus Vassaformer enslaved person who became an abolitionist. He published his autobiography in 1789 as a way to help generate support for the abolitionist movement.
Haitian Revolutiondirect result of the French Revolution. The first Latin American country to gain independence in 1804. The first rebellion of enslaved people that created a new state, and the second newly formed state in the New World that was a former colony.
Henry Morton StanleyWelsh-American explorer of Central Africa in the late 1800s
Henry VIIIEnglish king that established the Anglican Church as a way to get a divorce from his Spanish wife
Hernan Cortez and the AztecsSpanish conquistador, Hernan Cortez, conquered the Aztec people in modern Mexico. Many historians now point out the reason for this conquest was not because of the Spanish weapons, but instead because of the biological diseases that the Spanish brought with them.
Hinduismpolytheistic religion established in the ancient world in India. Hinduism was the primary religion of the subcontinent by the time of the 16th century.
Hiroshima and Nagasakisites in Japan where the atomic bombs were dropped
Huguenotsmembers of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries inspired by the writings of John Calvin
Hyperinflationextremely high inflation that is economically unstable.
Imperialisma country's practice of creating an empire by establishing colonies around the world
Import substitution industrializationeconomic theory in developing countries who wish to reduce their dependency on developed countries
Indulgencesdifferent small goods that the Catholic Church sold as a way to earn money in the Middle Ages. One of the major complaints of the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church was the use of indulgences.
Industrializationdevelopment of a society from rural and agrarian to urban and mechanized
Isaac Newtonkey figure in the Scientific Revolution, he made many advancements in both sciences and philosophy. One of his many advancements was the discovery of Calculus, physics including movement, and the way that planets moved in an orderly fashion.
Islamic Statea country which is has an Islamic government
John Lockemade many contributions to philosophy and engagements of understanding in the political realm. The first of his most important works is the idea of the Social Contract and the Treaties on Two Governments. These ideas are key to understanding that a positive environment will create positive results for the community and individuals.
José de San Martinmilitary leader from what is now known as Argentina who helped to get Latin America's independence from Spain
Joseph StalinSecretary General of the Soviet Union from 1922-1952
Juntaterm for a Spanish or Portuguese civil deliberative or administrative council. Junta predominantly refers to the government of an authoritarian state run by high ranking officials.
JusticialismArgentine political movement that emphasizes the simple, common, and practical ways of life
Karl Marxauthor and philosopher who is credited with developing the concept of communism
Kim Il-sungfounder of North Korea
Luandaport in West Central Africa that estimated 1.3 million Africans deported enslaved people to the New World
Ludditessocial group famous for their destruction of manufacturing equipment in the Industrial Revolution. Their destruction of equipment is falsely associated with backwardness in today's use of the word.
Maastricht Treatytreaty that established the European Union in 1992
Mao ZedongChinese communist revolutionary who founded the People's Republic of China and served as its leader from 1949-76
Meiji Restorationthe restoration of power in Japan to the emperor, and marked the beginning of modernization/Westernization of Japan
Mercantilismeconomic model that established the principle of the mother country having exclusive control of a colonies economic and political future. The Mercantilist system was a highly controversial system as the colonies began to adopt Adam Smith's capitalism as a rejection of mercantilist economics.
Military Juntagovernment operated by a group of military leaders
Ming Dynastythe last significant dynasty of the Chinese in the 1644-1912. This was the very important dynasty that saw the rise of Europeans in China that then had many problems
Mitalabor tax that required  one person from each family to work in the mines. Mita was enforced by the Spanish through heavy labor taxes after the Spanish gained control of the Andean region.
Mobutu Sese Sekopresident of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965-71; and Zaire from 1971-1997
Molotov PlanSoviet plan for the Soviet Union to provide aid to satellite states after World War II
Monroe DoctrineU.S. foreign policy of the 1800s that warned Europeans to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere
Muamar Gaddafimilitary dictator and leader of Libya from 1979-2011
Mughaldynasty in the Indian Subcontinent that rose to power in the late 16th century until the 19th century. The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur, a Muslim, who took over a majority Hindu area.
Muslima practitioner of Islam. Muslims were an important group for Southwest and Southeast Asia. Practitioners were the key to the Ottoman and Mughal Dynasties in the 16th-18th centuries.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturkmilitary leader of the Ottoman forces at Gallipoli in 1915; later the "Father" of Turkey
Nahuatllanguage spoken by the Mexica people who lived in the Meso-American world
Nanking Massacre1937 massacre and rape of thousands of Chinese civilians by Japanese soldiers
Napoleonic Code1804 set of codes that established civil law in France
Nationalismwhen common heritage, history, language, and culture unites a country together. Nationalism started in the 17th century and was a key factor in nation-state building throughout the 19th to early 20th centuries. 
