Author:
Georgia Boatman, Barbara Soots, Ellen Ebert, Kimberley Astle, Washington OSPI OER Project
Subject:
Education, Elementary Education, English Language Arts, Reading Informational Text, Life Science, Measurement and Data
Material Type:
Activity/Lab, Reading, Unit of Study
Level:
Upper Primary
Grade:
3
Tags:
  • Bees
  • ClimeTime
  • Life Cycle of Plants
  • Plant
  • Plant Growth
  • Plant Growth Experiment
  • Plant Survival
  • Plants
  • Pollinate
  • Pollination
  • Wa-integrated
  • Wa-science
  • Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction
  • climetime
  • wa-integrated
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Grade 3 - Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects: How Do Plants Grow and Survive

    Grade 3 - Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects: How Do Plants Grow and Survive

    Overview

    Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects is a statewide Clime Time collaboration among ESD 123, ESD 105, and the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Development of the resources is in response to a need for research- based science lessons for elementary teachers that are integrated with English language arts, mathematics and other subjects such as social studies. The template for Elementary integration can serve as an organized, coherent and research-based roadmap for teachers in the development of their own NGSS aligned science lessons.  Lessons can also be useful for classrooms that have no adopted curriculum as well as to serve as enhancements for  current science curriculum. The EFSIS project brings together grade level teams of teachers to develop lessons or suites of lessons that are 1) focused on grade level Performance Expectations, and 2) leverage ELA and Mathematics Washington State Learning Standards.

    Introduction: Integrated Content Standards

    Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects are designed to be an example of how to develop a coherent lesson or suite of lessons that integrate other subjects such as English Language Arts, Mathematics and other subjects into science learning for students. The examples provide teachers with ways to think about all standards, identify anchoring phenomena, and plan for coherence in science and integrated subjects learning

    Washington Learning Standards

    Washington State Science and Learning Standards

    For LS1, LS3, LS4 students are expected to develop an understanding of:

    • the similarities and differences of organisms’ life cycles,
    • understanding that organisms have different inherited traits,
    • that the environment can also affect the traits that an organism develops
    • constructing an explanation using evidence for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.
    • the idea that when the environment changes some organisms survive and reproduce, some move to new locations, some move into the transformed environment, and some die.

    Crosscutting Concepts:

    • Systems and Systems Models (to describe plant life cycle and bee/insect life cycle)
    • Patterns (patterns of growth, types of insects attracted to specific plants)
    • Cause and Effect (amount of water to plant growth, types of plants to bees attracted)

    Science and Engineering Practices:

    • Develop and Use Models (to describe plant life cycle and bee/insect life cycle)
    • Analyze and Interpret Data (measure and record plant growth observing water, temperature, spacing, soils quality; observe and record numbers of types of insects/organisms)
    • Constructing Explanations (Use data on plant growth over time to explain the impact of a chosen condition on height of plants or number of leaves or flowers, number of fruits)
    • Argue from Evidence (effect controlling temperature or water, etc. on speed or height, leaf numbers, blossoms, fruit of plant growth; effect of planting different plant types on attracting bees, butterflies, pollinators)

    Performance Expectations

    3-LS1-1. Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles, but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
    Clarification Statement: Changes organisms go through during their life form a pattern.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of plant life cycles is limited to those of flowering plants. Assessment does not include details of human reproduction.

    3-LS3-2. Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
    Clarification Statement: Examples of the environment affecting a trait could include normally tall plants grown with insufficient water are stunted; and, a pet dog that is given too much food and little exercise may become overweight.

    3-LS4-3 Construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
    Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence could include needs and characteristics of the organisms and habitats involved. The organisms and their habitat make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.

    3-LS4-4. Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.*
    Clarification Statement: Examples of environmental changes could include changes in land characteristics, water distribution, temperature, food, and other organisms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single environmental change. Assessment does not include the greenhouse effect or climate change. Partial performance expectation.

