Part 1: Lesson Description
Literal and Non-literal Meanings of Words and Idioms
In this lesson, students will distinguish the literal and non-literal meanings of verbal and written content in different contexts. The lesson targets third-fourth grade students. Learners will demonstrate an understanding of idioms by using context clues in the sentences to help figure out the meanings of idioms, by drawing out idioms without using words or letters, by creating greeting cards, and by creating a costume to portray their chosen idiom.
Learner Audience / Primary Users
Teachers and Students
- Assessment, Mini-Lesson, Professional Development, Home School, Informal Education
English Language Arts/Literacy
CCSS ELA-Literacy.L.3.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
CCSS ELA-Literacy.L.3.5.A: Distringuish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
- Instructional Material
- Teaching and Learning Strategies
The purpose of this lesson is for the third grade learner to:
- decipher the literal and non-literal meanings of idioms
- Designers for Learning
- Figurative Meaning
- Figurative Language
Time Required for Lesson
- 30 minutes
- At least a Grade 3 Reading Level
- Selection of stories with figurative language (The King Rained, for example)
- Practicing Idioms worksheet (Print a class set) and answer key
- Idiom Matching cards (Print one set for every two students)
- Greeting Card sample and template ( Print a template for each ‘advanced’ student)
- 8.5” X 11” cardstock or construction paper (Print class set)
- Crayons, colored pencils, or markers
- A bucket, a sheet of paper and one pair of scissors, cup of milk, bedsheets (optional)
- Computer, projector, and Internet (optional)
Lesson Author & License
- Author: Ms. Alex Elrington, remix Jennisen Lucas
- License: Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license
Part 2: Lesson
By the end of this lesson, the learners should be able to:
- interpret idioms by using context clues in the sentences with 70% accuracy
- draw idioms without using words or letters with 100% accuracy
- make a greeting card using an idiom with 100% accuracy
Often learners know what a stand-alone word means; however, once a word is paired with other words to create phrases or sentences, then s/he struggles to make sense of the meaning. S/he may understand "fly" and "kite" but may find the phrase, "Oh, go fly a kite," puzzling. In this lesson, learners will distinguish the literal and non-literal meanings of concepts in different contexts. Learners will demonstrate an understanding of idioms by using context clues in the sentences to help decipher the meanings of idioms, by drawing out idioms without using words or letters, by creating a costume to represent a chosen idiom, and by creating a greeting card.
Relevance to Practice
Every culture has a wide array of sayings or advice to describe the particulars of everyday life. Without an awareness and understanding of these expressions or idioms, learners are often at a disadvantage. For example, an student may know what “nail” or “head” means, but s/he may not know that “to hit the nail on its head” means to do something exactly right. Therefore, figurative language presents not only a reading problem, but is an issue of comprehending culture-based figurative expressions.
Key Terms and Concepts
- Context is the situation in which something happens.
- Literal meaning refers to the normal, everyday, most basic meaning of the word.
- Non-literal meaning is when a word means something other than its normal, everyday meaning.
- Figurative language is when you use a word or phrase that does not have its normal, everyday, literal meaning.
- Idiom is a phrase or saying that has a meaning that is very different from the individual words that makeup the phrase or saying. This includes similes and metaphors.
- Interpretation is an explanation.
Time: 3 minutes
- Post any two idioms on the board: ‘kick the bucket,’ ‘cut corners,’ ‘hit the sheets,’ and ‘cry over spilled milk.’ Model reading aloud then acting out the two idioms. Use props if available.
- Say: “Word and phrases can have literal or non-literal meanings. A literal meaning is when a word or phrase is used exactly as it is defined. A non-literal meaning is when the meaning of a word or phrase takes on a special meaning.”
- Explain the literal and non-literal meanings of the two idioms.
Example 1 : When someone says, “Grandpa kicked the bucket last night. I’m still in shock.” ‘Kicked the bucket' (non-literal meaning) means someone died (literal meaning)
Example 2 : When an author writes, “Lucy worked 14 hours in the factory. She hit the sheets as soon as she came home,” ‘hit the sheets (hay)’ (non-literal meaning) means to go to bed right away (literal meaning).
Example 3 : When you read, “The chef cuts corners (non-literal meaning) when making seafood salad. He uses canned tuna instead of fresh tuna. ‘Cut corners’ means to do something in the easiest or cheapest way by skipping something important (literal meaning).
