Author:
Kirk Snyder
Subject:
Life Science, Biology
Material Type:
Module
Level:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
Tags:
  • Biology
  • Human Microbiome
  • Microbiology
  • Microbiome
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, eBook, Text/HTML, Video

    The Human Microbiome Project

    The Human Microbiome Project

    Overview

    This resource is a collection of articles, book chapters, and videos about the Human Microbiome.

    The Microbiome is loosely defined as microorganisms, such as bacteria, that are found throughout the human body. It plays an important role in our understanding of our interactions with microorganisms and can help better understand which microorganisms are associated with clinical conditions and can help to improve the overall state of human health. The Human Microbiome provides some background information on microorganisms in general. 

    There is a lot of Microbiome information provided. Some in the form of informative video content, some in the form of an online course at MIT and links to papers and online books and other important websites that inform a lot about the microbiome.  Finally, since this is intended to be a resource for Lander College for Women, a Womens Jewish College, there is also information about the impact of the human microbiome on women's health, as well as information regarding a parallel concept in Jewish Philosophy, that a human being is a microcosm of a world.

    -Neil Normand, Touro University, 2021

    About

    The Microbiome is loosely defined as microorganisms, such as bacteria, that are found throughout the human body. It plays an important role in our understanding of our interactions with microorganisms and can help better understand which microorganisms are associated with clinical conditions and can help to improve the overall state of human health. The Human Microbiome provides some background information on microorganisms in general. 

    There is a lot of Microbiome information provided. Some in the form of informative video content, some in the form of an online course at MIT and links to papers and online books and other important websites that inform a lot about the microbiome. Finally, since this is intended to be a resource for Touro University's Lander College for Women, a Womens Jewish College, there is also information about the impact of the human microbiome on women's health, as well as information regarding a parallel concept in Jewish Philosophy, that a human being is a microcosm of a world.

    -Neil Normand, Touro University, 2021

    License: Creative Commons Attribution   

    Photo by julien Tromeur on Unsplash

     

     

    Ecosystem- Look at Chapters 19 and 20 for a detailed discussion

    The Microbiome is a concept that the Human Being is its own ecosystem with many microorganisms that dwell in it. Therefore the concept of ecosystem is relevant and helpful in understanding  the microbiome.

    Please look at the chapters on ecology (19 and 20) to help get familiarized with the more traditional definition of ecosystem.

    Concepts of Biology, OpenStax:

    https://www.oercommons.org/courses/concepts-of-biology-2/view

    Prokaryotic Diversity

    Nagpal R, Wang S, Ahmadi S, Hayes J, Gagliano J, Subashchandrabose S, Kitzman DW, Becton T, Read R, Yadav H. Human-origin probiotic cocktail increases short-chain fatty acid production via modulation of mice and human gut microbiome. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 23;8(1):12649. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-30114-4. PMID: 30139941; PMCID: PMC6107516.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107516/ 

    McDonald D, Hyde E, Debelius JW, Morton JT, Gonzalez A, Ackermann G, Aksenov AA, Behsaz B, Brennan C, Chen Y, DeRight Goldasich L, Dorrestein PC, Dunn RR, Fahimipour AK, Gaffney J, Gilbert JA, Gogul G, Green JL, Hugenholtz P, Humphrey G, Huttenhower C, Jackson MA, Janssen S, Jeste DV, Jiang L, Kelley ST, Knights D, Kosciolek T, Ladau J, Leach J, Marotz C, Meleshko D, Melnik AV, Metcalf JL, Mohimani H, Montassier E, Navas-Molina J, Nguyen TT, Peddada S, Pevzner P, Pollard KS, Rahnavard G, Robbins-Pianka A, Sangwan N, Shorenstein J, Smarr L, Song SJ, Spector T, Swafford AD, Thackray VG, Thompson LR, Tripathi A, Vázquez-Baeza Y, Vrbanac A, Wischmeyer P, Wolfe E, Zhu Q; American Gut Consortium, Knight R. American Gut: an Open Platform for Citizen Science Microbiome Research. mSystems. 2018 May 15;3(3):e00031-18. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00031-18. PMID: 29795809; PMCID: PMC5954204.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954204/ 

    Three videos that discuss the Microbiome

    NIH Human Microbiome Project

    Hologenome- link to paper

    The Hologenome is a concept that is closely associated with the Microbiome. Developed by Professor Eugene Rosenberg, it posits that organisms should be seen as a holoboint, the host organism at its associatesd microorganisms.

    The Hologenome Concept of Evolution: Medical Implications 

    Rosenberg E, Zilber-Rosenberg I. The Hologenome Concept of Evolution: Medical Implications. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2019 Jan 28;10(1):e0005. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10359. PMID: 30720424; PMCID: PMC6363370.

    Parallel Concept in Judaism - Olam Katan

    The Concept that Man is a Olam Katan, or a miniature world onto his or her own has a parallel to the microbiome in that just as a human being is composed of various interactions between the host organisms and the microorganisms that inhabit it, so too Man is a Olam Katan a world onto his or her own, with interactions between the host and the many other aspects that inhabit it. Here is a list of Jewish sources that discuss this concept.

    (Rambam)  Maimonides Moreh Nevuchim. Book 1 Chapter 72.

    Below is a link to a hebrew and English translation of the guide to the perplexed.

    https://www.sefaria.org/Guide_for_the_Perplexed%2C_Part_1.72?lang=bi

    It is also mentioned by R. Bechaya Ibn Pekuda in Chovot Halevavot. Shaar Habechina

    https://www.sefaria.org/Duties_of_the_Heart%2C_Second_Treatise_on_Examination.4?lang=bi

    This is an additional source from Avot D'Rabbi Natan

    https://www.sefaria.org/Avot_D'Rabbi_Natan.31.3?lang=bi&with=Kisse%20Rahamim&lang2=en

    Here is a third source that has additional resources

    https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/microcosm

    Micriobiome and Women's Health

    Link to abstract of paper on Womens Health and the Microbiome 

    Maturation of the Infant Microbiome Community Structure and Function Across Multiple Body Sites and in Relation to Mode of Delivery - The suggestion is that there is an association with a higher prevelance of allergic conditions such as asthma found among individuals born by Cesarian Section as opposed to natural delivery. Perhaps the reason for this is when a baby is born natrually as he or she travels through the birth canal the baby is inuculated with the Micriobiome from the mother and then those microorganisms begin to grow in the baby. However for babies born through cesarain they do not get this benefit and their microbiome does not grow as quickly and perhaps they are more suceptible to these allergic conditions.

    Micriobiome and Asthma

    Video about the book Missing Microbes by Dr. Martin Blaser

    Lecture by Dr. Matrin Blaser describing his book Missing Microbes.

    Dr. Blaser makes the argument that losing bacteria can have a negative effect and we should be trying to repopulate the microbiome.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwK_O0ahDKo