Chapter 10 Biotechnology Outline

10.1: Cloning and Genetic Engineering

__________________________ is the use of artificial methods to modify the genetic material of living organisms to produce new compounds or perform new functions.

A. T or F: Biotechnology has been around since the beginnings of agriculture through selective breeding?

B. List four household and industrial applications for biotechnology below.

1. _____________________________________

2. _____________________________________

3. _____________________________________

4. _____________________________________

  1. Manipulating Genetic Material
  1. Review of Nucleic Acid Structure
  1. Nucleic Acids are _______________________ made up of ______________________ (a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base).
  2. The phosphate groups on these molecules each have a ____________ charge.
  3. A __________________ is the entire set of DNA molecules in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms.
  4. DNA has __________ complementary strands linked by _____________ bonds between the paired bases.
  5. ________ molecules leave the nucleus, _________________ RNA (mRNA) is analyzed most frequently because: ___________________________________________________________
  1. Isolation of Nucleic Acids
  1. Using Figure 10.2 outline the steps of nucleic acid isolation in the provided space below:
  1. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. Gel Electrophoresis (view the Khan Academy video on gel electrophoresis)
  1. Explain why nucleic acids may be moved by an electric field.
  1. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. ___________  ____________________________ is a technique used to separate charged molecules based on size and charge.
  2. _________ molecules move through the pores in the gel faster than _____________ molecules.
  3. Why must the gel be stained with a compound after electrophoresis?
  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (please view the Khan Academy video on PCR)
  1. What is the purpose of PCR?
  2. List the situations in which PCR would be used in a laboratory
  1. ______________________________________________________
  2. ______________________________________________________
  3. ______________________________________________________
  4. ______________________________________________________
  1. Cloning
  1. Typically, the word is used to describe the creation of a __________________________________.
  2. The re-creation of  a whole organism is _____________________ __________________.
  3. The copying of short stretches of DNA is referred to as ___________________  __________________________________
  1. Molecular Cloning
  1. A _____________ or vector is used to insert a DNA fragment into a bacterial cell.
  1. T or F. Plasmids occur naturally in bacterial populations?
  1. _________________  ____________________ recognize and cut DNA at specific sequences
  1. T or F. These enzymes are produced naturally by bacteria as a defense against foreign DNA.
  2. _________________ is the process of forming hydrogen bonds between complementary sequences of DNA.
  1. Plasmids with foreign DNA inserted into them are called ___________________________________.
  2. Proteins derived from recombinant DNA molecules are called ______________________ proteins.
  1. Reproductive Cloning
  1. ____________________  ________________________ is the technique used to make a clone of an entire organism.
  2. The first cloned animal is a sheep named _________________.
  1. Genetic Engineering
  1. Using recombinant DNA technology to modify an organism’s DNA to achieve desirable results is called ________________  ________________________.
  2. An organism that receives recombinant DNA is called a _________________  ___________________  _______________________ (GMO).
  3. The technique used to determine what a given gene or genetic element does is called _________________  ______________________.

10.2 Biotechnology in Agriculture and Medicine

  1. Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy
  1. Genetic Diagnosis by Genetic Testing –
  1. ________________   _________________________ is a genetic engineering technique that may be used one day to cure genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
  1. Production of Vaccines, Antibiotics, and Hormones
  1. In the space below briefly explain how biotechnology is used in the production of vaccines, antibiotics and hormones.
  1. Transgenic Animals
  1. Briefly explain in the space below why transgenic animals have been produced.
  1. Transgenic Plants
  1. Briefly explain why transgenic animals have been produced in the space below.
  1. Transformation of Plants Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
  1. Briefly explain why the bacterium A. tumefaciens is used to genetically modify plants
  1. The Organic Insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis
  1. Briefly explain why B. thuringiensis is used as an  insecticide.  What are the pros and cons of using this organism in insect control?
  1. FlavrSavr Tomato (Briefly outline the material concerning this tomato below)

10.3 Genomics and Proteomics

  1. Genomics –
  1. Genetic map –
  1. Physical map –
  1. Whole Genome Sequencing –
  1. Model Organisms
  1. Why is a great deal of basic research being done with model organisms?
  1. Applying Genomics
  1. Predicting Disease Risk at the Individual Level
  1. Briefly explain how predicting the risk of disease is accomplished.
  1. Genome-Wide Association Studies
  1. Explain how genome wide association studies are used to study the causes of diseases.
  1. Outline a common design for a GWAS
  1. Pharmacogenomics –
  1. Metagenomics –
  1. Creation of New Biofuels
  1. Mitochondrial Genomics
  2. Genomics in Forensic Analysis
  3. Genomics in Agriculture
  4. Proteomics –
  1. Protein signature –

Make your flashcards for all of the key terms at the back of the chapter.

Return to top