Author:
Georgia Boatman
Subject:
Environmental Science, Education, Elementary Education, Geology, Physical Geography, Cultural Geography
Material Type:
Activity/Lab, Lesson Plan, Module, Reading
Level:
Upper Primary
Grade:
4
Tags:
  • ClimeTime
  • Dry Falls
  • Environment
  • Erosion
  • Ice Age Floods
  • Indigenous Americans
  • Interactive Maps
  • Landforms
  • Landforms/Processes
  • Maps and Geography
  • Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction
  • climetime
  • wa-science
  • wa-social-studies
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Graphics/Photos, Interactive, Video

    Education Standards

    Fourth Grade Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects-What Happened at Dry Falls?

    Fourth Grade Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects-What Happened at Dry Falls?

    Overview

    The Fourth Grade Elementary Framework for Science and Integrated Subjects, What Happened at Dry Falls?, uses the phenomena of a local Washington landform to explore erosion from the Ice Age Floods.  It is part of Elementary Framework for Science and Integrated Subjects project, a statewide Clime Time collaboration among ESD 123, ESD 105, North Central ESD, and the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Development of the resources is in response to a need for research- based science lessons for elementary teachers that are integrated with English language arts, mathematics and other subjects such as social studies. The template for Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects  can serve as an organized, coherent and research-based roadmap for teachers in the development of their own NGSS aligned science lessons.  Lessons can also be useful for classrooms that have no adopted curriculum as well as to serve as enhancements for  current science curriculum. The EFSIS project brings together grade level teams of teachers to develop lessons or suites of lessons that are 1) pnenomena based, focused on grade level Performance Expectations, and 2) leverage ELA and Mathematics Washington State Learning Standards.

    Standards, Phenomena, Big Ideas and Routines

    Development Team:

    Teresa Mendoza-Casby, Cynthia Mahler, Yessenia Garcia-4th grade EFSIS Team

    and

    Georgia Boatman, ClimeTime EFSIS Facilitator

    Fourth Grade

    Slow and Fast Changes to the Earth

    Frameworks for Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects are designed to be an example of how to develop a coherent lesson or suite of lessons that integrate other content areas such as English Language Arts, Mathematics and other subjects into science learning for students. The examples provide teachers with ways to think about all standards, identify anchoring phenomena, and plan for coherence in science and integrated subjects learning

    Fourth Grade Disciplinary Core Ideas include PS3, PS4, LS1, ESS1, ESS2, ESS3, and ETS1

    For Fourth Grade, students are expected to develop an understanding of:

    • How to apply their knowledge of natural Earth processes to generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of such processes on humans.
    • Patterns of Earth’s features
    • How to analyze and interpret data from maps.

    The Crosscutting Concepts are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

    Crosscutting Concepts:

    • Patterns
    • Cause and Effect
    • Systems and system models

    Students are expected to use the practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

    Science and Engineering Practices:

    • Constructing explanations and designing solutions
    • Planning and carrying out investigations
    • Analyzing and interpreting data
    • Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

    Performance Expectation(s)

    Identify Performance Expectation(s) from Next Generation Science Standards that will be your focus (Climate Science related PEs preferred but not mandatory). Copy and paste below all the possible disciplinary core ideas and performance expectations that relate to your topic.

    4-ESS1-1. Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time[Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific knowledge of the mechanism of rock formation or memorization of specific rock formations and layers. Assessment is limited to relative time.]

     

    4-ESS2-1. Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. [Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]

     

    4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features. [Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]

    Science and Engineering Practices

    Which SEPs will be a focus for investigating this topic/phenomenon?

    Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

    (4-ESS2-1) Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon.

    Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations. When possible and feasible, digital tools should be used.

    (4-ESS2-2) Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena using logical reasoning.

    Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

    (4-ESS1-1) Identify the evidence that supports particular points in an explanation.

    Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to evaluate the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

    (4-ESS3-1) Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena.

    Crosscutting Concepts

    Which Crosscutting Concepts will be a focus for investigating this topic/phenomenon?

    (4-ESS1-1) (4-ESS2-2) Patterns - Patterns can be used as evidence to support an explanation.

    (4-ESS2-1) Cause and Effect-Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.

     

    English Language Arts (ELA) Standards

    How will I Integrate ELA Standards (which standard, what strategy…?)

    RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-ESS3-2)

    RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, timelines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS2-2)

    W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information and provide a list of sources. (4-ESS1-1) (4-ESS2-1) (4-ESS3-1)

    W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-ESS1-1)

    SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 4 topics and texts building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    L4.4  Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    Mathematics Standards

    How will I Integrate Mathematics Standards?

    MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS1-1) (4-ESS2-1)

    MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (4-ESS2-1)

    Social Studies

    GI.4.2 Investigate the physical and cultural characteristics of place, region, and people of the Northwest.

    Phenomena

    Students observe pictures and video of Dry Falls in Central Washington and begin to address these questions: “How did Dry Falls get here?  Why are these steep rocky cliffs and little pools here?” How did they form?

    Examples of regional place-based questions teachers might consider:

    • What caused these high cliffs in the middle of the Washington landscape?
    • Why are there large boulders in the field made of different materials?
    • Why are there deep potholes created in the ground surrounding this area?
    • What would cause the land to look like ripples when seen from above?

    Phenomena Resources:

    Communicating in Scientific Ways | OpenSciEd

    Big Ideas

    Which one of the ideas from the curriculum and the Standards now seems the most central - meaning they might help explain other ideas you’ve listed and explain a wide range of natural phenomena? You must use more than a name to express your idea, express it as a set of relationships. Explain your choice clearly enough so a colleague could understand why you made the choice you did.

    • The effect of water on the landscape.
    • The way areas such as Dry Falls look now may be very different from the way they looked long ago.
    • The difference between slow water flow and massive water flow?


    OpenSciEd Routines Explanation Table

    Lesson 1: What’s happening at Dry Falls?

    Lesson 1: What’s happening at Dry Falls?

    Anchoring Phenomenon Routine

    Materials

    • pear deck slides ________for student check-ins if wanted/needed
    • pear deck/Google Slides “What Happened at Dry Falls?  1-5
    • Science Notebooks or...
    • I noticed....  recording sheet
    • I wonder...  recording sheet
    • Chart Paper for class Noticings and Wonderings or digital whiteboard such as Jamboard

     

    Preparation

    • Set the clear learning target for the lesson and students will reach the goal:  I understand how water shapes and changes the landscape.  (You may choose to display the Learning Target Slide found at the end of the slide deck or create a chart displaying the target).
    • Create a Noticing and Wonderings class chart or digital whiteboard such as Jamboard
    • Create a chart to develop the Initial Class Consensus Model for the question: “How did Dry Falls get here?  Why are these steep rocky cliffs and little pools here?” How did they form?
    • Make 2 copies of each individual student “I noticed…” and “I wonder…” recording sheet for each student if you will use the sheets in lieu of science notebook pages

     

    Vocabulary

    • wonder-curious to know or understand something
    • observe-to look at carefully and make note of everything we can see, hear, smell, taste or touch.
    • notice-observing or paying attention to something

     

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

     

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • If using slides 80-81 have students check in with social emotional learning using the pictures of the dogs.  Then the students will determine if they are in the present, past or future.  A check in with students emotionally about their day and readiness to learn can allow them to prepare to learn and can provide the teacher with useful information about their ability to process information.
    • Go over the learning target and how to reach the learning target.  The students will have a

    self-reflection after each lesson to determine how they are doing.

    • Show the Anchor Phenomena question on slide 3:  What Happened at Dry Falls?  Generate interest by saying something like, “I saw this place in Washington recently and I just couldn’t understand how in the world this deep gouge with such steep rocky cliffs was just there right in the middle of our state...in an otherwise flat part of the landscape and how did that water get at the bottom?”
    • Use Slide 4, either in the Pear Deck, where students can write observations digitally or, downloaded as a Powerpoint or use as Google slides. Remind students that when we observe we look carefully at or notice everything we can see, hear, smell, taste or feel about it.  Today they will mostly observe by seeing what they can. Remind them that they will also be writing what they wonder about what they see.  They will be writing their questions about what they observe.
    • Engage students in observing the picture on Slide 4 and have them write individually what they notice and wonder about either digitally using the Pear Deck, on a science notebook page,  or on the “I noticed….”recording sheet  and the “I wonder…” provided.  A simple Noticings and Wonderings T-Chart in Science notebooks can also work. (W.4.8)
    • Allow time for students to share their noticings and wonderings with an elbow partner and add to their ideas by placing a line of learning below their writing and adding partner ideas below the line of learning. 

