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    Exploring Pedagogical Models In Practice

    Exploring Pedagogical Models In Practice

    Overview

    This is a unit developed for the Branch Aliance for Educator Diversity Summer Institute to be used as OER/instructional materials for Teacher Education classes. This unit emphasizes the varied types of pedagogical models candidates will need in their proverbial "toolboxes" as they prepare to enter the classroom.  

    Introduction to the Course

     In class each week, students should be broken into mixed specialization groups (Multiple Subject, Single Subject, Special Education) where they learn about the specific pedagogical model (through articles, videos, chapters, professor lecture and other resources - and these specific modules). They can then  create short, (15 minute), lessons where they USE one of the models (each class should generally have enough people that instructors can create small groups to assign to each topic/model for the evening), to teach content of their choice, using that model.  They then create and implement sample lessons for the class for feedback from the class and course instructor aligning with standards.  Here in California, we use the CA TPEs (Teacher Performance Expectations) (4.3, 4.4, 4.8) and (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.8) the two sets of standards focus on lesson planning (TPE 4) and engaging and supporting ALL students (TPE 1) respectively.  They are given a "sample" class to plan for, as well as case study students who they must differentiate for.  This is done specifically to allow them to plan lessons that emphasize engaging and supporting all students in learning in order to practice incorporating UDL (Universal Design for Learning), as well as differentiation - based on specific k-12 student needs.  Certain weeks candidates have students with specific individualized needs.  Each week, our teacher candidates learn how to differentiate for different types of student differences and needs in their mini-lesson designs.  Likewise, the course also emphasizes twice exceptionality. (For instance, one week the course has a gifted learner as the case study student, it notes that the learner also has dyslexia and qualifies for other services and as such there is intersectionality there.  The course further covers diversity from a different lens each week by reading articles and interacting with other material on gender, ethnicity, LGBTQ+, Socio-Economic Status, Ability Levels, Achievement gaps, etc...)

                Candidates receive points for each module as follows: 1 point for demonstrating/using the weekly Pedagogical model correctly. 1 point for providing UDL/differentiation for the sample class/case study students well. 1 point for clearly teaching/conveying the content they chose.    This process occurs each week with different pedagogical models until the end of the course and so by the end of the course the number of pedagogical models taught will have grown exponentially and the candidates tool boxes will have been filled fairly significantly.  Again, this course emphasizes planning and specifically aligns to the California Standards for the Teaching Profession 4 and 1 emphasizing specific Teacher Performance Expectations in standards 4 (Planning instruction) and Teacher Performance Expectations in standard 1 (Engaging and supporting all students in learning).

     

    This course explores pedagogy as the combination of teachers' professional knowledge, skills, and abilities, which are directed to create effective learning opportunities and outcomes for all students in a range of contexts and is typically taught in 8 weeks/8 modules. Teacher candidates explore pedagogical methods and specific models for meeting individual student needs, utilizing both universal and individualized strategies. Attention is given to culturally responsive teaching practices for learners with diverse cultural and ethnic identities, as well as differentiation practices for students with various learning needs. Candidates analyze the relationship between curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment.

    Audience: 

    The intended audience of this course is teacher candidates within a graduate level K-12 teacher education credentialing program; made up of Mixed Specialization, (Multiple Subject, Single Subject, and Special Education) Candidates.

    Length of course:

    This resource has been designed to supplement 3 weeks of an 8 week course.

    Student Learning outcomes: 

    While engaging with this unit, learners will:

    1. Interact with various pedagogical models in practice; including exploratory, inquiry based, problem solving, questioning, collaborative and cooperative learning - based models.

    2. Design and teach short lessons using the models.

    3. Provide UDL based instruction and Differentiated instruction for a sample class and case study student when designing their short lessons, in order to practice meeting the diverse learning needs of their varied student populations.

    Pedagogical Models Vary Infographic

    Prior to jumping in be sure to review the Art and How to's of Lesson Planning.   The following video is a great review to remind you:

    6 Essential Elements of a Good Lesson Plan Video

     

    Reference

    • Note: From 'Open Education Summit: Social Justice Transforming Pedagogy', by ForsytheGuilia, @eCampusOntario, [Infographic] from Flickr.(https://www.flickr.com/photos/gforsythe/albums/72157681979452395). 
    • US Department of State, FhI360 World Learning SIT Graduate Institute. (2017). Elements of a Good Lesson Plan. YouTube.  https://youtu.be/1BqR7wUje_4 © 2017 by World Learning. “Elements of a Good Lesson Plan” was created for the AE E-Teacher Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of State and administered by FHI 360. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, except where noted.

