- Author:
- Valerie Bennett
- Subject:
- Education
- Material Type:
- Activity/Lab, Assessment, Lecture Notes
- Level:
- High School, Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
- Tags:

- License:
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike
- Language:
- English

# Characteristic 1 of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

# Characteristic 2 of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

# Characteristic 3 of Culturally Relevant Padagogy

# Characteristic 4 of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

# Characteristic 5 of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

# Characteristic 6 of Culturally Responsive Teaching

# Characteristic 7 of Culturally Responsive Teaching

# CRT-Teacher Self Evaluation-1-TPT

# Culturally Responsive STEM Education

# Determining Stopping Distance

# Dr. Phil-Teen Texting while Driving

# Reaction Time Lab-drop the ruler

# Twelve Ways to Make Math More Culturally Responsive

# Undistracted and Distracted Driving reaction times lab-short version

# Unit 1-Teaching STEM The Culturally Responsive Way-Slides

# Unit 2-Transforming Math Lessons

# Unit 3-Transforming Physics Lessons

# Teaching STEM the Culturally Responsive Way

## Overview

This template has been created by Dr. Valerie Bennett to facilitate the development of OER as instructional materials for teacher education classes.

Within this resource are instructions, templates, and examples for using this template to create your own unit(s) for your own classes.

# Unit 1 Theory and Best Practices

__Introduction to the Unit:__

We are losing students who are interested in pursuing STEM majors at an alarming rate. The graduation rates for STEM majors, especially for underserved student populations, has remained the same (or has decreased) over the last 10 years (Nichols, 2019). One incredibly effective intervention in the efforts to change this is to utlize culturally relevant (or responsive) pedagogical practices when teaching STEM. This module provides an overview of best practices for how to incorporate culturally relevant pedagogy in STEM courses primarily for high school, college, and graduate-level courses. This course explores the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the importance of including cultural relevancy in STEM courses. It provides an overview of the research and theoretical framework for this pedagogy. The module was developed by Dr. Valerie Bennett, Graduate School STEM Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Clark Atlanta University in the School of Education. Unit 1 begins with looking at Learning Theories and where cultural relevancy (or responsive) teaching lands within these theories.Units 2-4 provide methods for transforming typical STEM lessons into culturally responsive ones. Incorporating culturally responsive pedagogy increases student performance, retention of concepts and retention in STEM. Most importantly, these methods will fuel student passion for STEM!

** Audience:**:

The module is designed to enhance the instructional skills and confidence of pre-service teachers, teacher candidates, and university professors at both minority-serving and majority-serving institutions.

__Length of course:__

The content provided is 4 weeks in length for an 8 week long course.

__Unit 1 Learning outcomes:__

While engaging with this unit, learners will be able to:

Define Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

Distinguish the Characteristics of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in STEM

Define and Compare Student Learning Theories

__Technology requirements:__

Computer with speakers, Internet Access

**References:**

Nichols, A. H. (2019, July 21). Segregation-Forever-The-Continued-Underrepresentation-of-Black-and-Latino-Undergraduates-at-the-Nations-101-Most-Selective-Public-Colleges-and-Universities. Retrieved from https://edtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Segregation-Forever-The-Continued-Underrepresentation-of-Black-and-Latino-Undergraduates-at-the-Nations-101-Most-Selective-Public-Colleges-and-Universities-July-21-2020.pdf

# Unit 1 Content

__Content:__

*What is Culture?*

Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

**Culture Iceberg**

How do we see our students using our Cultural Lens? We perhaps think of our student's culture only in terms of their Dress, Art, Language, or any of the characteristics above the surface. In reality, the culture of our students goes much deeper below the surface. Our student's culture also encompasses characteristics such as their values, beliefs, traditions, and meaning of life.

https://www.commisceo-global.com/blog/intercultural-training-and-the-iceberg-model

**What is Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (CRP)?**

Definition: CRP is the action of creating sustainable social, political, and economical spaces and practices to serve our communities equitably

Activity: Watch these two videos and construct your own definition of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4KrxfcW7Irg

CRE is a pedagogy aimed at educating students in terms of intellectual, social, emotional, critical and democratic competence, considering the cultural values and references that affect the knowledge, skills and attitudes of students. This pedagogy helps learners understand and make sense of the world, with reference to their cultural values and cultural differences. This pedagogy aims not only to gain academic achievement but also to develop cultural competence and critical perspective in social and cultural terms (Kotluk, N. & Kocakaya, S. (2018))

Kotluk, Nihat & Kocakaya, Serhat. (2018). Culturally Relevant/Responsive Education: What do teachers think in Turkey?. 5. 98-117.

