Author:
Paulette Rubio, Oregon Open Learning
Subject:
Engineering, Health, Medicine and Nursing, Language Education (ESL), Anatomy/Physiology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab, Assessment, Diagram/Illustration, Interactive, Lesson, Lesson Plan
Level:
Middle School
Grade:
6, 7, 8
Tags:
  • ELP Level 2
  • ELP Level 3
  • ELP Level 4
  • Engineering
  • Prosthetic Hand
  • STEM
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Interactive, Video

    Education Standards

    Give me a hand! Bioengineering for Prosthetic Limbs

    Give me a hand! Bioengineering for Prosthetic Limbs

    Overview

     

    Students extend their knowledge of the skeletal system to biomedical engineering design, specifically the concept of artificial limbs and joints. Students relate the skeleton as a structural system, focusing on the hand as structural necessity. They learn about the design considerations involved in the creation of artificial limbs, including materials. 

    This lesson plan was developed for emergent bilingual students who are intermediate or advanced in their English language development skills. 

    This lesson is adapted from the following resources, "Engineering Bones" and "Prosthetic Party," on the TeachEngineering Digital Library: https://www.teachengineering.org/lessons/view/cub_biomed_lesson01, https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_biomed_lesson01_activity1

     

    LESSON DESCRIPTION

    Give me a hand!: Bioengineering for Prosthetic Limbs

    Author of the Lesson: Paulette Rubio

    Lesson Summary/Overview:

    Students extend their knowledge of the skeletal system to biomedical engineering design, specifically the concept of artificial limbs and joints. Students relate the skeleton as a structural system, focusing on the hand as structural necessity. They learn about the design considerations involved in the creation of artificial limbs, including materials.

    This lesson plan was developed for emergent bilingual students who are intermediate or advanced in their English language development skills.

    This lesson is adapted from the following resources, "Engineering Bones" and "Prosthetic Party," on the TeachEngineering Digital Library.

    LESSON GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    Alignment and Objectives

    Content Standards: Next Generation Science Standards 6-8

    MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.        

    MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

    Content Objectives:  

    1. The student will be able to  identify  2 necessary features and design considerations for the development of a prosthetic hand.
    2. The student will be able to evaluate the design components  and describe 2 design criteria that go into choosing the material for a prosthetic limb.

    ELP Standards: Grades 6-8

    Standard 2:. An ELL can…participate in grade-appropriate oral and written exchanges of information, ideas & analyses, responding to peer, audience, or reader comments and questions.

    Standard 5: An ELL can…conduct research & evaluate & communicate findings to answer questions or solve problems.

    Language (ELP) Objectives:

    1. The student will be able to explain considerations for movements that a hand should be able to execute.
    2. The student will be able to describe material components and how each component contributes to the movement  and function of the prosthetic hand

    Supporting Academic Language

    Language Functions: Explaining, Describing, Informing, Comparing/Contrasting

    Language Modalities: Receptive (listening, reading), Productive(speaking and writing), Interactive (cooperative problem solving)

    Vocabulary:

    Tier 2: engineer, structure, characteristics, feature, function, plan , design

    Tier 3: amputee, bioengineer/bioengineering,  prosthesis, prosthetic

    Syntax or Sentence Structure(s):  Students will be focusing on responding to “why” and “how” questions as related to explaining their design. Sentence structures or sentence frames should demonstrate use of coordinating  and/or subordinating conjunctions connecting ideas.

    Discourse:  Students will be developing their ability to describe and explain information related to important characteristics of a prosthetic hand. Students will need to be able to describe actions and activities that a hand should be able to perform, as well as, connect those actions with features that a prosthetic hand should possess in order to be functional.

    LESSON PREPARATION

    Considerations

    Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills:

    • Some familiarity with the human skeletal system
    • Familiarity with the idea of bones providing a body's structure and movement.
    • Familiarity with measuring tools and units of  measurement.

