Algebraic Reasoning Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able …

Algebraic Reasoning

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. Evaluate expressions for a value of a variable. Use the distributive property to generate equivalent expressions including combining like terms. Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Write and solve equations of the form x+p=q and px=q for cases in which p, q, and x are non-negative rational numbers. Understand and graph solutions to inequalities x<c or x>c. Use equations, tables, and graphs to represent the relationship between two variables. Relate fractions, decimals, and percents. Solve percent problems included those involving percent of increase or percent of decrease.

Lesson Flow

This unit covers all of the Common Core State Standards for Expressions and Equations in Grade 7. Students extend what they learned in Grade 6 about evaluating expressions and using properties to write equivalent expressions. They write, evaluate, and simplify expressions that now contain both positive and negative rational numbers. They write algebraic expressions for problem situations and discuss how different equivalent expressions can be used to represent different ways of solving the same problem. They make connections between various forms of rational numbers. Students apply what they learned in Grade 6 about solving equations such as x+2=6 or 3x=12 to solving equations such as 3x+6=12 and 3(x−2)=12. Students solve these equations using formal algebraic methods. The numbers in these equations can now be rational numbers. They use estimation and mental math to estimate solutions. They learn how solving linear inequalities differs from solving linear equations and then they solve and graph linear inequalities such as −3x+4<12. Students use inequalities to solve real-world problems, solving the problem first by arithmetic and then by writing and solving an inequality. They see that the solution of the algebraic inequality may differ from the solution to the problem.

Students use algebraic expressions and equations to represent rules of thumb involving …

Students use algebraic expressions and equations to represent rules of thumb involving measurement. They use properties of operations and the relationships between fractions, decimals, and percents to write equivalent expressions.Key ConceptsExpressions and equations are different. An expression is a number, a variable, or a combination of numbers and variables. Some examples of expressions are:74x5a + b3(2m + 1)In Grade 7, the focus is on linear expressions. A linear expression is a sum of terms that are either rational numbers or a rational number times a variable (with an exponent of either 0 or 1). If an expression contains a variable, it is called an algebraic expression. To evaluate an expression, each variable is replaced with a given value.Equivalent expressions are expressions for which a given value can be substituted for each variable and the value of the expressions are the same.An equation is a statement that two expressions are equal. An equation can be true or false. To solve an equation, students find the value of the variable that makes the equation true.Students solve an equation that involves finding 10% of a number. They see that finding 10% of the number is the same as finding 0.1 of the number, or finding 110 of the number.Goals and Learning ObjectivesWrite expressions and equations to represent real-world situations.Evaluate expressions for given values of a variable.Use properties of operations to write equivalent expressions.Solve one-step equations.Check the solution to an equation.

Students explore the effects of wind on a plane's time and distance …

Students explore the effects of wind on a plane's time and distance and represent these situations using algebraic expressions and equations. They use terms with positive, negative, and zero coefficients.Key ConceptsIn this lesson, students show what they remember from Grade 6 about writing expressions and solving one-step equations. They use what they learned earlier in Grade 7 about adding and subtracting integers. They extend these concepts to write and interpret an expression with a negative coefficient.Goals and Learning ObjectivesReview addition and subtraction of integers.Review the relationship between distance, time, and speed.Write an algebraic expression for distance in terms of time, t.Write a term with a negative coefficient.Review solving a one-step equation using the multiplication property of equality.

Students write and solve inequalities in order to solve two problems. One …

Students write and solve inequalities in order to solve two problems. One of the problems is a real-world problem that involves selling a house and paying the real estate agent a commission. The second problem involves the relationship of the lengths of the sides of a triangle.Key ConceptsIn this lesson, students again use algebraic inequalities to solve word problems, including real-world situations. Students represent a quantity with a variable, write an inequality to solve the problem, use the properties of inequality to solve the inequality, express the solution in words, and make sure that the solution makes sense.Students explore the relationships of the lengths of the sides of a triangle. They apply the knowledge that the sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle must be greater than the length of the third side to solve for the lengths of sides of a triangle using inequalities. They solve the inequality for the length of the third side.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUse an algebraic inequality to solve problems, including real-world problems.Use the properties of inequalities to solve an inequality.