Culturally Responsive Teaching is a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students' cultural references in all aspects of learning (Ladson-Billings,1994).

**Some of the characteristics of culturally responsive teaching are:**

- Positive perspectives on parents and families
- Communication of high expectations
- Learning within the context of culture
- Student-centered instruction
- Culturally mediated instruction
- Reshaping the curriculum
- Teacher as facilitator

Reference:

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishing Co.

In looking at the 7 Characteristics of CRP, all seven are well-aligned with how STEM should be taught in order to be most effective.

**What are the Characteristics of Culturally Relevant STEM Pedagogy?**

Here is a video by **Victoria Thompson, M (@VictoriaTheTech) **who provides an overview of these characteristics

Culturally Relevant Responsive STEM Education

The Characteristics of Culturally Responsive STEM Pedagogy is that

**Decolonizes curriculum and instructional practices that are harmful to students of color, non-neurotypical students, and students who do not fit the “status quo”****Directly addresses and dismantles white supremacy culture and individualist thought****Empowers students with hands-on instruction, inquiry-based learning, and project design opportunities****Provides realistic insight and opportunity for students to pursue STEM in K-12 education and beyond****Encourages students to become critical thinkers****Fosters “soft skills” authentically**

**Student Learning Theories**

Having an understanding of CRP gives us the foundation for how we can look at how students learn according to the most prominent learning theories. After viewing the student learning theories, which one(s) most closely aligns to CRP?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TZdIvroEKPA

**Student Learning Theories in Relation to Culturally Responsive Pedagogy**

Which student learning theory do you think most closely fits with culturally responsive pedagogy?

Constructivism learning theory works with the idea that students create their own learning based on their previous experiences. Students take what they’re being taught and add it to their previous knowledge and experiences, creating a reality that’s unique to them. Learning is an active process and since their culture is ingrained in their previous experiences, this theory fits best.

** **** **

# Unit 1 Activities

** Activity 1:** Explore How Culturally Inclusive your Current Pedagogy Rates

Use the Self-Evaluation Activity to determine where you stand:

**Activity 2: **** Self Reflection - What Student Learning Theories do I Live By?**

After reviewing the Student Learning Theories, create a Flip Grid about 2-3 minutes in length that explains the student learning theory you primarily use a basis for how you believe students learn. You should consider how you have most recently taught your courses. How are your courses structured and what activities do you design into your curriculum. Be sure to include what you learned about your teaching style in reference to the learning theories.

# Unit 1 Assessment

While engaging with this unit, learners will be able to:

Define Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

Distinguish the Characteristics of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in STEM

Define and Compare Student Learning Theories

To assess your understanding, choose one of the learning objectives above that you found most interesting. In the padlet, Unit 1 Assessment write a 2-paragraph reflection on why you found it most interesting and describe how you would use this information in your teaching.

# Unit 2 Transforming Math Lessons

This Unit is designed to provide learners with an application of CRP to Math Lessons. One example is given so that the learner can have a better sense of how to integrate CRP in an authentic and meaningful way to enhance student learning and retain knowledge.

**Learning Objectives:**

Learners will be able to:

1. Apply the CRP to a Math Lesson

2. Create a CRP-focused Learning Objective and a CRP-related activity for a Math Lesson

__Content:__

To transform a Math Lesson into a Culturally Responsive Math Lesson, use these 5 Practices/Tips:

1. Provide a Historical Perspective on the topic, being sure to intentionally find connections that will connect with your diverse student population OR provide a realistic scenario for the students to solve

2. Give meaning to why students are learning the topic. What is your Why?

3. Provide space in the lesson for inquiry

4. Allow time for practice without penalty

5. Connect the Lesson to their environment

**Math Lesson Example: Teach students how to use the Pythagorean Theorem**

The typical way that this topic is taught and introduced to students involves a discussion of what is a right angle, then the definitions and values for each side of the triangle. After demonstrating \(a^2 + b^2 = c^2\) with examples, the students then would practice finding unknown values of sides.

**TRANSFORM THIS LESSON...**

**How about starting the discussion with the question:**

**What are some things that you notice about the shape of the Pyramids?**

Students will probably talk about symmetry and angled sides. You can then continue to talk about ratios of sides and how they would always follow the same pattern in order to determine the other side of the triangle.

Looking at a problem from a historical perspective allows students to connect Math to their culture.

The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind Papyrus, also called the Ahmes Papyrus, dates to 1650 BC.

