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Judging and Evaluating Dairy Cattle
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These materials have been put together to help students and youth to learn the basics of judging and evaluating dairy cattle using various methods. This resource was designed to be used with other resources to help teach basic dairy cattle judging and evaluation. There are numerous 4-H, Cooperative Extension and Breed Association booklets freely available, referred to in the document. However, this resource differs as it is intentionally full of visual examples and videos. The objective is to provide educators with additional resources to help beginning cattle judges understand visual evaluation and comparative judging techniques, as well as breed standards, linear scoring, oral reasons and the basics of fitting and showmanship.

Applied Science
Career and Technical Education
Material Type:
Lecture Notes
Student Guide
Unit of Study
Date Added:
You shall not pass [gas]: How blocking methane production affects the cow rumen microbiome
Unrestricted Use
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Dairy cows emit large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane due to microbial fermentation in their stomachs, which poses an environmental problem. It also decreases the cows’ growth efficiency, as some energy from feed is lost as methane. The supplement 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP) can help reduce methane emission by inhibiting a methane-forming enzyme, but 3-NOP’s effects on the microbiome in the rumen (the stomach compartment where fermentation occurs) haven’t been investigated. It’s also unclear why hydrogen gas (H₂) accumulates less than expected when methane production is blocked by 3-NOP. To learn more, researchers recently characterized the rumen microbes in 3-NOP-supplemented dairy cows. 3-NOP reduced the abundance of Methanobrevibacter species, which make methane from carbon dioxide. To a lesser extent, it also reduced the abundance of Methanosphaera species, which make methane from methanol..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Life Science
Material Type:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added: