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AKT2 deficiency impairs formation of the BCR
signalosome
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Some proteins are central to many cell signaling processes. One of these key molecules is AKT2. An important kinase involved in cell survival, growth, and metabolism, it has ties to insulin-induced signaling and cancer. AKT2 has a critical role in immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages; however, although AKT2 is expressed in antibody-producing immune cells called B cells, its function in B cells isn’t clear. In a recent study, researchers sought to understand the role of AKT2 in B cells using AKT2-deficient mice. They found that mice lacking AKT2 had impaired B-cell differentiation. B cells from these mice were not able to form a cluster of molecules called a signalosome in response to B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, resulting in poor BCR signaling and impaired B cell activation and spreading. These results suggest that as a central orchestrator of signaling, AKT2 function is critical for proper BCR signaling and B cell development, ensuring a functional antibody-mediated immune response..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
06/23/2020
Anatomy and Physiology
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CC BY
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Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
07/23/2019
Bacteria and Chronic Infections -  Chronic Infections - Host Response Part 1 (07:30)
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CC BY-NC-ND
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this presentation focuses on host response to biofilm infection. In continuation of this, we will go through the different types of host response to infections, which consists of at least three components: the non-inflammatory defense, the immune response and the inflammatory response.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
University of Copenhagen
Author:
M.sc. Peter Østrup Jensen
Date Added:
11/02/2018
Biology
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CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
08/22/2012
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Immune System, Adaptive Immune Response
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CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain adaptive immunityCompare and contrast adaptive and innate immunityDescribe cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune responseDescribe immune tolerance

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
07/10/2017
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Immune System, Innate Immune Response
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe physical and chemical immune barriersExplain immediate and induced innate immune responsesDiscuss natural killer cellsDescribe major histocompatibility class I moleculesSummarize how the proteins in a complement system function to destroy extracellular pathogens

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
07/10/2017
Contracting malaria after SIV slowed the disease progression in a rhesus macaque model of HIV
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium infect millions of people around the globe. These two diseases have broad overlap in their endemic regions, and in some areas over a quarter of HIV patients also have malaria. But despite how common coinfection is, researchers know little about how coinfection and order of infection impact patients. So, a team of scientists turned to a Chinese rhesus macaque research model. In this model, instead of HIV, the macaques had the related virus simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The scientists found that animals infected with the malaria parasite before SIV produced more of the immune cells that SIV uses to replicate, increasing the viral load and accelerating disease progression. But when the infection order was reversed, a subsequent malaria infection activated virus-specific T cells against SIV. ultimately improving survival in those animals..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/14/2023
Effects of caloric restriction on the gut microbiome are linked with immune senescence
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Diet has a strong influence on our gut microbiota, even stronger than that of host genetic background. Caloric restriction is a specific diet change that can delay the development of metabolic disorders and has been shown previously to delay immune senescence, which is the shift towards more immune memory cells with age. However, the interactions among caloric restriction, the microbiota, and the immune system are not well understood. To close this gap, researchers examined the impact of fecal microbiota transfer from a woman in a research diet trial to germ-free mice. The fecal samples were collected before (AdLib) and eight weeks into a very low-calorie formulated diet (CalRes). CalRes-microbiota recipients had a restructured gut microbial community compared to AdLib-microbiota recipients. These mice also had reduced body fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance compared to the AdLib-microbiota recipients..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/18/2022
Endosymbionts and the host immune system: how do cereal weevils protect their resident bacteria?
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The symbiotic microbial community that many animals have floating freely in their gut is critical to their health and well-being. But some insects, like cereal weevils, take this a step further and host bacteria inside their own cells. These endosymbiotic bacteria reside in massive, specialized cells organized in an organ called the bacteriome. Previous studies have suggested that the cereal weevil bacteriome participates in immune responses. But how, or if, the bacteriome protects its resident bacteria from that immune activity remains unclear. To answer this, researchers activated the cereal weevil innate immune system with pathogen protein fragments and examined the gene expression changes in the bacteriome and its residents. Rather than differentiate between pathogens and symbionts, the cereal weevils protected their endosymbionts with physical separation..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/14/2023
Enhanced IgA coating of bacteria in women with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated vaginal microbiota
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a key role in maintaining a healthy intestinal microbiome. However, its interaction with the vaginal microbiome and other local immunoglobulins is not well understood. New research examining the vaginal microbiome of 25 women found that most of their vaginal bacteria were coated in IgA, IgG, or both. In microbiota dominated by _L. crispatus_ (LC) more bacteria were coated with IgA, but the amount of IgA per bacterium was lower than in other microbiota compositions. LC-dominated microbiota were also associated with a predominantly IgA coated population during the two non-menses time phases, but unbound immunoglobulin and bound IgG levels were not associated with microbiota composition in any comparison. While studies with larger sample sizes are needed, these results suggest that LC-dominated microbiota were associated with increased bacterial IgA coating..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/17/2022
Examining cell-to-cell contacts to predict the efficacy of CAR immunotherapy
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) immunotherapy is a promising new technique for precisely targeting tumor cells. The technique works by using the patient's own cells to express a molecule that combines tumor antigen specificity with immune cell activation. Doctors have already had some success treating many types of refractory blood cancers. Unfortunately, conventional tools are limited when it comes to evaluating the efficacy and safety of CAR treatment, and the potential for high toxicity makes it critical to identify patients who will benefit from the treatment. To address this, researchers have developed a new method of predicting the efficacy and toxicity of CAR immunotherapy. The Synapse Predicts Efficacy (SPE) system begins by measuring the contact site between immune cells and tumor cells – the immunological synapse. The system relies on microscopic measurements of immunological synapse quality – particularly effective polarization of the immune cell to the antigen..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/11/2020
Extracellular vesicles: Mediators of intercellular communication in injury and disease
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key participants in cell-to-cell communication that exert various effects via the diverse molecular cargoes they carry from their parent cells. However, they also play pathological roles by carrying damage and disease signals from abnormal cells. In cancer, for example, tumor cells secrete EVs that help them evade immune surveillance and target macrophages to create a pro-tumor environment. In turn, tumor-associated macrophages release EVs that target tumor cells to enhance migration and proliferation. Notably, chemo- or radiotherapy can actually increase EV secretion, contributing to immunosuppression and cancer metastasis. In the liver, EV-mediated communication between hepatocytes and macrophages or hepatic stellate cells can exacerbate injury or disease and EV signaling can eventually contribute to insulin resistance..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
03/01/2022
Glutamine metabolism: A friend and a foe during tumor development
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Tumor cells reprogram cellular energy metabolism to power their rapid proliferation. One important energy source for tumors is the amino acid glutamine, making glutamine metabolism a promising target for tumor treatment. However, glutamine is also important for proper immune cell function. Tumor cells can potentially outcompete immune cells for glutamine, tipping the scales of immunity in their favor. Certain intrinsic signaling programs may also help partition glutamine within tumor cells while causing immune cells to rely more heavily on glucose. Among immune cells, the tumor-induced glutamine shortage reduces the activity of cancer-fighting T effector cells. It may also disrupt the balance of other immune cell types such as macrophages, but it’s unclear whether the net effects are pro- or anti-tumor..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/14/2023
Immune—microbiota communication breaks down in inflammatory bowel disease
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, affect more than 0.3% of the Western population. The sheer complexity of these diseases presents a major challenge to treatment, as it has created a disconnect between microbiologists studying the effects of the microbiome, immunologists studying immune responses, and clinicians who treat individuals with IBD. To mount a more holistic approach, researchers recently examined the crosstalk between immune cells and bacteria in the colon. Experiments revealed the significance of bacterial products called outer membrane vesicles, or OMVs. OMVs are tiny sacs of cellular material released by bacteria as a way of communicating with immune cells. In patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, OMVs elicited only a small fraction of their normal immune response, suggesting a breakdown in immune–microbiota communication..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/30/2020