NATOmulti-party alliance established in 1949 to protect the security and interests of Western countries, also known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navigation Actsa series of English laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between the English colonies and other European groups
Neoliberalismpolitical and economic ideology that believes in free-market economies and that continual economic growth will advance humankind
Normandy InvasionAllied invasion of German-occupied France in summer of 1944
Operation BarbarossaGerman invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941
Otto von BismarckGerman leader in the 19th century that spread Prussian power in the German states by forcing Austria to withdraw from Germany. He was instrumental in the unification of Germany in the later period.
Pax Mongolicaa historiographic term which describes the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural, and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce that unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast conquests.
Peace of Westphaliathe collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that ended the Thirty Years' War
Potsdam Conferencepeace conference between the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States from July 17-August 2, 1945
Prince Henry the Navigator15th century Portuguese prince that established a school for the study of navigation. He was a key figure in why the Portuguese were successful in colonizing.
Qing Dynastyfirst imperial dynasty in China (1644-1912)
Red ArmyRussian revolutionary army that consisted of communist supporters who fought against the White Army
Reichstag FireFebruary 1933 event in which the German parliament in Berlin was burned down
Russian Civil Warmajor conflict in Russia in which the Red and White Armies fought one another (1917-1922)
Russian Constitution of 1906first Russian constitution that established a Russian parliament
Russian Provisional Governmentdemocratic government that governed Russia for a few months in Russia between the abdication of Nicholas II, and the seizure of power by Vladimir Lenin
Salamancafirst commercially successful train
Samarifeudal Japanese group that was most closely compared to the feudal knights of medieval Europe
Scramble for Africadivision of Africa into colonies of Western European powers
Shanghai Massacresuppression of communist Chinese forces by supporters of Chiang Kai-Shek in 1927
Simon Bolivarconsidered by historians to be the George Washington of Latin America. Bolivár was born in what is now known as Venezuela to an upper class creole family. Bolívar was engaged with the Enlightenment and wanted independence from Spain. He would fight many campaigns and eventually help earn the Gran Colombia's independence in the early 19th century.
Sola Scripturameaning by scripture alone, is a Christian theological doctrine held by most Protestant Christian denominations, in particular the Lutheran and Reformed traditions of Protestantism, that the Bible is the sole infallible source of authority for Christian faith and practice. Sola Scriptura was controversial because it was used to challenge the authority of the pope and the traditions of the Church
Sovietelected local, national, or district council in the former Soviet Union
Stab-in-the-Back Mythmyth that Germany did not militarily lose World War I, but rather was defeated by an internal enemy such as Jews and Communists
Stamp Actact passed by England to raise money following the French and Indian War. The Stamp Act raised funds by taxing stamps on official documents. Resistance to this act was the first significant break between the English and the American colonies.
Steam Engineengine that worked by heating water to generate vapor which pushed a turbine to create movement. The first practical steam engine, invented in the 19th century, led to goods being moved more quickly and efficiently.
Suez Crisisinvasion of Egypt in 1956 by Israel, France, and the UK
Sun Yat-senChinese politician who served as the first president of the Republic of China
Tanzimat reformsseries of reforms undertaken to modernize the Ottoman Empire in the mid-1800s
The Alliance Systembuilding of alliances between countries in Europe at the turn of the 20th century
The Battle of the Sommemajor battle in the summer-fall of 1916 between the British and the German armies
The Bosnian Warconflict between Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia (1992-1995)
The Disappearedpeople who vanished because they were considered a political threat to the leaders of Latin America
The Great Leap Forwardrestructuring of Chinese society from 1958-62 in which the economy was transformed from agrarian to communal
Thomas Newcomenperson who invented the steam engine.
Tokugawa ShogunateJapanese feudal government in the late 16th century that issued the Close Country Edict in 1635
Treaty of Nankingpeace treaty that ended the first Opium War between England and China
Treaty of Tordesillastreaty created by the Pope in 1494 that divided newly discovered lands outside of Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile. This line was the halfway point between the Old World and the New in the Atlantic Ocean.
Truck Systemthe substitution of legal currency for company script as wages in the Industrial Revolution
Tsar Nicholas IIlast tsar of Russia
Vasco de GamaPortuguese explorer and one of the most famous and celebrated explorers of the Age of Discovery. He was one of the first Europeans to reach India by maritime trade.
Water Framedeveloped by Richard Arkwright in the Industrial Revolution
Westphalian Systemsystem that developed in the wake of the Thirty Years War. The Westphalian System asserts that each state is equal under international law and has sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs based on the principle of non-interference.
White Armycoalition army that supported the Russian monarchy and fought against the communist Red Army
Yalta ConferenceJanuary 1945 peace conference between the United States, Soviet Union, and United Kingdom
Young Turkscoalition group that promoted Turkish nationalism in the Ottoman Empire
Zapatista Army of National Liberationpowerful political group that controls substantial territory in southeast Mexico

 

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