Students write expressions for geometric situations. They examine how different equivalent expressions …

Students write expressions for geometric situations. They examine how different equivalent expressions can show different ways of thinking about the same problem.Key ConceptsStudents use their previous knowledge of how to find the perimeter and area of squares and rectangles. They write algebraic expressions for the perimeter and area of geometric figures. They examine how equivalent expressions, used to represent a problem situation, give clues to the approach the writer of the expression used to solve the problem. In the Challenge Problem, they use the distributive property to find the solution.ELL: For ELLs, access prior knowledge by writing the words area and perimeter on the board. Have students create concept maps associated with area and perimeter. Record students' responses on large poster paper that you can display in the room. The goal is to generate a list of words that students can use as a reference.Goals and Learning ObjectivesAccess prior knowledge of how to find the perimeter and area of squares and rectangles.Write algebraic expressions for finding perimeter or area of figures.Identify equivalent expressions.

Students use inequalities to solve real-world problems. They see that the solution …

Students use inequalities to solve real-world problems. They see that the solution of the algebraic inequality may differ from the solution to the problem it represents. For example, a fractional number or a negative number may not be an appropriate solution for a word problem.Students complete a Self Check. They are given an algebraic inequality that they need to solve. They then write and solve a word problem that the inequality could represent.Key ConceptsIn this lesson, students write and solve an algebraic inequality that matches a situation given in a word problem. They then interpret that algebraic solution in the context of the problem. For example, students write and solve an algebraic inequality to represent the number of T-shirts that can be bought given a certain amount of money and another purchase. The inequality produces the solution t < 2.5. Since a fractional part of a T-shirt does not make sense, students reason that 2 is the greatest number of T-shirts that can be purchased.Goals and Learning ObjectivesInterpret the solution to an algebraic inequality within the context of a word problem.

Students work with a partner to revise their work on the Self …

Students work with a partner to revise their work on the Self Check. Students work with their partner to do activities that involve using expressions and equations to solve problems.Key ConceptsStudents will use what they have learned so far in this unit about writing expressions as well as writing and using equations to solve problems.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUse expressions and equations to solve problems.

Students solve real-world problems by writing and solving equations. Students estimate the …

Students solve real-world problems by writing and solving equations. Students estimate the solution and determine if the estimate is reasonable before finding the exact solution. They write the solution as a complete sentence.Students complete a Self Check.Key ConceptsStudents solve real-world problems by first estimating the solution and assessing the reasonableness of the solution. Next, they write an equation to solve the problem and then use the properties of equality to solve the equation. Students write the solution to the problem as a complete sentence.Goals and Learning ObjectivesWrite equations to solve multi-step real-life problems involving rational numbers.Solve equations using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers.Use estimations strategies to estimate the solution and determine if the estimate is reasonable.Write the solution as a complete sentence.

Students work in pairs to critique and improve their work on the …

Students work in pairs to critique and improve their work on the Self Check. Students complete a task similar to the Self Check with a partner.Key ConceptsTo critique and improve the task from the Self Check and to complete a similar task with a partner, students use what they know about solving inequalities, graphing their solutions, and relating the inequalities to a real-world situation.Goals and Learning ObjectivesSolve algebraic inequalities.Graph the solutions of inequalities using number lines.Write word problems that match algebraic inequalities.Interpret the solution of an inequality in terms of a word problem.

Students discover how the addition and multiplication properties of inequality differ from …

Students discover how the addition and multiplication properties of inequality differ from the addition and multiplication properties of equality.Students use the addition and multiplication properties of inequality to solve inequalities. They graph their solutions on the number line.Key ConceptsIn this lesson, students extend their knowledge of inequalities from Grade 6. In Grade 6, students learned that solving an inequality meant finding which values made the inequality true. Students used substitution to determine whether a given value made an inequality true. They also used a number line to graph the solutions of inequalities. By graphing these solutions on a number line, they saw that an inequality has an infinite number of solutions.Now, in Grade 7, students work with inequalities that also contain negative numbers and learn to solve and graph solutions for inequalities such as −2x − 4 < 5. This involves first understanding how the properties of inequality differ from the properties of equality. When multiplying (or dividing) both sides of an inequality by the same negative number, the relationship between the two sides of the inequality changes, so it is necessary to reverse the direction of the inequality sign in order for the inequality to remain true. Once students understand this, they can apply the same steps they used to solve equations to solve inequalities, but remembering to reverse the direction of the inequality sign when multiplying or dividing both sides of the inequality by a negative number.Goals and Learning ObjectivesAccess prior knowledge of how to solve an inequality.Observe that when multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by the same negative number, the inequality sign must change direction.Solve and graph inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers.