    English Language Arts K-12 Learning Standards

    • Reading Informational Text.3.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (3-LS1-
    • Reading Informational Text.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (3-LS4-1), (3-LS4-2), (3-LS4-3), (3-LS4-4)
    • Reading Informational Text.3.3 Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-LS4-1), (3-LS4-2), (3-LS4-3), (3-LS4-4)
    • Reading Literature.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

    • Reading Literature. 3.3 Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events
    • Writing.3.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. (3-LS4-1), (3-LS4-3), (3-LS4-4)
    • Writing.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (3-LS3-1), (3-LS3-2)
    • Writing.3.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
    • Speaking and Listening 3.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • Speaking and Listening.3.4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

    Mathematics K-12 Learning Standards

    • Math Practices.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-LS3-1), (3-LS3-2)
    • Math Practices.4 Model with mathematics. (3-LS1-1)
    • Math Practices.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-LS4-1)
    • 3.NBT Number and Operations in Base Ten (3-LS1-1)
    • 3.NF Number and Operations—Fractions (3-LS1-1)
    • 3.RID Represent and interpret data
      • Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.
      • Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

    Phenomena and Routines

    Phenomena

    flower     From Seed to Flower | PBS Learning Media

         Note: start at 4 seconds - don’t want kids to see the words, just
         watch the video to do notice and wondering.

     

    Big Ideas

    How do organisms start, grow, change as they grow and what do they need to grow, survive, and reproduce successfully?

    • organisms have life cycles and different structures in each phase of the life cycle can improve the organism’s ability to grow, survive, and reproduce.
    • plant life cycle and structures and function
    • bee life cycle and structures and function

    What can be done to improve a habitat for organism growth and health?

    • studying the effects on plants, of different water, temperature, light conditions pollinator availability to discover what has positive impacts.
    • propose solutions to increase plant growth
    • study the effects on pollinating insects/bees of various conditions, types of plants, temperature, light
    • propose solutions to increase plant growth

    Why do organisms of the same species have different traits?

    • different individuals of the same type of plant may have different traits that may be impacted by conditions

    OpenSciEd Routines

     

    Routine

    Description of Routine

    Anchoring Phenomenon Routine

    Develop curiosity to drive learning throughout the suite of lessons or unit based on a common experience of a phenomenon

    Navigation Routine

    Establish and reinforce the connections between what we have previously done in a unit, what we are about to do, what we will do in the future, and what our driving purpose is in the contexts of the suite of lessons or unit.

    Investigation Routine

    Use scientific practices to investigate and make sense of a phenomenon.

    Putting Pieces Together Routine

    Take the pieces of ideas we have developed across multiple lessons and figure out how they can be connected to account for the phenomenon we have been working on.

    Problematizing Routine

    Evaluate the adequacy of our scientific ideas to explain and phenomenon in order to identify what we still need to understand.

    Routines by OpenSciEd | CC BY

    Lesson 1: What's Going on with My Plant?

    Anchoring Phenomena Routine

    Note: In this lesson students will be introduced to a puzzling phenomenon about a plant, will pose questions for investigation and will develop an initial model.

    Materials

    • Science Notebook (manila, 20 page, KCDA, Composition style, spiral type notebook, etc.)
    • Plant Growth Puzzling Phenomena sheet
    • Chart paper or whiteboard for recording student questions and ideas
    • Resource 1: Puzzling Phenomena for Plant Growth - What Happened to My Squash?
    • Resource 2: Integration Point – Speaking and Listening

    Preparation

    • Make a copy of Resource 1 “What Happened to My Squash?”
    • Create a T chart on chart on butcher paper or whiteboard with the columns:

    • Record the final 4-6 common class questions for reference throughout the lessons

    Vocabulary

    • seed, squash, soil

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Before you begin to elicit what students think they know about plants and how they grow, present students with the short Puzzling Phenomena scenario “What Happened to My Squash?” - Resource 1
    • Give students time to read the problem, brainstorm ideas, questions and ways they might investigate this puzzle. You may choose to use Resource 2: Integration Point: Speaking and Listening as a handout to guide student discussion or simply guide the discussion by posing each question. 3.1 effective conversations and collaborations with partners

    Procedure 2

    • In whole class discussion or with another person, ask students what questions they have about the squash plant or plants in general. Pose the question, “What questions do we need to know to figure out what happened to the squash and why no squash formed?”
    • Guide students toward the investigative questions 1) what is a plant?, 2) what happens to make a seed a plant?, 3) what do plants need to grow?, 4) how do various conditions affect plant growth?, 5) what makes the fruits and vegetables (seed pods) form or not?, by asking probing questions, grouping and revoicing questions as needed to narrow the focus to questions about plants. Write their questions and ideas on a T-Chart on chart paper. Write the final questions for the class to investigate on a “Driving Questions Board” that remains posted in the classroom for continued reference throughout the lessons.