    Instructional Materials

    Materials: whiteboard, markers, sticky notes, pens, pencils, folders (to hold paperwork),

    cardboard, scissors, pencils/markers, glue dots, thick rubber bands, string,different colored straws, ruler, picture of Eiffel Tower, tape

    Attachments:

    • Activity #1 Lesson  (This worksheet is based on information from "Engineering Bones".)
    • Activity #1 Note sheet
    • Activity #1 Human Skeleton Worksheet
    • Activity #2 Lesson (This worksheet is based on information from "Prosthetic Party")
    • Activity #2 Worksheet: “Give me a hand!” (This is based on the Prosthetic Party Activity.)  
    • Prosthetic Hand-Peer Feedback Worksheet

    Instructions for prosthetic hand video: How to Make a Robotic Hand

    Video for Activity #2: How 3-D-Printed Prosthetic Hands Are Changing These Kids’ Lives

    Learning Supports

    Socio-emotional supports: Opportunities for peer to peer interactions to help facilitate bilingual support. Students will have access to a bilingual educator to help support their linguistic needs.

    Cultural & Linguistic Responsiveness:  Students will have access to Spanish-English bilingual support (translanguaging). Students will also have opportunities to communicate with a bilingual instructor and peers to process information. Students will have access to computer or chromebooks in the classroom to utilize dictionaries (English or Spanish) to support comprehension.

    Accessibility:

    Simplified language to focus on central ideas of lesson.

    Tier 2 vocabulary will be reviewed. Tier 2 words are underlined in the lesson.

    Tier 3 Vocabulary will be written and visible so that students have immediate  access to meaning. Tier 3 Vocabulary is presented in context of  the written lesson plan. Tier 3 words are bolded and underlined in the lessons.  Tier 3 words are defined at the bottom of each lesson.

    Students will have access to instructors to help answer questions and guide learning. Students will have opportunities to collaborate with other students.

    Instructional Supports

    Differentiation:

    L1 Supports:

    •  Students may complete forms in either L1 or L2
    • Access to bilingual support through educator or peers
    • Physical modeling/pointing of bones and their locations
    • Visual supports and aides to facilitate comprehension

    L2 Development (by level)

    Intermediate:

    • Physical modeling/pointing of bones and their locations
    • Words on worksheet for students to label skeletal model
    • Sentence frames to help the student complete forms.  
    • Forms may be partially filled to help the student connect ideas (e.g. Characteristics or Materials section of the Prosthetic Party Worksheet may be completed to guide students).
    • Frequent checks for understanding
    • Extra time for processing information
    • Visual supports and aides to facilitate comprehension

    Advanced:  

    • Students may label model with minimal support
    • Students may generate full sentences on what the function of each material is in the prosthetic hand model.
    • Students may complete the forms independently with minimal assistance
    • Frequent checks for understanding
    • Extra time for processing information
    • Visual supports and aides to facilitate comprehension.

    LESSON PROCEDURES

    Activity #1

    In this activity, students have the opportunity to utilize their home language and English in order to complete verbal and written tasks.

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 10 minutes

    Materials: White board and marker

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher begins discussion by asking students if they have ever broken a bone or severely injured a limb.
      • What happened? How did it impact their life? What changed?
      • Students have the opportunity to respond and share their stories.
    • The teacher transitions to discussion of bones as a “structural necessity” to the human body. The teacher extends to discussions of what would happen if we didn’t have different bones in place.

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 10 minutes

    Material: Picture of building (Eiffel Tower) or another structure

    Teacher Does/Student Do:

    • The teacher presents the concept of the skeleton being the body’s structure, giving it shape and stability.

    What would you look like without your skeleton? Well, you would have a very different shape, your important organs would not be protected, and you would move in a different way. Your skeleton gives your body structure; it gives your body shape and stability. Structure helps you to stand (or be in any other position); just like a building's structure is what helps it stand.

    • Teacher introduces the concept of biomedical engineering and prosthesis (development of artificial limbs) as solutions to limbs.

    But what about people who have do not have some of these structural bones, such as legs or hands? The development of prosthetic limbs has recently changed tremendously. We will learn about how important our skeletons are, and  how biomedical engineers are creating prosthesis (artificial bones and body parts)  to help others.

    Different bones have different jobs. The most important job of your ribs and skull are to protect your heart, lungs and brain — some very important organs! The main job of your hand bone is to move so that you can hold things. The bones that hold all the weight of your body are very important for structure, such as the leg bones, hip bone and backbone. Structure is the reason that your femur, or thigh bone, is so large and thick. Think about a building, such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. The thickest parts of its structure are at the bottom, because all the weight of the building sits on the bottom supports. Leg bones (at the bottom of your body) are the most important bones in our bodies. Since they are also important for movement, it is very hard to live without them

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 10-15 minutes

    Materials: Activity #1 Human Skeleton Worksheet ; Activity #1 Note sheet with listed bones for students to complete with their own personal notes (written or drawn, in language of choice).