    Unit 1 Exploratory Pedagogical Models

    The sample class and differentiation student are found in section three of the unit and should be done as homework.

    Likewise, Unit 2 for next week has an article listed as "FLIPPED" classroom modality reading. You may want to assign it now as a reading:  That article is found here and is on Questioning: https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-full-text/A09F37161683 . 

     

    Reference for next week's article: 

    Dapay, B., Bay, E., Aslansoy, C., Tiryaki, B., Ãtetin, N., & Duman, C. (2016). An analysis of teachers' questioning strategies. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(22), 2065-2078.  Copyright © 2021 Author's retain the copyright of this article. https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-full-text/A09F37161683 This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

    Exploratory Pedagogical Models Image

    Objectives:

    • Candidates will interact with and use exploratory pedagogical models (Inquiry, discovery learning, 5E method, WebQuest, problem-based learning) methods and strategies in designing instruction. This will be measured through weekly pedagogical model presentations in class.
    • Candidates will use appropriate technology and internet sources to facilitate and enhance instruction as measured through the design and implementation of a flipped modality classroom lesson plan. Candidates will incorporate accessibility options within resources used in their flipped lesson in order to meet the needs of all students accessing the materials.
    • Candidates will explore the flipped classroom pedagogical model this week as part of their technology assignment for the course.

    This week Candidates interact with pedagogical models that focus on exploration. These models include discovery learning, inquiry, project-based learning and WebQuests. You will complete a small group teaching presentation using one of the pedagogical models. You will also discuss Culturally Responsive Teaching in connection with meeting the needs of the varied learners in your inclusive classrooms. Finally, you will be introduced to the flipped classroom pedagogical model for your upcoming technology assignments due week five of our course. 

    Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Picture with quote by Tanase (2020)

    Steps:

     

    1. Candidates will first jigsaw read and discuss the article provided by Tanase (2020) on Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in groups of four or five (dependent on class size) (Is Good Teaching Culturally Responsive?), to gain a better understanding of why it is so important that we provide for the needs of every student by intentionally teaching with diversity in mind.
    2. Candidates will next complete the following WebQuest in the same groups of four or five – where each group has been assigned one of the specific Exploratory pedagogical models.
    3. When candidates have finished interacting with the pedagogical models in the WebQuest, they will create their own short (10-15 minute) lessons, and each group will teach another group within the class – remembering to incorporate elements of Universal Design for Learning as they would for the provided “sample class” of diverse learners.  They will also have thought through differentiated instructional strategies for specific students found in the “sample class” provided (See Section 3 for sample class), and will be ready to discuss how they will differentiate for individual students after their lesson (in a short journal submitted to the course instructor). This should be assigned as homework.
    4. Candidates will then begin preparing for Unit 2 while also learning about material for the course technology assignment, as they engage in material on the Flipped Classroom Pedagogical Model. Watch and discuss the following resource together as a class: 
    How to Flip Class: Flipped Classroom Video Introduction

    Then go over the “Flipped Classroom Lesson Plan Template”, and note that there will be some “pre-reading and videos” for the class to explore before we do unit two next week on Questioning Pedagogical Models.  This functions both as practice with “flipping our own class”, and as a way for you all to start getting information on the next unit’s pedagogical models.

     

    References:

     

     

     

    Unit 1 Activities

    Instructors - The "Sample Class" provided should be used every week and remain unchanged; however, the "One of the Learners" for differentiation - should be assigned based on week. So for Unit 1: please use Duane as noted,  for Unit 2 use Luis, and for Unit 3, please use Guenavive.  If you would like to change this - do so at your discretion of course.  

    Anyone else, feel free to adapt as you feel it is needed.

    Also, don't forget to create a flipgrid for your class if you plan on using flipgrid - or to let them know how to use screencastify or the other modalities etc... for the activities., If you plan on having them submit a paper, make a place for submission.

    Differentiation and UDL Reflective Journaling Image

    Activities: 

    • Activity 1: As noted earlier, after teaching your mini-lesson complete a reflective journal on how you would differentiate for one of the learners in the "sample class" provided.  Also discuss how your group provided elements of Universal Design for Learning within the lesson that you designed and taught in class. Your journal may be done in any of the following formats: (Your instructor will inform you where you will submit your response).

      • FlipGrid

      • Digital Journal (paper via Word, Pages, Notes etc...)