    Procedure 3

    • On a clean page in the science notebook have students write a paragraph about what they think they know about plants already. (Tip-consider using a left side page for this. A possible practice is to have students’ brainstorming, questions, first thinking on left side pages and observations, charts, graphs, explanations and arguments from evidence on right side pages) Integration Point: Writing 3.10 writing for a range of purposes
    • Students can share their ideas with their partner or team. Students should make a LINE OF LEARNING under their initial ideas and add those from their classmates that they think are useful below that LINE OF LEARNING. Integration Point: Speaking and Listening 3.1 effective conversations and collaborations with partners

    Procedure 4 (may be day two if time is not sufficient in one class period):

    • Students draw a model of what a plant is and what it needs to grow and produce fruit. Encourage them to use words, labels, indicator arrows (pointing to the part of the drawing they are talking about).

    Lesson 2: How Do /seeds Work?

    Navigation Routine

    Investigation Routine

    Notes: In this lesson students will make observations of a dry and soaked lima bean to understand the parts of a seed.

    Materials

    • Science Notebook (manila, 20 page, KCDA, Composition style, spiral type notebook, etc.) for recording ideas, questions, brainstorms, observations, data about seeds
    • 1 dry lima bean for partner pairs
    • 1 lima bean soaked overnight for each partner pair
    • Hand lens for each student
    • Centimeter ruler for each pair of students
    • Resource 3: Observation Table (alternately students can construct the table quickly on the right-side page of their science notebook)
    • Video 1: From Seed to Plant Read Aloud

    Preparation

    • Soak enough lima bean seeds in water the night before for each partner pair
    • Copy enough Seed Observation Tables for each student or draw one on chart paper, whiteboard, or project one you have drawn in your science notebook as an example for students to construct in their own notebooks

    Vocabulary

    • seed coat, embryo, cotyledon, germinate, sprout

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Have students revisit the Driving Question Board and note that we are going to engage in several investigations that may help us discover the answers to the questions and the phenomena. Ask students how a plant starts and establish the fact that plants start from seeds.

    Procedure 2

    • Tell students that in a moment they will get a chance to look at some lima bean seeds. Explain that we are looking at these seeds because they are big enough for us to see what the seed looks like inside and out and that very small seeds are similar inside and have similar parts.
    • Get science notebooks ready and open to the next clean page. Glue Observation table into science notebook or quickly create an Observation table such as that in Resource 3: Observation Table

    Procedure 3

    • Have each partner pair get one dry lima bean seed for the pair and a hand lens for each partner from the distribution area (or hand them out).
    • Ask students to examine the lima bean seed using hand lenses and record their observations in the first column on an Observation Table such as Resource 3 which can be copied for students, or which they can create and record right on a science notebook page. Integration Point: Writing 3.10 writing for a range of purposes
    • Students should also draw dry bean seed on the top half of their next science notebook page.

    *Procedure 4 (could be the next day if time is limited):

    • Read Aloud or read individually or in partners/teams From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons from the first page through the page that shows the inside of the seed and its parts (Lexile score 560L). Stop reading the book at that point to be finished later. Integration Point: Reading Informational Text.3.7 Use information gained from illustrations and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text. If you don’t have access to the book or to a class set, you can find a video of the book on You Tube, there are several. Video 1: From Seed to Plant – Read Aloud

    Procedure 5

    • Have each partner pair get one soaked lima bean seed for the pair and a hand lens for each partner from the distribution area (or hand them out).
    • Ask students to examine the soaked lima bean seed using hand lenses. They should examine both the inside and outside of the seed and record their observations in an Observation Table such as Resource 3 which can be copied for students or which they can create and record right on a science notebook page.  Integration Point: Writing 3.10 writing for a range of purposes
    • Be sure that students measure the length and width of the soaked lima bean using an inch ruler and measuring to the nearest ¼ inch. Integration Point: Math Practices.5 Use appropriate tools strategically, and 3.RID Represent and interpret data Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch.

