Author:
Hank Clark, Philip Bell, Abby Rhinehart, Deb Morrison
Subject:
Applied Science, Engineering, Education, Life Science, Physical Science
Material Type:
Module
Level:
College / Upper Division
Tags:
  • Assessment
  • Equity
  • K-12 Science
  • Science Education
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Interactive

    ACESSE Resource D - How to Craft 3D Classroom Science Assessments

    ACESSE Resource D - How to Craft 3D Classroom Science Assessments

    Overview

    Abstract: This session provides a step-by-step process to support participants as they design a 3D assessment task for the science classroom. Along the way, they learn how to define 3D learning performances for specific lessons—and how to use a range of tools to support their assessment design work. A key goal of the session activity is to improve the connection of intended learning goals to assessment practices. Participants build their 3D assessment design capacity by designing and workshopping tasks—before piloting them in their classrooms. The approaches learned in this workshop can be used with any curricula, at any grade level, and across all subjects of science. 

    Introduction

    In this workshop, we will consider how to craft 3D learning performances and related formative assessments that connect to learners’ interest and knowledge while at the same time promote equity and social justice. The material for this resource comes from a series of PD sessions on formative assessment developed by Philip Bell and Deb Morrison.

    [estimated time: 1 min]

    ((There is a Facilitator’s Guide available for this resource: http://tinyurl.com/ACESSE-ResourceD-Guide ))

    ((This resource was refined through a 13-state collaboration to make the resource more broadly useful. If you choose to adapt these materials, please attribute the source and that it was work funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).))

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 1

    3D Formative Assessment

    All three learning dimensions described in the NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education need to be taken into account for horizontal coherence — across curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development.

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 2

    Formative Assessment

    This is the definition for formative assessment we will use today to guide our work. This comes from an effort initiated by CCSSO (Council of Chief State Science Officers).

    [estimated time: 1 min]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 3

    Instruction should include a sequence of different kinds of formative and summative assessments

    Instruction should include a sequence of different kinds of formative and summative assessments. There are cognitive assessments focused on gauging student’s conceptual understanding—and cultural formative assessments focused on guiding instruction based on student’s interests, experiences, and goals.

    Cognitive formative assessments are likely somewhat similar what you’re used to seeing or developing. This is a picture of student responses to an assessment from the Partnership for Science and Engineering Practices, a project of UW’s Institute for Science and Math Education with Seattle Public Schools and Renton School District. Today’s session is focused on supporting teachers in designing 3D cognitive formative assessments.

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    A sequence of assessments

    The Formative Assessment Process

    The Formative Assessment process can be understood as involving four steps. ACESSE Resource A deeply describes this process with a worked example.

    Today we are focused on designing a written cognitive assessment that elicts evidence of how students understand the learning goals associated with 3D performance expectations. We will have to also spend some time clarifying the intended learning goals that are the focus of the assessment task we will craft.

    Recall: With cognitive formative assessment, we are focused on surfacing the learning resources that students bring to an instructional moment. In ACESSE Resource E, we highlight how “facets of student understanding” can be identified—and used to guide instruction. We should not be looking for how students might be wrong (i.e., identifying misconceptions). We are trying to recognize the range of ideas students bring to sense-making so we can help them refine them.

    From a cognitive formative assessment perspective, ACESSE Resource E focuses on the bottom of the clover leaf—how to interpret the range of student thinking and act on it in instruction.

    From a cultural formative assessment perspective, ACESSE Resource C shows how to focus instruction on the interests, knowledge, and identities of students and their communities. That half-day session goes through the full clover leaf process. This is a strategy for supporting culturally relevant and sustaining instruction.

    [estimated time: 2 min]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 5

    Overview of the Session Goals

    There are three goals for this session… ((READ SLIDE))

    One thing to note explicitly is that this session is not about a product so much as it is about capacity building around the process of creating a product (eg. 3d formative assessment). So encourage reflection and questioning throughout activity.

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 6

    ACESSE Open Ed Resources on Formative Assessment for Science Ed

    Today’s session builds on ideas, tools, and strategies developed in previous professional learning sessions. The ACESSE project resources are available on the STEMteachingtools.org site under the “pd module” tab. The site includes a range of tools related to formative assessment, including these two.

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 7

    Approaching Learning and Teaching from a 3D Perspective

    Now let’s do some thinking about designing 3D cognitive formative assessments for the classroom.

    [estimated time: 15 seconds]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 8

    Develop a personal 3D learning performance…

    Before eliciting evidence of student thinking it is important to clarify intended learning. At the scale of lesson planning, this process is sometimes called establishing specific learning goals or learning. These will help us identify 3D assessment claims (see STEM Teaching Tool #29 for background). To make firm connections to the Framework we use the term 3D learning performances.

