The genes present in the DNA of a chromosome help to explain the genotypic and phenotypic differences seen in organisms of the same species i.e. Fugate Family. The genes code for specific proteins and these proteins can be varied during meiosis when parents (½ from each parent) are passing their genetic information to their offspring. This passing of genetic information can be predicted and traced through many generations, due to the principles of Mendelian Genetics, and can be useful when determining the starting point of a phenotype. The environment a particular species inhabits may help to explain why some genes become favorable, as small isolated populations often have connections to inbreeding (incest).
Three-minute video phenomena for the Kentucky Blue people. A great introduction to the passing of traits via sexual reproduction including Punnett squares and dominant and recessive traits.
Students will breed fruit flies through several generations and record their data using mathematical models in order to demonstrate the inheritance of trait variations.