    Procedure 6

    • As students work, help them to observe, as needed, that there is a tiny plant like structure and use the word embryo.
    • Talk with students.
    • Students should also draw soaked lima bean seed on the bottom half of their next science notebook page under their dry lima bean picture. They should label all parts. Give students the scientific names that correspond to the labeling in the Gail Gibbons book.
      • Seed Coat-seed coat
      • Food-cotyledon
      • Beginning of a plant-embryo

    Lesson 3: How Can We Investigate Plant Growth and Development Patterns?

    Investigation Routine

    Notes: In this lesson students will choose one or more of 3 investigations to do with radish plants either in the garden or in seed pots in the classroom. These could be sunlight/dark, amount of water.

    Materials

    • Garden plot to plant various types of vegetable plants, or this could also be done in clear plastic cups or liter bottles bottoms in the classroom.
    • A light source will be needed if planting in the classroom or indoors
    • radish seeds (20-30 days)
    •  snap pea seeds (21-30 days)
    • Note: It is important to plant radish & snap pea seeds as they have a short and similar life cycle and growth can be observed within a span up to 21-30 days. It may be useful to plant other types of seeds as well for comparison purposes. If you want...Squash and cucumber plants can provide a fairly good-sized blossom if you want students to observe the parts of the flower which is difficult in radishes and peas.
    • Soil
    • 6 clear plastic 3 to 8 oz. cups, Dixie cups, or one-liter bottles with tops cut off planting cups for each group of 6 students unless plants are planted in a garden plot.
    • sealable plastic bag   
    • index cards, sticky notes, tape and markers to label plants, or stakes for a garden plot
    • Science Notebook (manila, 20 page, KCDA, Composition style, spiral type notebook, etc.)
    • Resource 4: Growth Chart

    Preparation

    • Cut 6-liter bottles in half to leave the bottom as a planting cup or use clear 4 or 8 oz. plastic cups
    • Gather small rocks for the bottom of planter cup for drainage (students could do this)
    • Obtain enough potting soil for about half of the liter bottle cup with potting soil on top of the rocks (students could do this)
    • Moisten soil prior to planting (helps in the watering process).
    • Pre count 3 radish seeds and 3 snap pea seeds to each planting cup (saves time and is recommended because not every seed will germinate).
    • Plan student observation groups of 6 students each.

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Group students into groups of 6. Each student will get to plant one plant in the investigation group.
    •  Have students observe the seeds of snap pea and radish with a magnifying glass and draw sketches of each in their science notebook.
      • Document color, texture, size and general weight (this seed is heavier than that seed, etc.)
      • Which will be ready to eat first?
      • Will have more leaves?
      • Taller or shorter?
      • How many vegetables will grow?
      • Does the size of the seed predict the size of the vegetable?

    Procedure 2

    • Pass out planting cups or designate areas in the garden.
    • Have students place a several small rocks across the bottom of each planting cup for drainage (not necessary in the garden)
    • Fill about half of the planting cups with potting soil on top of the rocks.
    • There should be 4 cups or garden spots for radish seeds (2 cups for radishes with sun and water, 1 cup for radish in sun with no water, 1 cup for radish with water but no light in the “biome baggie” and 2 other cups for two snap pea plants (sun and water) or one snap pea and on other type of plant such as cucumber and sunflower or bean and cucumber.
    • In each of 4 cups plant two or three radish seeds right next to the side of the cup (so that roots can be observed through the clear plastic side of the cup) until the seed is just covered by soil. This may be easier to accomplish using a toothpick create a hole in the soil by the side of the cup and then gently pushing the seed just below the soil surface.
    • Plant two or three snap pea seeds at the same depth, and the same way in one cup and repeat with another snap pea seed or other seed type in the last cup.
    • Water seeds very gently until soil is moist but not muddy.

    Procedure 3

    • Place all 6 seed cups in a warm place. A windowsill with sunlight will work if it is not too cold. Under a lamp with a regular incandescent light bulb can also work.
    • Water each seed cup every day as needed to keep them moist, not muddy, until plants begin to sprout above the soil.

    Procedure 4

    • Once sprouts appear you will want to thin the plants by plucking all but one plant from the cup. If plants are far enough apart that you prefer not to thin, then put an X on the side of the cup directly next to the plant that you will observe and measure for data collection purposes.

