Several assignments are used for this course, including writing lesson plans, writing a unit plan, creating supplemental items for the unit plan, and designing a classroom management plan. In my course, I assign two units with three lesson plans included in each unit. This is designed for Early Childhood, but it can be edited for secondary.
Some students misbehave because they are trying to attract teacher attention. Surprisingly, many students who value adult attention don't really care if it is positive (praise) or negative attention (reprimands)--they just want attention!
Unfortunately, instructors with students who thrive on teacher attention can easily fall into a 'reprimand trap.' The scenario might unfold much like this: First, the student misbehaves. Then the teacher approaches the student and reprimands him or her for misbehaving. Because the student finds the negative teacher attention to be reinforcing, he or she continues to misbehave-and the teacher naturally responds by reprimanding the student more often! An escalating, predictable cycle is established, with the student repeatedly acting-out and teacher reprimanding him or her.
Teachers can break out of this cycle, though, by using 'random positive attention' with students. Essentially, the instructor starts to ignore student attention-seeking behaviors, while at the same time 'randomly' giving the student positive attention. That is, the student receives regular positive teacher attention but at times unconnected to misbehavior. So the student still gets the adult attention that he or she craves. More importantly, the link between student misbehavior and resulting negative teacher attention is broken.
Motivating a reluctant student to complete schoolwork is not easy. In a typical classroom, students can choose from a number of sources of potential reinforcement (Billington & DiTommaso, 2003)--and academic tasks often take a back seat to competing behaviors such as talking with peers. One way that teachers can increase the attractiveness of schoolwork is by structuring lessons or assignments around topics or activities of high interest to the student (Miller et al., 2003).In fact, with planning, the teacher can set up a 'trap' that uses motivating elements to capture a student's attention to complete academic tasks (Alber & Heward, 1996). Here is a 6-step blue-print for building an academic 'motivation trap' (adapted from Alber & Heward, 1996).
Students can sometimes have emotional outbursts in school settings. This fact will not surprise many teachers, who have had repeated experience in responding to serious classroom episodes of student agitation. Such outbursts can be attributed in part to the relatively high incidence of mental health issues among children and youth. It is estimated, for example, that at least one in five students in American schools will experience a mental health disorder by adolescence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). But even students not identified as having behavioral or emotional disorders may occasionally have episodes of agitation triggered by situational factors such as peer bullying, frustration over poor academic performance, stressful family relationships, or perceived mistreatment by educators.
This Module—a revision of Who's In Charge? Developing a Comprehensive Behavior Management System—highlights the importance of establishing a comprehensive classroom behavior management system composed of a statement of purpose, rules, procedures, consequences, and an action plan. It also provides information about how culture, classroom factors, and teacher actions can influence student behavior (est. completion time: 1 hour).
This Module—a revision of You're in Charge! Developing Your Own Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan—reviews the major components of classroom management (including rules, procedures, and consequences) and guides users through the steps of creating their own comprehensive behavior plan. The module is a companion to Classroom Management (Part 1): Learning the Components of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan (est. completion time: 2 hours).
Effective classroom management creates a welcoming learning environment that supports all learners, even when they experience challenges.
he teacher's most important objective when faced with a defiant or non-compliant student is to remain outwardly calm. Educators who react to defiant behavior by becoming visibly angry, raising their voices, or attempting to intimidate the student may actually succeed only in making the student's oppositional behavior worse! While the strategies listed here may calm an oppositional student, their main purpose is to help the teacher to keep his or her cool. Remember: any conflict requires at least two people. A power struggle can be avoided if the instructor does not choose to take part in that struggle.
Galeet Cohen, 10th Grade Language Arts teacher at Central High in Pennsylvania, believes that adding humor to her interaction is essential. Galeet reminds us that teachers and students spend long days in classrooms, and humor can make it a good time.Ms. Cohen also uses humor to let students know she is aware of what they are doing and prefers her humor approach to strict rules or detention. She shares that sometimes students are "just testing you" and you can easily diffuse a situation calmly and with humor.