    We’ll think about lesson-level 3D learning performances by first thinking about a personal area of learning….((TALK THROUGH the slide, build it out))

    We are going to create our 3D learning performance during the construction of our 3D assessment task; however, some of you may have already clearly laid out 3D learning performances across your unit of instruction.

    [estimated time: 3 minutes]

    ((NOTE: You can customize the slide to be about a domain that you are an expert in by swapping out the blue text and the final 3D Learning Performance. Elementary school teachers seem to appreciate talking about a non-science example, but secondary teachers prefer to discuss a science example.))

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 9

    Unit Assessment Sequences

    A sequence of formative assessment events should be embedded throughout a unit in order to guide student sense-making and learning in response to their progress on the intended learning goals. You may want to start the unit with a pre-assessment that you use to gauge where students are starting. The formative assessments take many different forms. Today we are focused on designing a 3D daily assessment.

    It is useful to think of “formative assessment” as a verb (an action)—and not a noun (a thing). To guide instruction, we do formative assessment—not give them.

    [estimated time: 2 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 10

    3D Learning Performance Sequences

    Today we will be developing 3D Learning Performances—that link together across a unit to represent the learning described within a performance expectation.

    These connections also parallel instructional activities in lessons that collectively form the unit as well as sequences of formative assessments that allow educators to check for understanding and adjust instruction before unit summative assessments.

    Thus at each stage within a unit there is a 3D learning performance followed by some kind of learning activity and assessed through a 3D formative assessment. Collectively these practices form the unit and reflect the complex 3D learning goals set out in the selected performance expectations.

    [estimated time: 2-3 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 11

    Discussion

    ((READ SLIDE))

    [estimated time: 5 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 12

    Steps to Designing a Three Dimensional Assessment

    In terms of building 3D assessments, STT 29 is a helpful resources, however our process for today has expanded this work into a bit more detail for use at a fine grained scale of lesson planning. At this scale we are trying to ensure that the instruction in the classroom is deeply connected to the assessment event and vice versa.

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 13

    Explore a Sample Assessment

    ((Hand out a copy of the fogged mirror assessment.))

    Let’s explore a sample assessment. This is a sample student response for the Fogged Mirror MS classroom assessment example we discussed earlier. Please take note of some specific features that are called out: (a) the scenario description, (b) learner scaffolds, (c) a sequence of 2D and 3D items, which includes (d) spaces for student’s multi-modal expression (diagram, text).

    This is the kind of assessment we will be developing today.

    [estimated time: 5 min]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 14

    Activity: Crafting a 3D Daily Formative Assessment

    ((Hand out the accompanying “Crafting a 3D Classroom Assessment” worksheet now.))

    This is the 7 step process we will follow to design a 3D formative assessment at the lesson scale of activity. It will be something you can use in the classroom immediately. We are going to step through each of these steps as we design a 3D formative assessment task for a particular lesson situated within a unit of study. You should focus on learning how to design assessments that you have time to develop in your practice. Perhaps stay focused on small aspects of the performance expectations—at least to start with.

    Take a minute and look over the process and the worksheet we will be using to capture our work.

    Organize into groups around particular curriculum units / lessons or content domains.

    Name your group focus at top of worksheet under “lesson name” to connect your assessment work to a particular lesson sequence inside of a unit.

    [estimated time: 2-3 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 15

    Activity: Crafting a 3D Daily Formative Assessment

    ((Hand out the accompanying “Crafting a 3D Classroom Assessment” worksheet now.))

     

    This is the 7 step process we will follow to design a 3D formative assessment at the lesson scale of activity. It will be something you can use in the classroom immediately. We are going to step through each of these steps as we design a 3D formative assessment task for a particular lesson situated within a unit of study. You should focus on learning how to design assessments that you have time to develop in your practice. Perhaps stay focused on small aspects of the performance expectations—at least to start with.

     

    Take a minute and look over the process and the worksheet we will be using to capture our work.

     

    Organize into groups around particular curriculum units / lessons or content domains.

     

    Name your group focus at top of worksheet under “lesson name” to connect your assessment work to a particular lesson sequence inside of a unit.

     

    [estimated time: 2-3 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 16

    Familiarize Yourself with 3D Assessments

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 17

    Learning Performance or Claim

    ((READ SLIDE))

     

    [estimated time: 5 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 18

    STEP 1: Analyze the Framework

    ((Read slide))

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 19

    Activity: Assessment Tasks Analysis

    ((This example goes with the fogged mirror assessment.))

    Here’s a middle school Performance Expectation for Physical Science…

    ((Read the PE and highlight the detail present in the foundation boxes across the three-dimensions. Identify a specific DCI component.))

    You will be looking to see if and how each assessment focuses on specific elements of each dimension of the performance expectation.

    [estimated time: 2 min]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 20

    Consult the Framework

    ((This example goes with the fogged mirror assessment.))