    Procedure 2

    • Then proceed to slide 5 and engage students in observing the picture on the slide. Don’t reveal that this is a picture of the same place as the current day Dry Falls picture. Again have them write individually what they notice and wonder about either digitally using the Pear Deck, on a science notebook page,  or on the “I noticed….”recording sheet  and the “I wonder…” provided. (W.4.8)
    • Allow time for students to share their noticings and wonderings for this picture with an elbow partner and add to their ideas by placing a line of learning below their writing and adding partner ideas below the line of learning. 
    •  Then engage in a class discussion about what they noticed and wondered for each picture and record their ideas on a class chart or digital whiteboard such as Jamboard.  (SL.4.1)

    Formative Assessment Opportunitynote what students notice about the two pictures. Elevate ideas about:

    • the pools and reasons why they might be there
    • the cliffs being high and sharp
    • the glaciers in picture 2
    • the water appearing to move fast or strong

                Record all wonderings and note wonderings with the class, as future questions that the class might reasonably be able to answer and perhaps ways we might find out answers.

    Student Noticings and Wonderings might include:

          Noticing                                                                   Wondering

    -I notice that there is water.                                           -I wonder if that is snow

    - I notice that there is land.                                          - I wonder why there isn’t more water

    -The sky is blue.                                                                in the second picture

    -The land looks carved                                               -I wonder why there are cliffs in the first picture

    -The first picture has only puddles of water,               -second picture has lots of moving water              

    and not the second

    -ledges of rocks in the first picture and no                  -I wonder if there is a stream making the 

    ledges in the second picture                                        pools

                                                                                       -Is this the same place?

    -I see an island in the river on the second one            -is all the water coming from that snow melting?

    The water is rushing fast.                                             -what made the cliffs in the first picture?                                           

    Good place to break if time dictates breaking the lesson into two days

    Procedure 3

    • Have students individually create an initial model of their thinking about how the steep cliffs and the deep pools may have formed in the center of Washington State. They can record this model in their Science Notebook.  Encourage them to use words and pictures as they try to explain the phenomena.
    •  Give students time to share their models and thinking with elbow partners or table groups and encourage students to ask questions to clarify their partners’ thinking.

    Procedure 4

    • Convene the class in a Scientist Circle.  Be sure they bring their individual models with them.
    • Ask students to share their model and their thinking, explaining what caused the phenomena of the cliffs and pools at Dry Falls.
    • Ask the Scientist Circle for what they feel should be in the class Initial Consensus Model and draw and write ideas as the discussion progresses. (if you printed the two Dry Falls pictures from Lesson 1 Resources, you may choose to paste them on the Initial Consensus Model Chart ahead of time and record whatever comments, symbols and explanations to surround the pictures. 
    • Check with the group frequently to see if students agree or disagree with whatever you record on the chart.  Use question marks if there is some question about inclusion of various elements on the chart but you record those ideas anyway as this can be important for future lessons to confirm or exclude ideas.
    • Listen for, but don’t confirm that the pictures are the same place many years apart. Note if  any of the students come to the conclusion that they are actually  the same place many years apart and acknowledge that that is an interesting idea.

    Formative Assessment Opportunitynote the following during the consensus discussion and consider how to address these things in future lessons:

    • ideas about things that might have changed the landscape such as the “snow”-glaciers in the second picture
    • how water might affect the landscape
    • where did the water come from and why isn’t it there now
    • ideas or use of the word erosion that can be addressed in future lessons.  Students may not have this word firmly or correctly in their vocabulary yet.

    Student Samples for Lesson 1 Noticings and Wonderings:

    Student Sample Self Assessment 1Student Sample Self Assessment 2Student Sample Self Assessment 3Student Sample Self Assessment 4

    Lesson 2: The Power of Water

    Navigation and Investigation Routine

    Materials

    Day 1 of Lesson 2

    Day 2 of Lesson 2

    • A small meat or lunchmeat type tray with sides for each group of 3 or 4 students
    • 15-20 sugar cubes for each group of 3 or 4 students
    • about a tablespoon of sugar or dirt for each group of 3 or 4 students
    • a pipette/eyedropper for each group
    • A turkey baster for each group (if turkey basters are unavailable students can just pour water from a small Dixie type cup all at once on the mode after dripping the water slowly to see what happens with a little slow water first
    • 3 or 4 basalt or other solid rocks that kids could “wrap their hand around size” that students find and bring in (show them the size of the tray so they can see what will be too big
    • Science notebook to record experiment observations, or Erosion Experiment recording sheet  https://docs.google.com/document/d/14z3rQ-zAY_onThhC45SXzv3eN_72vwRD/copy     

     