This Module, a DEC-recommended resource, includes information on how to create developmentally appropriate behavior rules for early childhood classrooms so that they link to a given school's behavior expectations. The importance of communication with families about rules and expected behaviors is also stressed (est. completion time: 1.5 hours).
This module is designed for pre-service teachers in the undergraduate PreK- 4 Early Childhood Education major. The material in the unit will familiarize the future teacher to develop lesson plans and units in both the direct and indirect teaching models. Wonder Spaces, using the Reggio-inspired philosophy, is introduced to design spaces for learners ages 0 - 5. Classroom management is also included.
As classroom managers, teachers regularly use commands to direct students to start and stop activities. Instructors find commands to be a crucial tool for classroom management, serving as instructional signals that help students to conform to the teacher's expectations for appropriate behaviors.
Module OverviewAs we begin to delve into all things teaching, it's good to start with a look at what makes a teacher an effective one. Though the Art of Teaching comes more naturally to some more than others, all teachers who are effective exhibit key teaching behaviors and understand their students.
One of the greatest frustrations mentioned by many teachers is that their students are often not motivated to learn. Teachers quickly come to recognize the warning signs of poor motivation in their classroom: students put little effort into homework and classwork assignments, slump in their seats and fail to participate in class discussion, or even become confrontational toward the teacher when asked about an overdue assignment. One common method for building motivation is to tie student academic performance and classroom participation to specific rewards or privileges. Critics of reward systems note, however, that they can be expensive and cumbersome to administer and may lead the student to engage in academics only when there is an outside 'payoff.' While there is no magic formula for motivating students, the creative teacher can sometimes encourage student investment in learning in ways that do not require use of formal reward systems.
In a multi-grade class of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders, students learn to work and communicate in teams. Through projects and a class structure that supports differentiation, Ms. Ehrke is able to keep students challenged and engaged. Her strategies for differentiation and communication can be used in any classroom.
Focused classrooms maximise students’ on-task learning time by minimising disruptive behaviour and disengagement. Research shows that students cannot learn as well in classrooms that lack consistency, have too many potential distractions or do not offer ample opportunities to engage. Teachers can create focused classrooms by implementing clear structures and routines, modelling appropriate behaviours, and actively engaging students in their learning.
Implementation checklists are a list of practical steps you can take to support the implementation of an evidence-based practice in your setting.
This checklist focuses on implementing a focused classroom.
* established and explicitly taught positive rules for learning?
* developed routines that signal to students when learning is ready to begin and how learning will happen?
* organised my classroom to promote on task behaviour so that learning routines can be embedded consistently?
*explicitly taught the verbal and non-verbal cues about the rules and routines for learning to my students so that they can regulate themselves?
*set learning goals for my students that are both ambitious but achievable? (Consult your formative assessment data and mastery learning objectives to help with this)
*explored various options for participation that enable all students to participate in class activities? (for example, different types of grouping).
Instructional expert Jim Knight visits John Cusick to observe a small groups project and discuss the classroom management techniques he is using. John and Jim discuss structured lessons, giving students respect, and finding the key to unlocking their love of learning.
These activities will help you get the year off to a good start by engaging you and your students in getting to know each other, practicing listening skills, and discussing the values that will shape your classroom community. There are separate sets of activities for grades Pre-K to 2, grades 3 to 5, and grades 6 to 12. They are adapted from exercises in our Resolving Conflict Creatively Program and our 4Rs Program (Reading, Writing, Respect & Resolution).
3rd Grade Reading teacher Katie Bannon from PS 110 in New York explains how she validates student responses with meaningful feedback when their responses are not quite on track. Rather than saying "no, thats not right", she comments on the response and then poses additional questions to guide their thinking. Katie also shares that she focuses on improving her questioning which she says takes practice, and she tries to avoid questions that elicit a yes or no response.