      • Blog (Blogger)

      • Screencast. (Screencast-omatic, Screencastify)

    • Activity 2: After watching the introduction to the flipped classroom pedagogical video in class and discussing the flipped classroom modality; at home you will peruse the flipped classroom resource from the OER commons below:

    Unit 1 Assessment

    Remember, if using the Google form quiz for this week to please click on the "Make a copy" button and set it up so that you have your own version to share with students.  Otherwise all of their emailed quiz responses will go to me (the person who created this module) and you will not be able to get their responses.  

    Also, don't forget to let them know where to submit their flipped classroom infographics. 

    Assessment of learning outcomes image

    Assessments to address this week's outcomes

    Reminder of Objectives: 

    •  Objective 1: Candidates will interact with and use exploratory pedagogical models (Inquiry, discovery learning, 5E method, WebQuest, problem-based learning) methods and strategies in designing instruction. 

    • Objective 2: Candidates will explore the flipped classroom pedagogical model this week as part of their technology assignment for the course. 

    Test your Knowledge on the Exploratory Pedagogical Models - Assessment 1 -  Complete the Quiz

    Test your knowledge on the flipped classroom pedagogical model - Assessment 2 - Create a short graphic representation (pictorial infographic) showing at least three easy ways to "flip" the classroom.

     

     

    Unit 2 Questioning Pedagogical Models

    Please prepare the classroom ahead of time. Your students will need laptops or phones or tablets and you will need posters or pre-set up stations with the links and information already up so that you do not waste time at each station.  I would also recommend you have a timer set up so that each group only takes 10 minutes or so at each station tops before transitioning to the next station.

    Then when they are building their lessons they should have about 30 minutes to do so and then it will be the dinner break and they will share their lessons one group to another group most likely depending on class size. (Smaller classes can do full class presentations), after the dinner break. 

    Please use Luis for your differentiation student this week - from the Sample class

     

    Questions Image

     

    Unit 2: Objective/s

    • Candidates will explore and use questioning pedagogical models - (QAR, Socratic seminar, Fish bowl, as well as DOK, Bloom’s Taxonomy and Leveled Questioning, and Guided Questioning) methods and strategies in designing instruction. This will be measured through weekly pedagogical model presentations in class.

    This week, Candidates interact with pedagogical models that emphasize utilizing Strategic Questioning techniques in the classroom. In order to understand the full purpose and need for this week’s unit, Candidates should engage in the FLIPPED pedagogical modality and read the following article by Dos, et. al (2021), An Analysis of Teachers’ Questioning Strategies, on their own at home, prior to jumping into the unit.  Once they are actually in the face to face or synchronous class session, they can then follow the steps below:

     

    Cultivate Lifelong Questioning Quote Image

     

    Steps:

    1. Candidates will go to https://www.oercommons.org/courses/questioning-techniques-research-based-strategies-for-teachers/view where they will explore and discuss the resource together in small groups, (including the two short two-three minute videos).  Then the class will come back together as a whole to discuss the information including the the various types of questioning, wait-time, strategies, etc….

    2. Next watch the following video on Chat Stations as a full class, so that everyone understands the next activity and how it will work. 

    Chat Stations Video

    3. Then break the class into 5 small groups of four or five (depending on class size), and have them go to each of the following stations pre-set up around the room.  Station activities should take approximately 10-12 minutes each.  At each station, candidates should take notes and learn about each model. 

    4. Now that all candidates have had a chance to learn about every Questioning model, assign a different model to each group (If a group prefers a specific model and no one else would like it, let them choose it, and perhaps draw lots if groups would like to choose the same model…, or simply assign randomly).  Have each group create their weekly pedagogical model presentation (10-15 minutes). They must design a short lesson USING the chosen model.  They must design the lesson with the “sample class” in mind, and plan instruction in ways that incorporate Universal Design for Learning practices for that “sample class”, into their instructional practices.  Finally, they should also consider thoroughly the weekly assigned “differentiation student” from the “sample class” and how they plan on meeting that students’ needs. They should be ready to explain how they will meet that students’ individual needs in some sort of reflective journaling activity as homework. 

    References: 

    Dapay, B., Bay, E., Aslansoy, C., Tiryaki, B., Ãtetin, N., & Duman, C. (2016). An analysis of teachers' questioning strategies. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(22), 2065-2078.  Copyright © 2021 Author's retain the copyright of this article. https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-full-text/A09F37161683 This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

    Note: From 'Questions' [Infographic] from http://whs-blogs.co.uk/teaching/learning-gem-22-1on1-questioning/

    Note: From 'Educational Postcard "Our goal as teacher should be....[Photograph], by WhytockKen, 2016, Flickr, (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kenwhytock/14586801998). CC-BY-SA.20.