    Preparation

    • Create a class Vocabulary or Word Wall chart on paper or with a digital Whiteboard such as Jamboard.  Place the vocabulary from the last lesson with a brief definition for each on the chart.  Observe-what we can find out using our senses, Notice-observing, paying attention to, Wonder-questions we have about something that is unexpected, unfamiliar, or inexplicable to us. (L.4.4)
    • Create a chart or a digital Whiteboard such as Jamboard where the class's Driving Questions can be posted.  Leave room to add to the Driving Question Board throughout the lessons.
    • Check video to see that it runs properly
    • Run a copy for each student of Erosion-The Power of Water handout if not have students write in their science notebooks
    • For Day 2 of Lesson 2 arrange a distribution line of the plastic trays, sugar cubes, tablespoons of sugar or dirt in little cups or baggies
    • For Day 2 of Lesson 2 have students each bring in a rock that they can fit in their closed hand for their group.
    • Have turkey basters ready or Dixie cups of water but withhold those until students have done the slow drip and faster squirt with the pipette.  This will prevent a race to blast the model!
    • Make student copy for each student , if using of Erosion Experiment recording sheet  WA OER Lesson 2- Erosion Experiment.docx
    • For teacher background purposes you may view the Erosion Experiment video to see how the Erosion Experiment might go.

     

    Vocabulary

    • landform-a natural feature of the surface of Earth created by forces that originate within Earth.
    • landscape- all the visible features of an area of countryside or land.
    • erosion-the wearing away and movement of rock, dirt, earth materials by natural forces such as water.

     

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • View the Lesson 2 slide (slide 6) Ask students to brainstorm with an elbow partner what they think the word landform might mean. Have them offer up their partner ideas to the whole group. 
    • Share with them the definition of the word LANDFORM: A landform is a natural feature of the surface of Earth created by forces that originate within Earth.
    • Ask them to brainstorm some landforms they know about where they live and in the state.  They should come up with a list that includes common landforms such as: mountains, plateaus, valleys, canyons, hills, volcanic cones. They might also include rivers, lakes, deserts which is fine, although these are technically a feature of a landform.  It is enough for them to understand that landforms are natural features of the land.
    • Place the word on the Vocabulary or Word Wall along with the simple definition above. Ask students to notice that you have added some words from yesterday: Observe-what we can find out using our senses, Notice-observing, paying attention to, Wonder-questions we have about something that is unexpected, unfamiliar, or inexplicable to us. (L.4.4) Let students know that they will be using these words in their scientific work again today.

     

    Procedure 2

    • Tell students that we need to assemble our questions from the last lesson so that we can start to investigate to find answers to why this landform we are wondering about exists.
    • Show slide 7 and give students the following directions:
      •  work with a partner or a table group to share questions they have from their noticings and wonderings as well as from the Scientists Circle/Initial Consensus Model discussion and find questions they have in common as well as one-of-a-kind questions
      • on same-colored stickies or slips of paper record one question per stickie
      •  and no need to write the same questions multiple times. 
      • teams should record as many questions as they can in the time allowed
    • Let them read their questions from their discussion to the whole class in round robin style and then post them on a physical chart or alternately, use a digital Whiteboard such as Jamboard.  with the students participating, decide on categories that question might fall into such as “About the rocks/cliffs”, “the water in the bottom”, “the rushing river water”, “the white stuff/snow”

     

    Sample Driving Question Board:

     

     

    Procedure 3

    • Have students draw a quick notice and wonder T-chart on the next clean left side page of their Science Notebook. Tell them that in a moment they will watch a video about erosion.  At the end of the video they should have ideas about what erosion is.
    • Then Show Slide 8 and Watch video about erosion and discuss the content of the video. 
    • After a discussion, have the students use their noticings and the class discussion to write about what they have learned from the video. 
    • Have them record the sentence starters in their Science Notebooks leaving space between each sentence starter or pass out the Erosion-The Power of Water handout.  Use either the digital version or print out the paper version  

    Formative Assessment OpportunityUse this writing as a formative assessment to have students show what they know about erosion.   Look for:

    • look for a beginning 4th grade explanation of what erosion is:  The wearing away and movement of rock, dirt, earth materials by natural forces such as water. (wind also causes erosion but is not the focus of this unit)  
    • ice, water, tides, rivers, floods, or other water events that cause erosion

    Good place to break if time dictates break for Day 2 of Lesson 2

     

    Procedure 4

    • Show slide 9 as you talk through the directions.
    • Have student groups of 3 or 4 pick up a plastic tray (1 per group), sugar cubes (15-20 per group) and the sugar or dirt (1 baggie of about a tablespoon per group) and have them get their rocks so that each group has 3 or 4 rocks.
    • Tell them that today the class will work in groups to see how a small amount of water affects the materials in the experiment when it travels slowly, a bit faster and how a large amount of water might affect the materials when it travels at a great speed.  Tell them that in our model the rocks represent the basalt rocks at Dry Falls, the sugar cubes represent other types of rocks that are not as strong, and the sugar/soil represents soil at Dry Falls.
    • Have students set up their model similarly to the picture below, allowing for other arrangements of the materials if they choose. 