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher discusses how different bones have different functions.
    • As a group, the teacher and students reflect on and discuss different bones and what their functions might be. Responses are written on the whiteboard.
    • Teacher will move from top to bottom going over main bones of skeletal system:
      • cranium, jaw bone (maxilla), ribs and sternum, upper arm (humerus), lower arm (radius and ulna), hand (metacarpals and phalanges), hip, spine, femur, lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot bone (tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges)
    • As the teacher discusses each bone, the teacher and students will point to/touch the corresponding bone.
    • As the teacher talks about each area, if it has not already been discussed, the students can discuss what the function of those bones are. Students can take notes or draw pictures on their note sheet to help facilitate recall of information.

    Different bones have different functions, sizes and shapes. Facts about some important bones:

    • Cranium: Also known as the skull; the primary purpose of the cranium is to protect the brain.
    • Jaw bone: The mandible is the lower jaw, moving up and down, and left and right.
    • Hip bone: Also known as the pelvis, your hip bone helps you stand upright and move.
    • Lower leg bone: The tibia and fibula make up a lower leg. The tibia is in front and the fibula is in back.
    • Ribs and sternum: The ribs wrap around to protect the chest, including the heart and lungs. The sternum is the breastbone, where the ribs are connected in front.
    • Spine: Also known as the backbone.
    • Femur: The femur, or thigh bone,  and it is the longest bone in the body.
    • Lower arm bone: Two bones make up the lower arm. The radius is along the thumb side and the ulna is along the pinky side.
    • Upper arm bone: The upper arm bone is called the humerus.
    • Hand bone:  The bones in the palm are called metacarpals, the bones in the fingers are phalanges, and the bones in the wrist are carpals.
    • Foot bone: The bones in the ankle are called tarsals, the bones in the foot are metatarsals, and the bones in the toes are phalanges

    Students complete the Activity#1 Note sheet as the teacher discusses each bone. Students can take notes or draw pictures on their note sheet to help facilitate recall of information.

    Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 5-10 minutes

    Materials: Activity #1 Human Skeleton worksheet of skeletal system to match

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    In pairs, students complete the worksheet, matching parts of the skeletal system (based on discussion).  Names of the different bones will be listed on the sides of the sheet so that students can use it as a reference. Students will have the opportunity to check their responses with one another.

    Closure

    Time: 5 minutes

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    Teacher instructs students in short game asking them to identify targeted bones on their own body:

    “Point to your…..(cranium, metatarsal, humerus, femur, spine, etc.)”

    ASSESSMENTS

    Formative Assessment

    Content:

    • Given an exit sticky note, students should be able to match the location  of the listed bone and explain the function of the bone in the skeletal system.

    Language:  

    Students should be able to formulate a sentence providing information on location and function of the bone.

    “This bone is found in the ________________. It is used for____________________________.”

     

    Activity #2 (day 1)

    In this activity, students have the opportunity to utilize their home language and English in order to complete verbal and written tasks.

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 10 minutes

    Materials: White board and marker

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 15 minutes

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • Teacher explicitly explains targeted Tier 3 vocabulary within context of discussion (amputee, bioengineer/bioengineering,  prosthesis, prosthetic,)

    Discussion: What is an engineer?

    What is an amputee? What is prosthesis? What are some examples of prosthesis?

    • Teacher has students begin to think about being “engineers” that need to design a prosthetic hand.
    • Teacher discusses students’ observations from the video:

    Discussion: What did you observe about the child in the video?

    What did the creators need to think about when designing these prosthetic hands? (List ideas that students come up with on the board). Examples may include: cost, weight, materials, uniqueness of each individual’s hand or arm.

    Who may experience these kinds of challenges?  Adults or kids or both? Where do people with missing limbs live?

    How much do you think prosthetic devices cost? (The video references that a prosthetic hand can cost “thousands of dollars”)

    Do you think people have equitable/fair access or opportunity to get a prosthetic? Why or why not? (Teacher can guide discussion to the availability of materials, financial resources, medical doctors or facilities).