     

    Here’s a middle school Performance Expectation for Physical Science

    ((Read the PE and highlight the detail present in the foundation boxes across the three-dimensions. Identify a specific DCI component.))

     

    You will be looking to see if and how each assessment focuses on specific elements of each dimension of the performance expectation.

     

    [estimated time: 2 min]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 21

    Sample 3D Learning Performance

    Here are some middle school examples of 3D learning performances and their associated DCI, SEP and CCC. In this curriculum adaptation project, teachers and district staff defined a set of rules that defined an instructional conceptual model (the “model kit”) related to components of the DCIs in the unit bundle. So they have listed those “model kit” pieces here as a shorthand for the DCI components. See how they make direct use of the Science and Engineering Practice task formats.

     

    [estimated time: 2 min]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 22

    Learning Performance Mad Lib

    So, how should we go about crafting a 3D Learning Performance for our focal lesson? Here is a “mad lib” strategy from a middle school teacher in Seattle for constructing your 3D Learning Performance—or claim of what students should be able to do.

     

    Go ahead and write a 3D Learning Performance draft for the formative assessment you are developing today. Try to attend to all three component dimensions.

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 23

    Step 1: Define what you want to assess

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 24

    Step 2: Analyze facets of the claim to be assessed

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 25

    NGSS evidence statement for the PE shown

    ((Use this as example as desired))

    This is the NGSS evidence statement for the middle school PE we just looked at. It highlights additional detail on what students should know and be able to do for each performance expectation. Evidence statement were designed to guide summative assessments, so only specific elements would be appropriate for a given formative assessment—as students make progress on learning the overall set of components.

    For our purposes, we will identify a specific component of a DCI, For example, with this PE the idea that “thermal energy can be transferred from one system to another and change the state of matter of a pure substance” (2.a.3.B) is an important idea for students to come to understand.

    ((NOTE: This is the NGSS Evidence Statement for the PE shown. It may not be relevant to your state context.))

    ((GO BACK two slides and let individuals / groups work on identifying a DCI component.))

    [estimated time: 1 min]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 26

    STEP 2: Analyze Claim Facets

    Assessment scenarios are  what assessment developers call “the stimulus.” They become the context that students reason about.

    ((READ SLIDE))

    Here’s some Background on the Different Kinds of Scenarios:

    Everyday Situation: invokes a common everyday situation for students to think about

    Science Investigations: describes a science study (perhaps with data) for students to think about

    Classroom Situations: describes a classroom science investigation moment (or shared experience) for students to think about

    Hypothetical Situation: describes a “what if” kind of situation for students to think about—can be far-fetched or impossible, but concrete enough to surface students’ thinking

    [estimated time: 2 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 27

    Step 3: Choose a phenomenon or design challenge

    Assessment scenarios are  what assessment developers call “the stimulus.” They become the context that students reason about.

     

    ((READ SLIDE))

     

    Here’s some Background on the Different Kinds of Scenarios:

    Everyday Situation: invokes a common everyday situation for students to think about

    Science Investigations: describes a science study (perhaps with data) for students to think about

    Classroom Situations: describes a classroom science investigation moment (or shared experience) for students to think about

    Hypothetical Situation: describes a “what if” kind of situation for students to think about—can be far-fetched or impossible, but concrete enough to surface students’ thinking

     

    [estimated time: 2 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 28

    Keep phenomena central to instruction and assessment

    Scenarios need to relate to phenomena that are explained or predicted by the conceptual component of the DCI you are focused on.

    Phenomena come in a variety of different kinds: (a) rich, anchoring phenomena that can drive unit investigations, (b) investigative phenomena that students can inquire into directly, and (c) everyday phenomena where they ideas relate to events and situations in the world. It can be useful to brainstorm phenomena related to the standard being focused on—as a way to then frame a scenario for the assessment task.

    Optional: Read and discuss STEM Teaching Tool #28 (and perhaps STEM Teaching Tool #42) to explore the idea of phenomena-focused instruction and assessment.

    Optional: ACESSE Resource F will be focused on phenomena-focused instruction. Exploring that resource should deepen how you identify assessment scenarios.

    [estimated time: 3-7 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 29

    Step 3: Choose a phenomenon

    ((Read slide))

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D Slide 30

    Sample Scenario Brainstorm

    This is the brainstorm of possible scenario contexts that the Seattle & Renton project generated for their learning performance—before they settled on the “Fogged Mirror” scenario. They used the criteria for scenario to settle in on it. Note the initial framing (in red) in comparison with the final description of the scenario on the student sample.

    [estimated time: 2 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 31

    STEP 3: Brainstorm Scenarios

    Assessment scenarios themselves can be a major source of inequity.