    Procedure 5

    • Use a post-it, index card, tape and sharpie marker or other way to label the following:
      • No water, light only for one of the radish planting cups
      • No light, water only for one of the radish planting cups
      • Water and light for two of the radish planting cups and for two of the snap pea planting cups
    • Do your best to get each planter cup watered to moist using the same amount of water.

    Procedure 6

    • Place radish planting cup labeled light only in sunlight, be sure it is watered until moist and then do not water it again, let it dry out.  Be sure you can easily observe the plant you have chosen to observe if you did not thin. In the garden water this plant initially but be sure it does not get any further water.
    • Place another radish plant in the cup into a baggie, be sure it is watered until moist and seal the baggie. Place this “biome baggie” in a totally dark place such as a cupboard. Be sure to check it each day to see if the soil is still moist. It should self-water in this “biome in a bag”. Keep the plant in the dark except for observing it each day. Be sure it is correctly labeled no light. in the garden fix a baggie over this plant and anchor the baggie in the soil. Cover with dark paper or a black trash bag all around to prevent light from getting to the plant.
    • Place the third and fourth radish plants in sunlight and water them the same amount until soil is moist (not muddy). These two radish plants will be watered as needed until moist each day. Be sure they are correctly labeled sunlight and water-radish.
    • Place the 2 snap pea plants or other types of plants that were planted in sunlight and water as needed until soil is moist but not muddy. Be sure to check and water each day. Be sure they are correctly labeled sunlight and water-snap pea (or alternate plant name).

    Procedure 7

    • Use the Resource 4: Growth Chart to record plant growth of the radish plants under each condition, to fourths of inches, every 2 or three days for up to two weeks. Students should notice that plants start out with a similar height but over time the no water and no light plants will not keep growing or will have a different quality of growth: color, number of leaves, strength of stem, etc. Integration Point: Math Practices.5 Use appropriate tools strategically, and 3.RID Represent and interpret data with a scaled bar graph and multiple categories; Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch.
    • Continue to water and provide sunlight for any alternate plants as well. They will be used in the next lesson for comparisons.

    Alternate Lesson 3: How Can We Investigate Plant Growth and Development Patterns?

    Notes: Biomes in a Baggie. These could be temperature, sunlight/dark, amount of water, etc.

    Purpose of this investigation is to see ‘what plants need to survive’ where in lesson 3 you’re watching a life cycle of two types of plants grow from seed to seed.

    Materials

    • bottom of 2-liter bottles (4) (any size bottle will work. 1 L will just be a smaller Biome)
    • chia seeds
    • rocks/pebbles
    • potting soil
    • gallon Ziplock bags (4)
    • water
    • Resource 5: Background Reading - Biomes

    Preparation

    • Gather needed supplies.
    • Read “Background Reading” in Resource 5
    • Watch PBS Learning Media video to SEE the idea of Biome in a Baggie (though it’s modified a bit below for the experiment)

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

     

    Procedures

    Procedure 1: (suggestion to plant Biomes on Monday of a 5-day week)

    • Planting Biomes:
      1. Take some pebbles and put them in the bottom of the soda bottle ½ in deep.
      2. Now put some potting soil in, approx. 1 inch.
      3. To plant your seeds, you make a trench across the potting soil about 2 cm deep. Just need a pinch!
      4. Cover the trench with soil.
      5. Label the bags 1, 2, 3, and 4.
      6. Label the soda bottles 1, 2, 3, & 4.
      7. Water the soil in #1 and #2 until the water starts to gather in the rocks below.  #3 and #4 get no water.
      8. Put the Biomes in their matching labeled plastic bag and seal them up.

    Now you have created an environment for your plants. You will not have to water it again as it will recycle the water. The roots in the plant collect the water from the soil and pebbles. They take the water up to the stem and then it’s dispersed to all the parts of the plant. Once it’s in the leaves it will evaporate out into the bag. Some water evaporates from the soil too. Once it’s done evaporating, the water travels up the bag and forms tiny water droplets, that's called condensation. Then it falls down like rain, called precipitation. Now that’s the water cycle: Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation.

      1. Decide as a class where you are going to place your bags.
        Ex: Bags #1 and #3 on the counter in full sun. Bags #2 and #4 in a dark cupboard.
      2. Leave them in their location for 3-4 days. In that time you will see that your Biome in a Bag has everything it needs: water, nutrients from the soil, air in the bag, and makes its own food from the sun (except the two in the cupboard).

