An Introduction to the Human Body

Review Questions


Which of the following specialties might focus on studying all of the structures of the ankle and foot?

  1. microscopic anatomy
  2. muscle anatomy
  3. regional anatomy
  4. systemic anatomy

A scientist wants to study how the body uses foods and fluids during a marathon run. This scientist is most likely a(n) ________.

  1. exercise physiologist
  2. microscopic anatomist
  3. regional physiologist
  4. systemic anatomist

The smallest independently functioning unit of an organism is a(n) ________.

  1. cell
  2. molecule
  3. organ
  4. tissue

A collection of similar tissues that performs a specific function is an ________.

  1. organ
  2. organelle
  3. organism
  4. organ system

The body system responsible for structural support and movement is the ________.

  1. cardiovascular system
  2. endocrine system
  3. muscular system
  4. skeletal system

Metabolism can be defined as the ________.

  1. adjustment by an organism to external or internal changes
  2. process whereby all unspecialized cells become specialized to perform distinct functions
  3. process whereby new cells are formed to replace worn-out cells
  4. sum of all chemical reactions in an organism

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important molecule because it ________.

  1. is the result of catabolism
  2. release energy in uncontrolled bursts
  3. stores energy for use by body cells
  4. All of the above

Cancer cells can be characterized as “generic” cells that perform no specialized body function. Thus cancer cells lack ________.

  1. differentiation
  2. reproduction
  3. responsiveness
  4. both reproduction and responsiveness

Humans have the most urgent need for a continuous supply of ________.

  1. food
  2. nitrogen
  3. oxygen
  4. water

Which of the following statements about nutrients is true?

  1. All classes of nutrients are essential to human survival.
  2. Because the body cannot store any micronutrients, they need to be consumed nearly every day.
  3. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are micronutrients.
  4. Macronutrients are vitamins and minerals.

C.J. is stuck in her car during a bitterly cold blizzard. Her body responds to the cold by ________.

  1. increasing the blood to her hands and feet
  2. becoming lethargic to conserve heat
  3. breaking down stored energy
  4. significantly increasing blood oxygen levels

After you eat lunch, nerve cells in your stomach respond to the distension (the stimulus) resulting from the food. They relay this information to ________.

  1. a control center
  2. a set point
  3. effectors
  4. sensors

Stimulation of the heat-loss center causes ________.

  1. blood vessels in the skin to constrict
  2. breathing to become slow and shallow
  3. sweat glands to increase their output
  4. All of the above

Which of the following is an example of a normal physiologic process that uses a positive feedback loop?

  1. blood pressure regulation
  2. childbirth
  3. regulation of fluid balance
  4. temperature regulation

What is the position of the body when it is in the “normal anatomical position?”

  1. The person is prone with upper limbs, including palms, touching sides and lower limbs touching at sides.
  2. The person is standing facing the observer, with upper limbs extended out at a ninety-degree angle from the torso and lower limbs in a wide stance with feet pointing laterally
  3. The person is supine with upper limbs, including palms, touching sides and lower limbs touching at sides.
  4. None of the above

To make a banana split, you halve a banana into two long, thin, right and left sides along the ________.

  1. coronal plane
  2. longitudinal plane
  3. midsagittal plane
  4. transverse plane

The lumbar region is ________.

  1. inferior to the gluteal region
  2. inferior to the umbilical region
  3. superior to the cervical region
  4. superior to the popliteal region

The heart is within the ________.

  1. cranial cavity
  2. mediastinum
  3. posterior (dorsal) cavity
  4. All of the above

In 1901, Wilhelm Röntgen was the first person to win the Nobel Prize for physics. For what discovery did he win?

  1. nuclear physics
  2. radiopharmaceuticals
  3. the link between radiation and cancer
  4. X-rays

Which of the following imaging techniques would be best to use to study the uptake of nutrients by rapidly multiplying cancer cells?

  1. CT
  2. MRI
  3. PET
  4. ultrasonography

Which of the following imaging studies can be used most safely during pregnancy?

  1. CT scans
  2. PET scans
  3. ultrasounds
  4. X-rays

What are two major disadvantages of MRI scans?

  1. release of radiation and poor quality images
  2. high cost and the need for shielding from the magnetic signals
  3. can only view metabolically active tissues and inadequate availability of equipment
  4. release of radiation and the need for a patient to be confined to metal tube for up to 30 minutes