Covers the study of the economic system as a whole, including the level of employment and diversity in income, fiscal and monetary policies, and the role of government in the economy. Also covers the economics of resource issues related to market failure and sustainability.
Covers the study of economic elements of supply and demand analysis. Also covers an examination of market structures, market allocation and externalities, labor markets and income distribution, and decision making by the individual firm.
Improving the reliability and efficiency of scientific research will increase the credibility of the published scientific literature and accelerate discovery. Here we argue for the adoption of measures to optimize key elements of the scientific process: methods, reporting and dissemination, reproducibility, evaluation and incentives. There is some evidence from both simulations and empirical studies supporting the likely effectiveness of these measures, but their broad adoption by researchers, institutions, funders and journals will require iterative evaluation and improvement. We discuss the goals of these measures, and how they can be implemented, in the hope that this will facilitate action toward improving the transparency, reproducibility and efficiency of scientific research.