    Procedure 2: (the next 4 consecutive days)

    • Plan time on the next few days to check on your plants! (Choose a type of graph that you can collect data on such as a bar graph to track the height of each Biome’s Chia seeds. Label the bottom #1, #2, #3, #4. Label the side in cm.) Each day you graph could be a different color. Ex: day 1-red    day 2-green    day 3-blue   day 4-orange 3.RID Represent and interpret data

    Procedure 3

    • As a class, using the graph of collected data from the four Biomes, make a class claim on what plants need. (Ex claim: In order to survive plants needs air, water, and food (sunlight). Some may say soil. This concept of not needing soil is further addressed in the 5th grades EFSIS).

    Lesson 4: What Patterns Exist as Plants Grow and Develop?

    Investigation Routine

    Notes: As the class waits for radish, snap pea plants to grow this lesson focuses on patterns in the parts of plants that we eat. It helps them to understand the various parts of a plant.

    Materials

    • chart paper for KWL or GLAD chart
    • Resource 6: Sentence Starters
    • Resource 7: Fruit and Vegetable Pictures

    Preparation

    • prepare a KWL or GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design) Inquiry chart for use in front of students
    • definition of fruit and definition of vegetable written on board, sentence strips or chart
    • an “Is it a vegetable?”, “Is it a fruit?” chart that has one column for “Is it a fruit?” and another column for “Is it a vegetable?” to tape fruit or vegetable pictures to
    • copy and cut pictures of fruits and vegetables from Resource 7 or others you source that are free for reuse.
    • view this video “Is it a Fruit or a Veggie?” from 2 Minute Classroom (skip the super long advertisement), about 3 minutes before class to clarify your own thinking about fruits and vegetables. (it might be useful to show students but goes more in depth than needed for this lesson).

    Vocabulary

    • fruit-the part of a plant that develops from the ovary of a flowering plant and contains the seed(s) This includes such botanical fruits as eggplants, bell peppers and tomatoes,
    • vegetable-are all other plant parts, such as roots, leaves and stems.

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Provide students with sentence starters from Resource 6 about vegetables and have table groups share their answers verbally to the group.. Give them about 5 minutes to activate their thinking.

    Procedure 2

    • Begin a discussion amongst the class about fruits and vegetables by creating a KWL or Glad Inquiry chart.

    sample t-chart

    • Post the definitions of Fruit and Vegetable and read through it with students. Focus their attention on the fact that almost every plant has flowers but for some of them we eat/use the fruit, the part that matures from the flower of the plant, and for others we eat/use the leaves, stems or roots, those are vegetables. We do call many technically “fruits”, such as beans and peas, vegetables which is fine, but these are the scientific differences between the two.  
    • To home in on the pattern in what we eat from plants, pose the question “Is it a vegetable or is it a fruit?”. Put up the “Is it a vegetable? Is it a fruit?” chart, Resource 7, includes pictures of each. Allow students to add to the chart throughout the unit as they think about fruits and vegetables at home.
    • As well as different sizes of seeds) *Misinterpretation that a fruit has to be sweet.

    Procedure 3

    • Read “Tops and Bottoms” by Janet Stevens. Video 2 (Quiz No. #11397 Fiction BL: 3.2 - AR Pts: 0.5) This story is a kid friendly approach to help explain how every plant grows a little differently and that certain parts of the plant are edible. Ask students to answer questions such as What were the parts of plants that were edible? What motivates the rabbit to make his deals with the bear?  Which animal was the smartest about plants in the story that we eat? Integration Point Reading Literature 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding and Reading Literature 3.3 Describe characters in a story and explain their actions.

    Procedure 4

    • Have students monitor growth and sketch detailed diagrams of the radish plants at different stages. This will be a long process of about a month. Provide sketches when new changes are observed or at least once a week. Continue to document growth, at least twice a week. Use the graph Resource 4 to record plant growth of the radish plants under each condition, to fourths of inches, every 2 or three days for up to two weeks. Students should notice that plants start out with a similar height but over time the no water and no light plants will not keep growing or will have a different quality of growth: color, number of leaves, strength of stem, etc. Integration Point: Math Practices.5 Use appropriate tools strategically, and 3.RID Represent and interpret data with a scaled bar graph and multiple categories; Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch.