# Unit 2 Activities

** Activity 1:** Respond to the question, How can we make Math more CR?

**Activity 2: **** **Think about one topic in Math for which your students struggle the most. How can you incorporate a CR strategy (Historical perspective OR Real life scenario) that can "rescue" this lesson. Create a CRP-focused Learning Objective and a CRP-related activity for this Math Lesson.

Put your responses to both Activities in the padlet here:Unit 2 Activities

# Unit 2 Assessment

** Assessment 1: ** Provide a FlipGrid that addresses the question: Based on the Math Lesson you transformed, what are the culturally responsive elements you included? What do you think the student response will be with the transformation you proposed? What learning theory is at play here?

Assessment for Transforming Math

** Assessment 2: ** Review other Math Lessons that are in the Padlet from other teachers. Provide feedback on one of te lessons for how they can improve or extend their Transformed Math Topic. also provide one resource that would be helpful to them.

Add your comments to the padlet here: Transforming Math Lessons

# Unit 3 - Transforming Physics Lessons

This Unit is designed to provide learners with an application of CRP to Physics Lessons. One example is given so that the learner can have a better sense of how to integrate CRP in an authentic and meaningful way to enhance student learning and retain knowledge.

**Learning Objectives:**

Learners will be able to:

1. Apply the CRP to a Physics Lesson

2. Create a CRP-focused Learning Objective and a CRP-related activity for a Physics Lesson

__Content:__

To transform a Physics Lesson into a Culturally Responsive Math Lesson, use these 5 Practices/Tips:

1. Provide a Historical Perspective on the topic, being sure to intentionally find connections that will connect with your diverse student population OR provide a realistic scenario for the students to solve

2. Give meaning to why students are learning the topic. What is your Why?

3. Provide space in the lesson for inquiry

4. Allow time for practice without penalty

5. Connect the Lesson to their environment

**Physics Lesson Example: Teach students the kinematic equations**

The typical way that this topic is taught is that students are given a list of equations, the teachers gives sample problems, then students use rote practice to get comfortable with using the equations.

**TRANSFORM THIS LESSON...**

**How about starting the discussion with these questions:**

**Have you been in the car with someone who is texting and driving? How did it make you feel? How far would your car actually travel if you had to react to stop your car? **Since most teenagers/students are at the age where they are driving, it is a real-life scenario wherein they have encountered this situation.

Overview: We will use the kinematics equations to make an argument regarding our reaction times and stopping distance if someone is testing while driving. Will they have enough time and space to stop safely?

Step One: Watch the Video - Dr. Phil-Teen Texting While Driving

Step Two: What is your Reaction time if you HAD to do panic breaking? What is your Reaction time if you are texting? This is a simple way to use kinematic equations to teach free fall motion. The activity to determine their reaction time requires two students - one holds the ruler above the hand of another student who is preparing to catch the ruler. Without warning, the student drops the ruler, the other catches the ruler. The distance where they catch the ruler is the reaction distance. From the reaction distance (convert from cm to m), we calculate the reaction time using

\(y = 0.5 * g t^2\)

where y is the reaction distance (in meters), g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s^2), and t is the reaction time. Students would then use algebra to solve for time.

Step three: Use a Computer Simulation to also determine your reaction time. How do the two methods compare?

Computer Simulation 1 to Determine your Reaction Time

Computer Simulation 2 to Determine your Reaction Time

Computer Simulation 3 to Determine your Reaction Time

Step Four: Use the Reaction times in the constant velocity kinematic equation (\(x = v * t\)) where v is your velocity (in m/s), t is your reaaction time in seconds, and x is the distance your car would travel to determine how far your car would travel if you had REACT while driving.

Step 5: Use the accelerated motion kinematic equation to determine how far your car would travel while breaking.

Step 6: How far would your car actually travel if you had to react to stop your car? You would add the distance from Step Four and Step Five

# Unit 3 Activities

Activity 1: Determine your Reaction Time using the Computer Simulations Below

Computer Simulation 1 to Determine your Reaction Time

Computer Simulation 2 to Determine your Reaction Time

Computer Simulation 3 to Determine your Reaction Time

Activity 2: Determine your Reaction Time using Kinematics and the"drop the Ruler" Method

This requires a partner. Use the Lab Instructions provided.

# Unit 3 Assessment

** Assessment 1:** Based on the total stopping distance for you traveling at a meager 55mph, what does this imply for driving habits? Would you be able to reasonably avoid an accident?

** Assessment 2: **Ask another teacher or student and determine their reaction times using the

a. Drop the ruler method (undistracted AND distracted)

b. Computer Simulation Methods