     

    Erosion Experiment Model Set-up

    • Show slide 10 and ask them to record what they observe for each water condition in pictures and worlds.  This can be done in the Lesson 2
    • When groups are ready, have them take the pipette full of water and first drip water slowly onto the rocks, the sugar cubes and then the sugar/dirt in the model.  Ask them to discuss what they observe. 
    • Then have them squirt a pipette full of water a bit faster onto the rocks, sugar cubes and sugar/dirt and then discuss what they observe.
    • Pass out the turkey basters or Dixie cup of water to each group.  Now ask them to gush a baster of water on the model, once or twice and observe and discuss what happens.  For teacher background purposes you may view this video to see how the Erosion Experiment might go.

     

    Procedure 5

    • Clean up the models and display slide 10 again and ask students to return to their science notebooks and write about what they observed in each condition with the rocks, the sugar cubes and the sugar/dirt.  Ask them to write about how this might be different or similar to erosion they saw in the video.  (W.4.8)
    • Have a partner group discussion about what they observed in each condition with the rocks, the sugar cubes and the sugar/dirt.  Ask them to discuss together about how this might be different or similar to erosion they saw in the video. Allow them to return to their initial written explanation and make additions and changes to their thinking.  (SL4.1)

    Formative Assessment OpportunityUse this writing as a formative assessment to have students show what they know about erosion.   Look for:

    • look for them to add to their beginning 4th grade explanation of what erosion is:  The wearing away and movement of rock, dirt, earth materials by natural forces such as water. (wind also causes erosion but is not the focus of this unit)  
    • ideas about how the speed and amount of water can affect the amount of erosion
    • ideas about different materials behaving differently and eroding at different speeds

    Student Samples for Lesson 2 Erosion Experiment:

     

     

     

    Procedure 6

    • Return to the Vocabulary/Word Wall and post the word erosion. Ask students to participate in a discussion to define erosion-The wearing away and movement of rock, dirt, earth materials by natural forces such as water. (L.4.4)

     

    Home Learning Opportunity or for Centers/Stations

    • Show slide 11 and let students know that they will have a chance to investigate more about erosion by viewing one of the videos from the slide.  Make the linked slide available to students to use at home or, if face to face in a centers/stations format.

    Lesson 3 The Ice Age Mega Floods

    Navigation, Investigation, Putting the Pieces Together, Problematizing Routines

    Materials

    Day 1 of Lesson 3

    Day 2 of Lesson 3

    (https://vimeo.com/331335155 )

                                               

    Preparation

    (https://vimeo.com/331335155 )

     

     

     

     

    Class chart: Copy only the center column:  Questions and Thoughts.  Do not record the timestamp column (orange) or the Answer Ideas column (green). Those are for teacher reference purposes.

    Stop at Timestamp

    Questions and Thoughts

    Key: Answer Ideas (don’t record ahead of time)

    Start

     

    Stop at 10:10

    Why should rivers be ruled out as a way that the  scablands were formed?

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Rivers would have had to move fast and be deep to carve out the wide deep canyons and also be slow at the same time to deposit layers of soil

     

    Rivers could not make such big potholes

     

    Rivers could not move such giant rocks

    Start at 10:10

     

    Stop at 14:05

    How could the boulders get here?

     

     

     

    Why did the evidence point to glaciers?

     

     

    What was wrong with the glacier theory?

     

    Glaciers usually carry big boulders like this

     

     

    Thes boulders were very large the rocks were not from the Dry Falls area

     

    Glaciers did not go as far south as Dry Falls

    Fast Forward to timestamp 21:29 and start

     

    Stop at 26:35

    What were the clues that showed that Lake Missoula existed?

     

    marks on rocks

    ripple marks 10/20 feet high

    looks like bottom of river/ gravel bar

    rocks in strange places

    ripples point to the scablands

     

    Fast Forward to 34:33 and start

     

    Stop at 36:55

    What Made Lake Missoula form?