Students solve a problem about a salesperson's compensation. They solve the problem …

Students solve a problem about a salesperson's compensation. They solve the problem first by arithmetic and then by writing and solving an inequality.Key ConceptsIn Lesson 11, students learned how to solve inequalities using the addition and multiplication properties of inequality. In this lesson, they solve word problems by writing and solving inequalities.To help students make connections and see how problems can be solved in different ways, students first solve the same problem using arithmetic.Goals and Learning ObjectivesWrite and solve an algebraic inequality to solve a word problem.

Students extend what they learned about solving equations in Grade 6. They …

Students extend what they learned about solving equations in Grade 6. They learn to solve equations that require them to use both the addition and the multiplication properties of equality. They use what they know about solving equations such as 2x = 6 and x + 3 = 7 to solve equations such as 2x + 3 = 8. They connect solving problems using arithmetic to solving problems using equations. They solve equations containing both positive and negative rational numbers.Key ConceptsAddition property of equality: If a = b, then a + c = b + c.Multiplication property of equality: If a = b, then ac = bc.For any equation, add or subtract the same value from both sides of the equation and the equation will still be true.For any equation, multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same value and the equation will still be true.In this lesson, students use both properties to solve equations. They then solve equations that contain both positive and negative rational numbers.Goals and Learning ObjectivesSolve equations using both the addition and multiplication properties of equality.Relate solving problems using arithmetic to solving problems using equations.Solve equations containing both positive and negative rational numbers.

Putting Math to Work Type of Unit: Problem Solving Prior Knowledge Students …

Putting Math to Work

Type of Unit: Problem Solving

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Solve problems involving all four operations with rational numbers. Write ratios and rates. Write and solve proportions. Solve problems involving scale. Write and solve equations to represent problem situations. Create and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams. Use multiple representations (i.e., tables, graphs, and equations) to represent problem situations. Calculate area and volume. Solve problems involving linear measurement.

Lesson Flow

Students apply and integrate math concepts they have previously learned to solve mathematical and real-world problems using a variety of strategies. Students have opportunities to explore four real-world situations involving problem solving in a variety of contexts, complete a project of their choice, and work through a series of Gallery problems.

First, students utilize their spatial reasoning and visualization skills to find the least number of cubes needed to construct a structure when given the front and side views. Then, students select a project to complete as they work through this unit to refine their problem-solving skills. Students explore the relationship between flapping frequency, amplitude, and cruising speed to calculate the Strouhal number of a variety of flying and swimming animals. After that, students explore the volume of the Great Lakes, applying strategies for solving volume problems and analyzing diagrams. Next, students graphically represent a virtual journey through the locks of the Welland Canal, estimating the amount of drop through each lock and the distance traveled. Students have a day in class to work on their projects with their group.

Then, students have two days to explore Gallery problems of their choosing. Finally, students present their projects to the class.

Students explore the relationship between the flapping frequency, the amplitude, and the …

Students explore the relationship between the flapping frequency, the amplitude, and the cruising speeds of a variety of animals to calculate their Strouhal numbers.Key ConceptsStudents are expected to use the mathematical skills they have acquired in previous lessons or in previous math courses. The lessons in this unit focus on developing and refining problem-solving skills. Students will:Try a variety of strategies to approaching different types of problems.Devise a problem-solving plan and implement their plan systematically.Become aware that problems can be solved in more than one way.See the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner.Communicate their approaches with precision and articulate why their strategies and solutions are reasonable.Make connections between previous learning and real-world problems.Create efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real-world setting.Goals and Learning ObjectivesAnalyze the relationship between the variables in an equation.Write formulas to show how variables relate.Communicate findings using multiple representations including tables, charts, graphs, and equations.

