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Antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge vs. influent sewage
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Antibiotics are critical treatments for bacterial infections, but antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. Wastewater treatment plants may foster resistance development, since sewage contains both human pathogens and antibiotics or their metabolite. The activated sludge (AS) stage commonly used to treat sewage at these plants is especially microbe-rich and may encourage transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) through reproduction (vertical transfer) or movement of mobile genetic elements (horizontal transfer). To learn more, a recent study profiled ARGs and their neighboring genes at five wastewater treatment plants on three continents. Overall, ARG abundance was lower in AS than in incoming sewage (IN). In addition, ARGs tended to colocalize with plasmids and other mobile genetic elements to a greater extent in IN than AS, indicating decreased horizontal transfer potential..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/18/2022
Application of probiotics mitigates acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an important bacterial disease of shrimp caused by some Vibrio species and has severe negative impacts on shrimp aquaculture globally. Antibiotics are commonly used prophylactically against such diseases but can cause bacterial antibiotic resistance and microbiome impairment. Given the risk of antibiotics to human and environmental health, the application of probiotics is a promising approach, but whether these probiotics affect the shrimp gut microbiome remains unknown. Recently, researchers examined how the shrimp gastrointestinal microbiota responded to the ILI strain, a Vibrio strain that also serves as an effective shrimp probiotic. The ILI strain was effective not only in preventing AHPND and promoting shrimp survival but also in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/14/2021
Beneficial microbes are recruited by citrus leaves to combat melanose disease
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Plants lack the nervous system of animals and are usually firmly rooted in the ground, making it easy to think of them as being unaware of the world around them. But evidence suggests that plants can indeed sense and actively respond to their environment. When under attack by microbial pathogens, some plants have been shown to recruit beneficial microbes to aid in their defense. A recent study uncovered this phenomenon in tangerine trees infected with the fungus that causes melanose, one of the most destructive diseases of citrus plants worldwide. Researchers identified the microorganisms living on infected and uninfected leaves with both culture-based and DNA sequencing techniques. They found that the infected and uninfected leaves hosted distinct microbial communities, with the microbes occupying infected leaves having beneficial and antifungal characteristics..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/18/2022
Biological Processes: Putting Microbes to Work
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Educational Use
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Students learn the fundamentals of using microbes to treat wastewater. They discover how wastewater is generated and its primary constituents. Microbial metabolism, enzymes and bioreactors are explored to fully understand the primary processes occurring within organisms.

Subject:
Applied Science
Engineering
Environmental Science
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Dayna Lee Martinez
Tapas K. Das
Date Added:
09/18/2014
Biology
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CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
08/22/2012
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Immune System, Innate Immune Response
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe physical and chemical immune barriersExplain immediate and induced innate immune responsesDiscuss natural killer cellsDescribe major histocompatibility class I moleculesSummarize how the proteins in a complement system function to destroy extracellular pathogens

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
07/10/2017
Biosensors for Food Safety
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Educational Use
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How can you tell if harmful bacteria are in your food or water that might make you sick? What you eat or drink can be contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites and toxins—pathogens that can be harmful or even fatal. Students learn which contaminants have the greatest health risks and how they enter the food supply. While food supply contaminants can be identified from cultures grown in labs, bioengineers are creating technologies to make the detection of contaminated food quicker, easier and more effective.