    Unit 2 Activities

    Instructors - The "Sample Class" provided should be used every week and remain unchanged; however, the "One of the Learners" for differentiation - should be assigned based on week. So for Unit 1: please use Duane as noted,  for Unit 2 use Luis, and for Unit 3, please use Guenavive. 

     

    Questions Lead to Answers Pictograph

    Activity 1: Given the focus on questioning this week, as well as both the introduction to DOK and review of Bloom's Taxonomy, write three questions you yourself have about the various models we have learned tonight, at three different levels of questioning. You may choose to focus on the verb (Blooms), or instead focus on the skill (DOK).  

    Activity 2: Similarly to previous weeks, after teaching your mini-lesson, for homework, complete a reflective journal on how you would differentiate for one of the learners in the "sample class" provided.  Also discuss how your group provided elements of Universal Design for Learning within the lesson that you designed and taught in class. Your journal may be done in any of the following formats: (Your instructor will inform you where to submit your response)

    • FlipGrid

    • Digital Journal (paper via Word, Pages, Notes etc...)

    • Blog (Blogger)

    • Screencast. (Screencast-omatic, Screencastify)

     

     

     

     

    Unit 2 Assessment

    Remember, if using the Google form quiz for this week to please click on the "Make a copy" button and set it up so that you have your own version to share with students.  Otherwise all of their emailed quiz responses will go to me (the person who created this module) and you will not be able to get their responses.  

    Also, don't forget to let them know where to submit their slides or infographics. 

    Assessment Infographic

    Assessments to address this week's outcomes

    Reminder of Objective/s: 

    • Candidates will explore and use questioning pedagogical models - (QAR, Socratic seminar, fish bowl, Bloom's, DOK and Leveled Questioning, and guided questioning) methods and strategies in designing instruction. 

    Test your Knowledge on the Questioning Pedagogical Models learned this week-

    Test your Knowledge on your full understanding of increasing critical thinking with your students utilizing Webb's Depth of Knowledge in the classroom.

    • Assessment 2 - Create a google slide or Canva infographic (at Canva.com) where you take the activities we completed this week in class (including the following: Discussion of the OER questioning techniques resource together in small groups, The CHAT Station activity where you learned about each new questioning pedagogical model; designing your actual lesson plans, Teaching your actual lesson plans, journaling regarding your sample class UDL and sample differentiation student, development of your own DOK or Blooms based questions) and you place them at a DOK level 1, 2, 3, 4 and explain why you believe they belong at that level. 

    Unit 3 Peer Interaction Pedagogical Models

    A brief lecture at the beginning of class from a direct instruction perspective, regarding the difference between cognitive constructivism, and social constructivism will not go amiss and will supplement the video and discussion well. 

    I chose the jigsaw cooperative learning actiivity to learn about the different cooperative learning activities on purpose... it seemed a reasonable method of going about it. Try to plan your grouping ahead of time so you can be intentional  in your grouping.

    Use Guenavive for the differentiation this time.

    Peer Interaction Pedagogical Models Infographic

    Unit 3: Peer Interaction Pedagogical Models

    Objective/s

    • Candidates will explore and use peer interaction models - (cooperative and collaborative learning, Kagan strategies, etc...) methods and strategies in designing instruction. 

    This week candidates will explore peer interaction pedagogical models like collaborative learning and cooperative learning. As per usual, small group teaching presentations using one of the models will be completed in class.  In order to fully understand the purpose behind the use of peer interaction models this week, as well as the philosophical underpinnings surrounding the peer interaction models, the class should recall the Cognitive Constructivist educational philosophy developed by Bruner (Cognitivism) and added to by Piaget (Equilibrium/Disequilibrium/Accommodation/Equilibrium), and discussed briefly as underpinning exploratory models in Unit 1, and questioning models in Unit 2.  To help in that recall process, please watch this brief video as a whole class and discuss how teachers provide scaffolding and intentional new “experiences” in classrooms to allow for accommodation of new schema in alignment with constructivist theory in both exploratory and questioning pedagogical models.

