The Media



  1. Jeremy Lipschultz and Michael Hilt. 2003. “Race and Local Television News Crime Coverage,” Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education 3, No. 4: 1–10. 
  2. Lucas Shaw, “TV Networks Offering More On Demand to Reduce Ad-Skipping,” Bloomberg Technology, 24 September 2014. 
  3. Daniel Marans, “Did the Oregon Shooter Warn of His Plans on 4chan?” Huffington Post, 1 October 2015. 
  4. Vanna Le, “Global 2000: The World’s Largest Media Companies of 2014,” Forbes, 7 May 2014. 
  5. Stephanie Hayes, “Clear Channel Rejects St. Pete Pride Billboards, Organizers Say,” Tampa Bay Times, 11 June 2010. 
  6. Meg James, “DOJ Clears Gannett-Belo Deal but Demands Sale of St. Louis TV Station,” Los Angeles Times, 16 December 2013. 
  7. John Zaller. 2003. “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 109–130. 
  8. Suzanne Ranks, “Ethiopian Famine: How Landmark BBC Report Influenced Modern Coverage,” Guardian, 22 October 2014. 
  9. Hisham Aidi, “Haitians in the Dominican Republic in Legal Limbo,” Al Jazeera, 10 April 2015. 
  10. “Pressure the Government of the Dominican Republic to Stop its Planned ‘Cleaning’ of 250,000 Black Dominicans,” 26, 2015); Led Black, “Prevent Humanitarian Tragedy in Dominican Republic,” CNN, 23 June 2015. 
  11. Erik Ortiz, “George Holliday, Who Taped Rodney King Beating, Urges Others to Share Videos,” NBC, 9 June 2015. 
  12. “Walter Cronkite’s ‘We Are Mired in Stalemate’ Broadcast, February 27, 1968” Digital History (November 29, 2015). 
  13. Joel Achenbach, “Cronkite and Vietnam,” Washington Post, 18 May 2012. 
  14. Larry Sabato, “Our Leaders, Surprise, Have Strong Views,” New York Times, 23 February 2009. 
  15. Walter Lippmann. 1922. Public Opinion. (August 29, 2015). 
  16. Bernard Berelson, Paul Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee. 1954. Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  17. George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, Nancy Signorielli, and Marilyn Jackson-Beeck. 1979. “The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile,” Journal of Communication 29, No.10: 177–196. 
  18. Elizabeth A. Skewes. 2007. Message Control: How News Is Made on the Presidential Campaign Trail. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 79. 
  19. Stephen Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter. 2012. “Authors’ Response: Improving News Coverage in the 2012 Presidential Campaign and Beyond,” Politics & Policy 40, No. 4: 547–556. 
  20. “Early Media Coverage Focuses on Horse Race,” PBS News Hour, 12 June 2007. 
  21. Stephen Ansolabehere, Roy Behr, and Shanto Iyengar. 1992. The Media Game: American Politics in the Television Age. New York: Macmillan. 
  22. “Frames of Campaign Coverage,” Pew Research Center, 23 April 2012,
  23. Kiku Adatto. May 28, 1990. “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” New Republic 202, No. 22: 20–23. 
  24. Erik Bucy and Maria Elizabeth Grabe. 2007. “Taking Television Seriously: A Sound and Image Bite Analysis of Presidential Campaign Coverage, 1992–2004,” Journal of Communication 57, No. 4: 652–675. 
  25. Craig Fehrman, “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” Boston Globe, 2 January 2011,
  26. “Crossfire: Jon Stewart’s America,” CNN, 15 October 2004,
  27. Paul Begala, “Begala: The day Jon Stewart blew up my show,” CNN, 12 February 2015. 
  28. Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff, “Coverage of the Candidates by Media Sector and Cable Outlet,” 1 November 2012. 
  29. “Winning the Media Campaign 2012,” Pew Research Center, 2 November 2012. 