    Lesson 5: Parts of Plants - What is Common and What Can Vary?

    Note: This may be a two-day lesson

    Investigation Routine

    Materials

    • Two radish plants grown in water and sunlight
    • Two alternate seeds (cucumber, squash, bean, peas, etc.)
    • Resource 8: Comparing Plants (two Box T-charts)

    Preparation

    • Provide Resource 8: Comparing Plants Box T-charts or have students draw their own on a notebook page.
    • Assemble the 4 plants that have been growing with water and light

    Vocabulary

    • characteristics

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Compare the two radish plants by observing height, number and shape of leaves, any flowers or seed pods, etc.
    • On the first Resource 8 Box T chart, record what is similar between the two radish plants and what is different (students will see some differences in plant growth but should see more similarities.

    Procedure 2

    • Now choose one of the radish plants to compare with one a non-radish plant.
    • On the second Resource 8 Box T Chart, record the similarities and differences between the two different plants. Students should note similarities such as they have leaves, they have stems, they have roots, etc. but should see differences such as leaf size or shape, thickness of stem, length of roots, etc.
    • When recording differences on the Box T chart students should make comparative statements such as: the radish leaves have jagged edges- the squash leaves have smoother edges, or the radish plant stands up straight-the squash stem ….

    Procedure 3

    • Use the information from the Box T charts to write an informative text explaining the findings. Explain how the two radish plants were similar and different and explain how the radish plant is similar and different from the alternate plant. Students should draw a conclusion about what is common generally about plants and what is different.
      • Sentence starters might be:
        • Radish plants are similar but even the same kind of plant can have some differences….
        • All plants have many things that are similar...
        • Different kinds of plants have different characteristics W3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly

    Lesson 6: How Plants Grow....The Life Cycle

    Navigation Routine

    Putting it All Together Routine

    Materials

    • all plants that have been growing during the lessons
    • science notebooks
    • From Plant to Seed by Gail Gibbons
    • Chart paper and markers for class consensus model
    • Video 1: From Seed to Plant Read Aloud

    Preparation

    • Label chart paper: Life Cycle of a Plant

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Check on Snap Peas and Radishes you planted in Lesson 2.
    • Measure and graph any change. 3.RID Represent and interpret data

    Procedure 2

    • Ask students to think back to the first lessons about plants. Ask them to draw a model of each step of the plants growth using the evidence of the plants the class.  Tell them they should have 4 or 5 stages or steps in their life cycle model. To get them started remind them about how we started our plants. Prompt them with “then what did they look like?” questions to get them rolling with the life cycle model.
    • Students should recall that they started with seeds. Students are likely to draw a linear model initially which is fine. The cyclical nature of the life cycle will be highlighted in the class model.

    Procedure 3

    • Have students share their models with a partner and discuss the similarities and differences in the models. They should also look for details that they may have forgotten or that they disagree with.

    Procedure 4

    • Bring the class together in a “Scientist Circle” and have them bring their notebooks with the model. Ask students to share out what they started their models with. The answer should be seed. Ask them if that would be a good place to start the class consensus model.
    • Ask, “what happened next?” many students should volunteer something about a seedling or sprout as it just emerged from soil. Label and describe each stage synthesizing class descriptions.
    • Continue to probe for next stages. These should include a growing plant, a plant with flowers, a plant with seeds and seeds leaving the plant to start new plants. This last stage may require probing questions to elicit the idea. These questions could be “what happens to the seeds in those seed pods?” or, “If we don’t eat the seeds what will happen to them?”

    Procedure 5

    • Remind students of the pages that were read in From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons. Remember the book was read to the page where the inside of the bean seed is shown.
    • Start at that page and read the rest of the book to students or have them read it themselves if a class set is available. Another option is to play the video from that point. Video 1: From Seed to Plant Read Aloud
    • Ask students to compare the life cycle shown in the book with their class consensus model. It is likely that the class consensus model will have more detail.