Example 4 : John was upset because he missed his flight, but I told him it’s no use crying over spilled milk. ‘Cry over spilled milk’ means being upset over something that has already happened and cannot be changed.
- Emphasize that good readers and comprehenders must be able to figure out meaning idioms using clues from what was said or written before or after an idiom is spoken or written.
Introduction (via story)
Time: 10 minutes
- Read a story containing a lot of figurative language such as The King Rained or My Best Friend is Sharp as a Pencil.
Presentation / Modeling / Demonstration
Time: 5 minutes
- Say: “An idiom is a saying that has both a literal (exact) and figurative (understood) meaning. An idiom is a type of figurative language, a word or phrase that does not have its everyday, exact meaning.”
- Say: Let’s review the idioms you heard in the story we just read.
- Allow students to call out the idioms they remember from the story.
- Say: “You are going study idioms we use everyday.”
Time: 10 minutes
- Say: “An idiom is a saying that has both a literal (exact) and figurative (understood) meaning. An idiom is a type of figurative language, a word or phrase that does not have its everyday, exact meaning. Idioms change depending on culture, time, and situation.”
- Prompt learners to share about idioms they recognized in the video. When did they hear it before, who said it, and why was it said?
- Say: When someone says, “Keep an eye on the baby.” You don’t really take your eye out and place it on the baby. This just means that you should watch the baby, making sure it doesn’t hurt itself.
- Ask: “Who has heard the expression, ‘add fuel to the fire’ ?”
- Reiterate: “‘To add fuel to the fire’ means to make a situation worst than it already is.”
- Say: “The doctor was exhausted. He worked around the clock in the Emergency Room.’ What phrase is the idiom? What does it mean?
- Reiterate, “‘To work around the clock’ means to work all the time or for 24 hours straight.”
- Say: “There are over 4000 idioms in the English language. Sometimes the words in the idioms are clues about the meaning. Often they’re not, and so, overtime, you have to memorize the idioms used most often.”
- Give each learner a copy of the Practicing Idioms worksheet.
- Have learners work in pairs.
- Review the answers, clarifying any confusion. Ask questions that provoke deeper comprehension like: What is the best idiom to use in this situation? What does the idiom mean? How did you determine the non-literal meaning of the idiom ? Have you or a family member used this idiom in the past? When? Why? Do you have similar saying in your country?
Time: 10 minutes
- (Low-Mid) Matching Game: Cut out the Idiom Matching cards. Shuffle and place face down on a flat surface. Each player takes turns flipping two cards over at a time. If a match is made, keep the cards. If a match is not made, flip the cards back over. The player to make the most matches wins.
- (Advanced) Greeting Cards: In this product-driven activity, the instructor explains that idioms are often advice passed down through time. S/he posts a list of idioms mentioned in the lesson. Learners select their favorite idiom and make greeting cards. The learners write advice using an idiom and draw a literal representation of the idiom in the card. The instructor hands out samples of greeting cards. S/he models the card making process, placing the literal, visual representation on the cover and the piece of advice on the inner page.
- The Internet TESEL Journal: Self-Study Idiom Quizzes, http://a4esl.org/q/h/9807/km-animalidioms.html
- Learning Games For Kids, http://www.learninggamesforkids.com/vocabulary_games/idioms.html
- EReading Worksheets: Figurative Language, http://www.ereadingworksheets.com/figurative-language/figurative-language-worksheets/figurative-langua ge-worksheet/
- I bend over backwards for you...! by Lisa Cyr is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- The Cavalier by Tony Alter is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- Let's compare apples and oranges by frankieleon is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- his bark is WAY worse than his bite by Amy McGibbon Lang is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- Sad Penguin by Bart M is licensed under an open license.
- Confessions of an Idiom created by Amanda Koh and and Mollie Helms at Ringling College of Art and Design, originally published at https://vimeo.com/63083013 under a CC BY 3.0 license.
This lesson provides many opportunities to differentiate instruction. Included are: a whole-group reading activity, a product-driven exercise, a written piece, a text annotation exercise, and practice that includes predicting, visualizing, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing words and phrases. However, instructors may also do the following in order to support learners:
provide independent reading opportunities ( i.e Amelia Bedelia book series),
use "What I know, what I want to know, and what I learned" (KWL) charts,
annotate texts of increasing difficulty,
incorporate Total Physical Response (TPR) opportunities,
- use online videos and instructional games