  30. Fred Greenstein. 2009. The Presidential Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 
  31. “Dan Rather versus Richard Nixon, 1974,” YouTube video, :46, from the National Association of Broadcasters annual convention in Houston on March 19,1974, posted by “thecelebratedmisterk,” (November 30, 2015); “‘A Conversation With the President,’ Interview With Dan Rather of the Columbia Broadcasting System,” The American Presidency Project, 2 January 1972,
  32. Wolf Blitzer, “Dan Rather’s Stand,” CNN, 10 September 2004. 
  33. Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha and Jeffrey Peake. 2011. Breaking Through the Noise: Presidential Leadership, Public Opinion, and the News Media. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 
  34. Ibid. 
  35. Gary Lee Malecha and Daniel J. Reagan. 2011. The Public Congress: Congressional Deliberation in a New Media Age. New York: Routledge. 
  36. Frank R. Baumgartner, Bryan D. Jones, and Beth L. Leech. 1997. “Media Attention and Congressional Agendas,” In Do The Media Govern? Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America, eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
  37. George Edwards and Dan Wood. 1999. “Who Influences Whom? The President, Congress, and the Media,” American Political Science Review 93, No 2: 327–344; Yue Tan and David Weaver. 2007. “Agenda-Setting Effects Among the Media, the Public, and Congress, 1946–2004,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84, No. 4: 729–745. 
  38. Ally Fogg, “Crime Is Falling. Now Let’s Reduce Fear of Crime,” Guardian, 24 April 24 2013. 
  39. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs: Understanding the Relationship between Local News Viewing and Perceptions of African Americans and Crime,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 1: 106–125. 
  40. Travis Dixon. 2015. “Good Guys Are Still Always in White? Positive Change and Continued Misrepresentation of Race and Crime on Local Television News,” Communication Research, doi:10.1177/0093650215579223. 
  41. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Network News and Racial Beliefs: Exploring the Connection between National Television News Exposure and Stereotypical Perceptions of African Americans,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 2: 321–337. 
  42. Martin Gilens. 1996. “Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American News Media,” Public Opinion Quarterly 60, No. 4: 515–541. 
  43. Dixon. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs.” 
  44. Gilens. “Race and Poverty in America.” 
  45. Shanto Iyengar and Donald R. Kinder. 1987. News That Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  46. Daniel C. Hallin. 2015. “The Dynamics of Immigration Coverage in Comparative Perspective,” American Behavioral Scientist 59, No. 7: 876–885. 
  47. Kay Mills. 1996. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?” In Women, the Media and Politics, ed. Pippa Norris. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 43. 
  48. Kim Fridkin Kahn and Edie N. Goldenberg. 1997. “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?” In Do the Media Govern? eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
  49. Barbara Walters, “Ms. Walters Reflects,” Vanity Fair, 31 May 2008.
  50. Mills. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?” 
  51. Mills. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?” 
  52. Kahn and Goldenberg, “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?” 
  53. Kim Fridkin Kahn. 1994. “Does Gender Make a Difference? An Experimental Examination of Sex Stereotypes and Press Patterns in Statewide Campaigns,” American Journal of Political Science 38, No. 1: 162–195. 
  54. John David Rausch, Mark Rozell, and Harry L. Wilson. 1999. “When Women Lose: A Study of Media Coverage of Two Gubernatorial Campaigns,” Women & Politics 20, No. 4: 1–22. 
  55. Sarah Allen Gershon. 2013. “Media Coverage of Minority Congresswomen and Voter Evaluations: Evidence from an Online Experimental Study,” Political Research Quarterly 66, No. 3: 702–714. 
  56. Jennifer Lawless and Richard Logan Fox. 2005. It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  57. Brittany L. Stalsburg, “Running with Strollers: The Impact of Family Life on Political Ambition,” Eagleton Institute of Politics, Spring 2012, Unpublished Paper, 28, 2015). 
  58. Christina Walker, “Is Sarah Palin Being Held to an Unfair Standard?” CNN, 8 September 2008. 
  59. Dana Bash, “Palin’s Teen Daughter is Pregnant,” CNN, 1 September 2008. 
  60. Jimmy Orr, “Palin Wardrobe Controversy Heightens – Todd is a Cheapo!” Christian Science Monitor, 26 October 2008.