    Constructivism Video Review

    Now that you have a reminder of the traditional cognitive constructivist theory, consider that this week we will be looking at peer interaction pedagogical models, which are also connected to constructivism, but instead of cognitive constructivism, they are more directly influenced by Social Constructivism which was inspired by the ideas of Lev Vygotsky.  Specifically, we will look at collaborative learning models, and a more specific type of collaboration, called cooperative learning.  Take a few minutes to skim the following site and discuss as a class, to get a better idea of what is meant by both “collaborative, and cooperative learning”.

    Vygotsky ZPD Infographic

     

    Steps:

    Break your class into 5 groups.  Assign each group to one of the following topics:

     Each group should learn about one of the following cooperative learning or collaborative learning strategies. (Become experts). After everyone has had time to become experts in their strategy (approximately 10-15 minutes), Form FIVE new groups by sending one person from each group to five new groups. (So one person from group 1, a person from group 2, a person from group 3, a person from group 4, and a person from group 5 are all together to form an entirely new group, for instance.)  The new groups take turns teaching all group members about what they have learned, so that every class member is exposed to all of the various cooperative and collaborative learning strategies

    ​​​​​​​

    Now that all candidates have had a chance to learn about the peer interaction models we have covered this week, assign a different model to each group (If a group prefers a specific model and no one else would like it, let them choose it, and perhaps draw lots if groups would like to choose the same model…, or simply assign randomly).  Have each group create their weekly pedagogical model presentation (10-15 minutes). They must design a short lesson USING the chosen model.  They must design the lesson with the “sample class” in mind, and plan instruction in ways that incorporate Universal Design for Learning practices for that “sample class”, into their instructional practices.  Finally, they should also consider thoroughly the weekly assigned “differentiation student” from the “sample class” and how they plan on meeting that students’ needs. They should be ready to explain how they will meet that students’ individual needs in some sort of reflective journaling activity as homework.

     

    References

    Unit 3 Activities

    Note that the sample differentiation student this week, Guenavive, is what is called a twice exceptional student.  This means that she has two exceptionalities. She is both gifted and an English Learner.  The intersectionality involved in this aspect of Guenavive's personal experience and funds of knowledge, lends itself well to the social constructivist perspective we are discussing this week, especially in terms of the intentional grouping done in cooperative instruction and as such, this is something you should intentionally discuss and bring up with your teacher candidates in this week's class discussion so that they can discuss it in their own reflective journaling. It is specifically why the activities for this week emphasize funds of knowledge and the hope is, that the class will also get a good view of other ways to group besides ability grouping in activities this week.   

     

    Funds of Knowledge Infographic

    • Activity 1: Consider intentionality in grouping.  How can you use students FUNDS OF KNOWLEDGE when make cooperative grouping decisions?  What considerations in terms of student areas of strength and student areas of need do you consider when creating cooperative groups?  Consider the students you have in the "sample class" - especially the three differentiation students, Duane, Luis, and Guenavive - Complete a funds of knowledge inventory matrix similar to the one done on the page you explored in this activity for those three students. Submit as directed by your course instructor.

    • Activity 2: As done in previous class sessions, after teaching your mini-lesson complete a reflective journal on how you would differentiate for one of the learners in the "sample class" provided.  Also discuss how your group provided elements of Universal Design for Learning within the lesson that you designed and taught in class. Your journal may be done in any of the following formats: (Your instructor will inform you where you will submit your response).

      • FlipGrid

      • Digital Journal (paper via Word, Pages, Notes etc...)

      • Blog (Blogger)

      • Screencast. (Screencast-omatic, Screencastify)

    Unit 3 Assessment

    Make sure to approve materials prior to allowing candidates to submit to the OER commons.  Of course they must be approved... but it is best to vett student work.

    Also, Student final self assessment  - feel free to adapt the questions based on if you have adapted any of the activities. 

    Assessment image

    Assessments to address this week's outcomes

    Reminder of Objective/s: 

    Candidates will explore and use peer interaction models - (cooperative and collaborative learning, Kagan strategies, etc...) methods and strategies in designing instruction.

    Test your Knowledge on the Peer Interaction Pedagogical Models learned this week - 

    Working in a group of five, create a resource of some sort (mini lesson, full lesson, short blog, infographic, etc...) to share in the OER commons using one of the models or about one of the peer interaction models.  

    Self Assessment on FULL UNIT: Complete a final self assessment in the form of your choice - (Flipgrid, paper, screencast, podcast, etc...)

    Describe what you feel you have learned through the process of completing these three modules. Have you grown in your own understanding of pedagogical models in the last three weeks?  Have you grown in your undestanding of constructivism?  Have you grown in your understanding of differentiation/UDL/meeting the needs of all students? Etc... How?  

     

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