Subject:
Career and Technical Education
Life Science
Material Type:
Lesson
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Evangelyn Alocilja
Hannah Miller
Lisa Wininger
Date Added:
02/17/2017
Exploring the microbiome of kissing bugs
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The blood-feeding kissing bugs are the vector for Trypansoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease in humans. One factor believed to alter parasite transmission is the kissing bug’s microbiome, which is a fundamental component of natural gut environment where T.cruzi develops. To explore this complex environment, researchers set out to identify the factors that shape the kissing bug's microbiome. They investigated the microbiome composition of 5 species of kissing bugs from two U.S. states across all life stages. They analysed 170 T. cruzi negative kissing bugs sampled from the nests of white-throated woodrats. The primary factors determining microbiome structure were developmental stage, species identity, and environment. Later developmental stages correlated with lower microbial diversity. In fact, adult microbiomes were frequently dominated by a single taxon of bacteria..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/12/2020
Extra benefit of microalgae in raw piggery wastewater treatment: pathogen reduction
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Managing wastewater is a major logistical puzzle that impacts the environment, the climate, and public health. While metropolitan wastewater typically undergoes complex processing and sanitation, rural livestock wastewater is often simply composted for fertilizer, but composting can release harmful contaminants like ammonia, CO₂, and methane. One way to still capture the nutrients with fewer harmful byproducts is by cultivating microalgae, which actually absorb CO₂ via photosynthesis rather than producing it. But how do microalgae impact pathogens? A recent pilot study using raw piggery wastewater found that microalgae cultivation dramatically reduced the pathogen load while also triggering a dramatic shift in the overall bacterial community composition. Further investigation using the most abundant pathogen, Oligella, found that the microalgae weren’t impacting Oligella directly. Rather, microalgae cultivation reduced Oligella abundance through a network of other bacterial species..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/14/2023
Fighting Back! (Lesson)
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Educational Use
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This lesson describes the major components and functions of the immune system and the role of engineers in keeping the body healthy (e.g., vaccinations and antibiotics, among other things). This lesson also discusses how an astronaut's immune system is suppressed during spaceflight due to stress and other environmental factors.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Applied Science
Engineering
Life Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Denali Lander
Janet Yowell
Malinda Schaefer Zarske
Teresa Ellis
Date Added:
09/18/2014
Graft type, age, revision surgery linked to infection following ACL reconstruction
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Infection of the knee joint following ACL reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. Past studies have attempted to uncover the risk factors that make certain individuals more susceptible to infection than others. But many of these studies have been limited to small and medium-sized cohorts. A new study reported in the _American Journal of Sports Medicine_ has examined the largest, single-center cohort to date. Findings reveal that graft type, age, and revision surgery could be linked to the risk of infection following ACL reconstruction. The researchers behind the study reviewed more than 11,000 total procedures performed at a single institution between 2010 and 2018. Among these, 48 infections were identified. In addition to infections, the researchers reviewed patient and procedure characteristics associated with infection, infection characteristics, incidence of ACL graft retention and factors associated with retention versus removal of ACL grafts..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
01/31/2023
Houseflies and blowflies efficiently deliver pathogens from decaying matter right to your door
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The next time you swat away that fly buzzing around your head, consider this: an international team of researchers has shown that common houseflies and blowflies are more than just annoying insects. Covered with hundreds of different bacterial species, they’re also a type of airborne delivery service, transporting pathogens from organic decaying matter right to your countertops, food…and body. Although flies have been long known to spread disease, the researchers show that we’ve previously underestimated both the number and diversity of microbes that each insect can transmit. The team devised a new optimized way to collect flies without cross-contaminating them with other microorganisms and used the method to amass 116 flies from urban, rural, and natural sites on three continents..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/20/2019
Human activities influence antibiotic resistance in the environment through a mobile resistome
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have become a public health crisis. Their incidence has increased in the past decades, driven by the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but how these ARGs are acquired by bacteria in the environment is not completely known. Human interaction with the environment can spread resistant bacteria, further influencing the antibiotic resistance properties of environmental microbes. In a new study, researchers sought to characterize how human activities influence the environmental “resistome.” They surveyed the microbiome, resistome, and mobilome of planktonic microbial communities in the Han River. The study was extensive, with samples spanning the length of the river over three seasons. Using integrative metagenomic analyses, they found that fecal contamination from humans influenced the resistome in densely populated areas of the river, but interestingly, fecal bacteria weren’t the main factor influencing the ARG increase..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/27/2020
Microbiome function predicts amphibian chytridiomycosis disease dynamics
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Amphibians are one of the most vulnerable animal groups on the planet, with over 40% of their species threatened with extinction. A major driver of that vulnerability is the fungal pathogen _Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis_ (Bd). Bd is linked to the decline of at least 500 amphibian species, the greatest loss in biodiversity due to a pathogen ever recorded. The amphibian skin microbiome community structure has been linked to health outcomes of Bd infection, but the functional importance of the microbiota is not yet fully understood. To close this gap and potentially discover biomarkers or disease control methods, researchers investigated the microbiome of midwife toads. They examined both wild populations with naturally occurring Bd infection and controlled laboratory exposure. Infection with Bd led to changes in the microbial community structure, gene profile, and metabolic function in laboratory and wild toad populations..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/18/2022
Microbiota therapeutic RBX2660 shows promising results in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Fecal microbiota transplantation is a promising procedure for preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI), which is the most frequently identified healthcare-associated infection in the US. Unfortunately, the effects of microbiota transplantations on the microbiome and resistome of rCDI patients have not been examined in detail. To address that gap, researchers recently conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the investigational microbiota therapeutic RBX2660 for patients with rCDI. Over the first 7 days after treatment, all patients showed significant recovery of gut microbiome architecture and a decreased abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes. However, patients receiving RBX2660 showed more significant and longer-lasting microbiome and resistome shifts toward a balanced configuration than those receiving the placebo..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/12/2020