    Who do you think may not get a prosthetic device? How could engineers fix or help with that?

    Biomedical engineers study  our bones so that they can copy them to make prostheses (plural for prosthesis), which are artificial limbs to replace body parts. Some prostheses are external  (outside) and sometimes even removable, such as artificial arms and legs. These prostheses are important for amputees (people who have had a limb removed). Other kinds of prostheses are internal (inside) and permanent, such as hip and knee replacements. These kinds of prostheses are used when the original body part is not missing, but is instead badly damaged from an injury or illness.

    How do engineers design prostheses? Let's think about an implant for a total knee replacement. What does a knee do?  The knee lets you move your lower leg back and forth as well as twist a little

    What are the characteristics that a biomedical engineers needs to think about when designing a prosthetic knee? . A replacement knee needs to be able to move the way a real knee can move. It needs to be able to support the body  and be flexible enough to bend without breaking. It must be strong,and be  lightweight, so that a person does not have difficulty moving around. It should also last a very long time.

    Biomedical engineers need to carefully choose materials.  Current knee and hip prostheses last only 10 to 15 years. This is not long enough for younger patients! Therefore, biomedical engineers research how new materials could improve  how long these prostheses last. The choice of materials is important to biomedical technologies.

    For external prosthetics, such as a prosthetic hand or leg for an amputee, biomedical engineers must think about how the prosthesis will communicate (talk) and connect with the body.

    • The teacher engages students in discussion of what a hand may need to be able to do. Responses are written on the board.

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 10 minutes

    Materials: “Give me a hand!” Worksheet

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher presents the “Give me a hand!” Worksheet. The teacher presents concepts of plan, design, characteristics, features.
    • Students review chart listed on #1 of this worksheet.

    Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 10

    Materials: “Give me a hand!” Worksheet

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • In pairs, students complete the #1 of the worksheet. Students will have the opportunity to discuss and problem solve important qualities that a hand needs to have and abilities that a hand needs to be able to do. Though students will be working in pairs or small groups, each student will complete their own worksheet.
    • Teacher is checking in with student groups.

    Individual Learning (Independent Practice and Application)

    Time:  2 minutes

    Students Do: Using the sentence frame at the bottom of #1, the student will reflect on something that is important for them to be able to do with their hand. Student responses will be unique to each student.

    Closure

    Time:  7-10 minutes

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • Students share aloud their responses to questions presented at the end of #1.
    • The teacher and/or students may comment or ask questions during this time.

    ASSESSMENTS

    Formative Assessment

    Content:

    • Students will share what their response to the sentence frame at the bottom of #1 (worksheet). Their response should reflect thought into the function their hand and/or fingers may need in order to complete a task.

    Language:

    • Students will describe a “characteristic” that will help them complete this action.
    • Oral and written responses may be assessed

    Activity #2 (day 2)

    In this activity, students have the opportunity to utilize their home language and English in order to complete verbal and written tasks.

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 5 minutes

    Materials:  “Give me a hand!” Worksheet, rulers, markers and pencils, plain paper for students to draw on

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher and students discuss characteristics and plan for design (review from worksheet)

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 10 minutes

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • Teacher  discusses measurements of the hand. Why is it important to have the correct measurements?
    • Teacher explains how to take measurements and where to log them

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility) and Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 15-20 minutes

    Materials: “Give me a hand!” Worksheet, plain paper, pencils, markers, rulers

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • For #2,  students may work together to help measure each other’s hands

    Teacher gives students blank paper to begin designing/drawing their own hand.

    • For #3, students may work independently or with a partner as they reflect on features for the design of their hand.

    Closure

    Time:  7-10 minutes

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    Teacher: Teacher asks each student to share their design picture.

    Students: Each student has the opportunity to share their drawn design and explain how or why they included certain features.

    ASSESSMENTS

    Formative Assessment

    Content:

    • Students will explain or describe included features in their design.

    Language:

    • Students will verbally present how and/or why they included each feature in their design.  

     

    Activity #2 (day 3-4)

    In this activity, students have the opportunity to utilize their home language and English in order to complete verbal and written tasks.