    Lesson 7: Pollinators and Pollination (Day 1)

    Navigation Routine

    Investigation Routine

    Putting Pieces Together Routine

    Problematizing Routine

    Materials

    • Video 3: Bees (Silence of the Bees and/or World’s Weirdest Honeybee Dance Moves)
    • Resource 9: Bee Jobs
    • Video 4: More Bees (Amazing Time Lapse: Bees Hatch Before Your Eyes - optional but interesting)

    Preparation

    • Upload and review each video resource to determine which choice you prefer for the Bee communication video and to be sure videos will play or whether you need to sign up.
    • Copy or display Resource 9: Bee Jobs

    Vocabulary

    • colony, worker, queen, drone, egg, larva, pupa, adult

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Have students retrieve their water/no light and light no water plants. let them compare the plants. They should observe the color of plants, comparative heights with the radish plant that has had both water and light. Students should record their observations in their science notebooks.

    Procedure 2

    • Have students discuss what they have learned so far about plant needs regarding water and light. Ask them to look at their models from lesson one and cite evidence about light and water then add to their models about what the squash plant might need to grow and bear squash.
      • Have students discuss with their table group what they learned about how plants have many similarities but that they also have differences.

    Procedure 3

    • Reread the phenomena scenario and elicit the points that the squash plant had light and water and that the plant grew well but did not produce fruit.
    • Ask students what else the plants might need to produce the squash to eat. Is there something else such as an animal that plants might need to produce squash? Allow them to discuss in table groups for a few minutes.
    • Let students know that we are going to do a bit of research that may give us some answers.

    Procedure 4

    • Have them create a Noticings and Wonderings T chart in their science notebook.

    • Show one or both of the Video 3: Bees options. Students will see information about the jobs in the hive and also get to hear a bit about pollination.
    • Have students record their noticings and wonderings after watching the video. Engage students in a discussion, with either a partner or teacher regarding what they noticed and what they wonder about in the video. They may add to their T chart if the hear new ideas that they haven’t recorded yet but agree with.

    Procedure 5

    • Have students place a horizontal Line of Learning below their last entries on the Noticing and Wondering T chart. Pass out or project Resource 9: Bee Jobs. Ask students to think about the different bee jobs they may have seen in the video as they read about the various Bee Jobs.

    Procedure 6 - OPTIONAL

    • Show Video 4: More Bees (Amazing Time Lapse: Bees Hatch Before Your Eyes - optional but interesting)

    This video is optional but is very interesting and speaks to the life cycle of the bee. It is not a comprehensive study of this life cycle but gives students information about that. Discuss the stages of the life cycle that students observe. You may have to watch it more than once. Students should be able to see egg, larvae, pupae and adult stages. The narration is helpful.

    Lesson 7: Pollinators and Pollination (Day 2)

    Navigation Routine

    Investigation Routine

    Putting Pieces Together Routine

    Problematizing Routine

    Materials

    • Video 5: Even More Bees (Honeybees in Trouble or Growing Melons)

    Preparation

    • Upload and review the video resource to be sure videos will play or whether you need to sign up.
    • Copy or display the reading that is most useful given your students’ reading needs. Teachers could use both readings with students of different reading abilities and then synthesize the common points about what pollination is. You will need to sign up for free at Readworks to access copies.

    Vocabulary

    • Pollination, pollinate, pollinator

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Ask students to discuss what would happen if any of the bee colony members were not there to do their job.
      • Answers might include, the bees wouldn’t survive, honey wouldn’t get made and perhaps that flowers wouldn’t be pollinated.

    Procedure 2

    • Give copies of or display a reading from Readworks. While either of the two readings will give students information about pollination, they are two different Lexile scores and it could be useful to use both with different students depending on their reading level. Employ teacher oral reading or guided reading as needed so that all students have the information from the articles. Reading Informational text 3.2 Determine the main idea of a text.

    Procedure 3

    • Have students read through the article once for coherence and then reread paragraph by paragraph and highlight or underline any evidence in text about the importance of bees for pollinating plants. Reading Informational Text 3.2 Determine the main idea of a text.

    Procedure 4

    • Ask students to revisit their model from lesson 1. They should modify and add to the model using a third color. They should add to any explanations on the model. Present students with this text dependent question, “What does the squash plant need to produce squash?” Discuss the findings from the articles as a class and then ask students to write their answer with evidence to the text dependent question., W3.1 Writing opinion pieces on topics and text.

    Attribution and License

    Attribution

    NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press | Public License

    Common Core State Standards © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved | Public License

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