    In the Introduction to Formative Assessment PD Session (see pd modules on stemteachingtools.org), we described these criteria for the selection of assessment scenarios. Assessment scenarios need to be quickly understandable by as many students as possible. Often specific scenarios from everyday life are culturally unfamiliar to some students.

    ((Ask the room to read the criteria))

    It is ideal to test out assessment scenarios with your actual students. As you think about the one you worked on today, you might want to refine or adjust it to make it more fair.

    Talk through some counter examples eg. Anything involving elite activities such as skiing.

    Refer to these criteria as you brainstorm possible scenarios for your task.

    [estimated time: 2 minutes on slide; 5 minutes work time to brainstorm scenarios]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 32

    Step 3: Choose a phenomenon or design challenge

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 33

    Step 4: Write a complete student explanation

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 34

    Step 5: Develop Individual Prompts

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 35

    STEP 3a: Identify A Component of a Science & Engineering Practice

    The science and engineering practices are a central element of the 3D learning model—they are the foundation on which conceptual knowledge is developed and applied. They are the means by which students make sense of natural phenomena—or build solutions to problems—through sustained investigations.

    Remind yourself of your central SEP from your learning performance work.

    ((Read slide))

    DO – handout STT30

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 36

    Task Formats for Science & Engineering Practices

    This tool offers between four and eight possible task formats for each of the science and engineering practices listed in the NRC Framework / NGSS. The task formats can give you specific ideas about how to craft assessment questions that engage students in the practice in question. The task formats are roughly ordered from less to more cognitively complex. Think of them as like blueprints for developing tasks that require students to engage in a practice to show what they know.

    You likely want to focus on finding a task format for the practice included in your performance expectation—but that is not necessarily the case as students can express their understanding of concepts through other practices and the practices flow together in a way that make them less of a fixture.

    Generally, find the page that is for your specific SEP. ((Point out the titles of the different practices at top of task formats and describe how they go from lower to higher cognitive complexity from the top to the bottom of the page.))

    Now take a few minutes to go through your practice and select a particular task format that you want to use in building your 3D task. This is typically the starting point for how you frame a cluster of items. As you identify a sequence of assessment questions (items), you would likely flow across a range of practices that are coherent in terms of student sense-making.

    [estimated time: 3-5 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 37

    STEP 3b: Identify a Crosscutting Concept Component

    Cross cutting concepts link the many different disciplinary core ideas in science. These concepts are often in the explorations we engage students in but are not always explicitly identified or assessed.

    Remind yourself of your selected CCC from your learning performance work.

    ((READ SLIDE))

    DO – handout STT 41

    [estimated time: 1 minute]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 38

    Prompts for Assessing Cross-Cutting Concepts

    This tool highlights prompts that can be used in assessments or in classroom conversation to support the learning and application of these cross-cutting concepts that show up across the disciplines of science and engineering. These are some of the prompts for Cause and Effect.

    Find the specific page in STT 41 for your selected CCC

    Go through and select particular prompt styles that might work for your 3D assessment

    [estimated time: 3-5 minutes]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 39

    Step 5: Develop Individual Prompts

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 40

    Professional Learning Resources to Support NGSS Implementation

    You will be able to find ACESSE resources and other tools on the STEM Teaching Tools site. You can easily download PDFs of dozens of tools to support implementation of the NRC Framework vision.

    [estimated time: 30 sec]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 45

    Step 7: Develop ideal answers and a scoring guide

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 42

    Step 8: Review your task with peers

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 43

    Step 9: Pilot

    ((Read slide))

     

    We want to focus on designing an assessment you can use immediately and one that “gets after” a small piece of the standard.

     

    ((Use next two slides if you want to provide an example—and then come back to this slide. Ask people to use their worksheet to track their work.))

     

    [estimated time: 5-10 minutes with work time]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 44

    On Twitter @STEMTeachTools

    You can learn about these tools on Twitter.

    [estimated time: 30 sec]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 46

    Sign Up for Email Newsletter

    Or sign up for a periodic email newsletter—at the bottom of the front page of the web site.

    [estimated time: 30 sec]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 47

    OER PD Resources for NGSS

    All of the STEM Teaching Tools and ACESSE resources have been developed as Open Education Resources (OER). Please adapt them for your local uses.

    [30 seconds]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 48

    Help us improve the resource

    ((READ SLIDE and ask participants to complete the survey. Clarify that this is information for the ACESSE team to refine the activities—and not about you as the facilitator.))

    [estimated time: 3-5 min]

    ACESSE Resource D slide 49

    Thank you! For more info…

    Here are some resources and contact information for the authors of this PD unit. They hope you have found it useful. They welcome any feedback or suggestions on how to improve it.

    [estimated time: 30 sec]

    ((This resource was refined through a 13-state collaboration to make the resource more broadly useful. If you choose to adapt these materials, please attribute the source and that it was work funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).))

    ACESSE Resource D slide 50