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 5 minutes

    Materials:  “Give me a hand!” Worksheet, cardboard, string, different colored straws straws, glue dots, rulers, markers and pencils, scissors, tape

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher  and students discuss characteristics and plan for design (review from worksheet)

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 10 minutes

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility) and Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 60-90 minutes

    Materials: “Give me a hand!” Worksheet, cardboard, string, different colored straws, glue dots, rulers, markers and pencils, scissors, tape

    • Students follow teacher model and video instructions on putting prosthetic hand together
    • Students have an opportunity to work together in the construction of the hand. Students are able to discuss ideas on how to construct the hand.

    ***NOTE: Students will use glue dots (instead of tape pieces) to stick straw pieces onto the cardboard hand. Tape will be used to stick the top end of the string to the fingers. Students may omit measuring straws prior to cutting and cut straw to fit within each region between joints.  Also, the teacher may choose to  prep this portion of the activity by pre-cutting straws to specified lengths [¼ inch (0.6 cm) , ½ inch (1.3 cm) , 1 inch (2.5 cm), 2 ¼ inches (5.7 cm)] and sorting them.

    Individual Learning (Independent Practice and Application)

    Time:  10 minutes

    Students Do:  For #4, students will reflect on how each of the materials supports the design and function of the hand.

    Closure

    Time:  10 minutes

    Teacher Does: Teacher reviews responses to #4 on the Prosthetic Party Worksheet.

    Students Do: Students share their responses to #4.

    ASSESSMENTS

    Formative Assessment

    Content:

    • Students identify a simple task they want their hand to do (e.g. wave, make the peace sign, pick up a piece of paper, etc)
    • Students will explain how they  utilized the materials of their prosthetic hand to complete a task.

    Language:

    • Students will verbally present what they are able to do or not do with their prosthetic hand.  

    Activity #2 (day 5)

    In this activity, students have the opportunity to utilize their home language and English in order to complete verbal and written tasks.

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 5 minutes

    Materials:  “Give me a hand!” Worksheet, completed prosthetic hand, Prosthetic Hand-Peer Feedback worksheet

    Teacher Does/Students Do:

    • The teacher  and students review the visual difference between all students’ hand models.

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 10 minutes

    Materials: White board and dry erase marker, list of subordinating conjunctions (because, so that, after, before, when)

    • Teacher begins the discussion of evaluating the design and function of the prosthetic hand.
    • The teacher writes examples of subordinating conjunctions on the whiteboard to support students in connecting their ideas.

    Example: My fingers did not move correctly because I did not bend them first.  

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility) and Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 10-15 minutes

    • Students present their hand to the group and demonstrate how it works.
    • Students are given the opportunity to compare their hands with other students’ hands.
    • Teacher guides students in thinking about “why”  or “how” each hand moves differently or “why” certain features did or did not work.
    • Students complete the “Prosthetic Hand- Peer Feedback” sheet for each student in their group as each student presents their hand. Students can use these worksheets for reflection when completing the final portions of the Prosthetic Party worksheet.

    Individual Learning (Independent Practice and Application)

    Time:  10 minutes

    Students Do:  For #5 and 6 of the Prosthetic Party worksheet, students will reflect on how each of the materials supports the design and function of the hand.  For #7 of the worksheet, students will reflect on their understanding of their role and agency as “engineers” and consider “why” and “how” their role contributes to society.

    Closure

    Students will complete the summative assessment at the end of this activity day.

    ASSESSMENTS

    Plans for Summative Assessments

    Content: Students will respond to questions #5 and #6 of the Prosthetic hand worksheet.  In responding to these questions, students will demonstrate that they understand what features were beneficial or detrimental to their design. They will demonstrate that they have considered some key features that their hand needed to be able to do and have evaluated whether their prototype met that criteria. For #7 of the worksheet, students will reflect on their understanding of their role and agency as “engineers” and consider “why” and “how” their role contributes to society.

    Language: Students' written work will be assessed to determine if they have been able to connect their ideas as reflected in their use of coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

    EXTENSIONS

    Ideas for Key Assignments, Extensions:

    1. Some students may be interested in connecting this learning with the robotics group. This group competes each year designing underwater ROV’s.
    2. Students may try completing tasks (picking things up, moving fingers in specific ways) with their hand models.