How much water is in the Great Lakes? Students read and interpret …

How much water is in the Great Lakes? Students read and interpret a diagram that shows physical features of the Great Lakes and answer questions based on the diagram. They find the volume of each of the Great Lakes, as well as all five lakes combined, and make a bar graph to represent the volumes.Key ConceptsStudents are expected to use the mathematical skills they have acquired in previous lessons or in previous math courses. The lessons in this unit focus on developing and refining problem-solving skills.Students will:Try a variety of strategies to approaching different types of problems.Devise a problem-solving plan and implement their plan systematically.Become aware that problems can be solved in more than one way.See the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner.Communicate their approaches with precision and articulate why their strategies and solutions are reasonable.Make connections between previous learning and real-world problems.Create efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real-world setting.Goals and Learning ObjectivesRead and interpret graphs and diagrams.Solve problems involving volume.

Students first create a diagram that represents the distance a ship drops …

Students first create a diagram that represents the distance a ship drops in each of a series of locks. Students create their diagrams based on a video of an actual ship traveling through the locks. Students need to use contextual clues in order to determine the relative drops in each of the locks.Key ConceptsStudents are expected to use the mathematical skills they have acquired in previous lessons or in previous math courses. The lessons in this unit focus on developing and refining problem-solving skills.Students will:Try a variety of strategies to approaching different types of problems.Devise a problem-solving plan and implement their plan systematically.Become aware that problems can be solved in more than one way.See the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner.Communicate their approaches with precision and articulate why their strategies and solutions are reasonable.Make connections between previous learning and real-world problems.Create efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real-world setting.Goals and Learning ObjectivesRead and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams.Solve problems that involve linear measurement.Estimate length.Critique a diagram.

Students critique the diagrams of other students from the previous lesson and …

Students critique the diagrams of other students from the previous lesson and receive feedback about their own diagrams. Students revise their diagrams from the first part of the lesson based on the feedback they receive.Key ConceptsStudents are expected to use the mathematical skills they have acquired in previous lessons or in previous math courses. The lessons in this unit focus on developing and refining problem-solving skills. Students will:Try a variety of strategies to approaching different types of problems.Devise a problem-solving plan and implement their plan systematically.Become aware that problems can be solved in more than one way.See the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner.Communicate their approaches with precision and articulate why their strategies and solutions are reasonable.Make connections between previous learning and real-world problems.Create efficacy and confidence in solving challenging problems in a real-world setting.Goals and Learning ObjectivesRead and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams.Solve problems that involve linear measurement.Estimate length.Critique a diagram.SWD: Some students with disabilities will benefit from a preview of the goals in each lesson. Students can highlight the critical features and/or concepts and will help them to pay close attention to salient information. Students need to know their goal is to develop and refine their problem solving skills.

Using the LEGO MINDSTORMS(TM) NXT kit, students construct experiments to measure the …

Using the LEGO MINDSTORMS(TM) NXT kit, students construct experiments to measure the time it takes a free falling body to travel a specified distance. Students use the touch sensor, rotational sensor, and the NXT brick to measure the time of flight for the falling object at different release heights. After the object is released from its holder and travels a specified distance, a touch sensor is triggered and time of object's descent from release to impact at touch sensor is recorded and displayed on the screen of the NXT. Students calculate the average velocity of the falling object from each point of release, and construct a graph of average velocity versus time. They also create a best fit line for the graph using spreadsheet software. Students use the slope of the best fit line to determine their experimental g value and compare this to the standard value of g.

The intent of clarifying statements is to provide additional guidance for educators …

The intent of clarifying statements is to provide additional guidance for educators to communicate the intent of the standard to support the future development of curricular resources and assessments aligned to the 2021 math standards. Clarifying statements can be in the form of succinct sentences or paragraphs that attend to one of four types of clarifications: (1) Student Experiences; (2) Examples; (3) Boundaries; and (4) Connection to Math Practices.

In this activity, students will learn about Newton's 2nd Law of Motion. …

In this activity, students will learn about Newton's 2nd Law of Motion. They will learn that the force required to move a book is proportional to the weight of the book. Engineers use this relationship to determine how much force they need to move an airplane.

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