New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange

Critical Thinking Questions

What were the consequences of the religious upheavals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

What types of labor systems were used in the Americas? Did systems of unfree labor serve more than an economic function?

What is meant by the Columbian Exchange? Who was affected the most by the exchange?

What were the various goals of the colonial European powers in the expansion of their empires? To what extent were they able to achieve these goals? Where did they fail?

On the whole, what was the impact of early European explorations on the New World? What was the impact of the New World on Europeans?