     

     

     

    What caused it to flow over Washington?

    A glacier made an ice dam and the water backed up behind it

     

     

    The ice dam cracked and broke apart releasing huge amounts of fast moving water

    Start at 35:55

     

    Stop at 45:00

    How could potholes this big have formed?

     

     

     

     

    How did the giant boulders, erratics, get all over the landscape?

    Tornadoes of bubbles in the flood dug the holes in rock and soil

     

     

    The rocks were carried by chunks of glacier ice that was carried by the flood water

     

    Vocabulary

    • scattered -spread across an area in a non-pattern way
    • scablands -area of Washington that has had soil scraped off leaving rock formations visible
    • forces -push or pull on an object
    • geologists -scientists that study rocks, minerals, and landforms
    • evidence - observations, information, data that support a claim
    • erosion-geological process in which earthen materials are worn away and transported by natural forces such as wind or water.
    • glacier -a slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow
    • flood-an overflowing of a large amount of water beyond what is normal
    • fracture-a break or a crack
    • collapse-fall down
    • pressure-continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.

    ** Continue to add words with definitions to the Vocabulary/Word Wall as they are used in the lesson and videos.  (L.4.4)

     

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

     

    Procedures

    Procedure 1:

    • Remind students that we have been trying to find out what happened at Dry Falls that formed the area in such an interesting way.  We also investigated erosion to see how water affects land and we found out that more water, moving fast can erode more quickly than less water or water moving slowly.  Ask if there is anything more they want to add about erosion after viewing the videos for home learning.

    Procedure 2:

    • Say, “it seems like we need to find out if there was a lot of fast-moving water that eroded the landscape at Dry Falls.”  Let students know that we can get some good information from video sources and observe things that we might not be able to see by doing an experiment. 
    • Have students prepare a page in their Science Notebooks like the WA OER Mega Floods Initial Model Handout or hand out a copy of the handout to each student. Tell students that modeling can really help us to think about what happened at Dry Falls.
    • Show slide 13 so that students can examine each picture.  Let them know that this is what most of the landscape in Central/Eastern Washington looks like today.

     

    Procedure 3: 

    • Show Slide 14 and ask students to draw a model using pictures and words in the first box to show how they think Dry Falls might have looked before all of the erosion changed the landscape.
    • Give students the opportunity to share their models and thinking with an elbow partner and add to their models if they want to.
    • Say, “ and here is what it looks like now.”  Then show the brief video Aerial Views of Dry Falls:  Dry Falls Floodscape by Bruce Bjornstad Dry Falls Floodscape  (linked in slide 15). “What could cause that much erosion?” 

     

    Procedure 4:

    • Have students put their initial model aside and tell them that we are going to watch a short video that has a really interesting simulation that might help us.
    • Explain that the simulation shows Washington State and something that happened thousands of years ago.  Point out where Dry Falls is located on the map on Slide 16 and then show slide 17 with the simulation video https://tinyurl.com/Ice-Age-Floods and point out that approximate area on the video.
    • Tell students to draw a quick Noticing and Wondering T-chart.  Then play the video on Slide 17 to timestamp :28 seconds, 1:07 seconds, the end stopping at each of those timestamps so students can write their noticings and wonderings.  Be sure to read the yellow box comments as they pop up on the screen and to have the class read through them all together at the end of the video.

     

    Good place to break if time dictates break for Day 2 of Lesson 3

     

    Procedure 5:

    • Share with students that we are going to watch a video that might help us see some of these answers because we can’t observe them ourselves.  We will stop the video from time to time to talk about what we all are seeing and record it on a class chart and point out the video Class Chart with questions recorded.
    • Start the video and Start stop it at timestamp 10:10. Read the question and record student ideas.  Elevate the answers that elevate ideas that reflect the Key answer ideas from the chart. (W.4.8)
    • Proceed the same way through the video stopping at the timings indicated in the chart, skipping parts of the video as indicated.  The entire video is very interesting but is around 50 minutes long, so skip those portions indicated in the chart as they aren’t as relevant to the understanding of the Mega Floods and how they eroded Dry Falls.
    • Have students return to their models and complete the middle and final sections drawing and writing on their models. 
    • Give students the opportunity to share their models and thinking with an elbow partner and add to their models if they want to.
    • Have students write their best explanation for right now at the bottom of the model handout. (W.4.8)

    Formative Assessment:  This student model can serve as a formative or summative assessment when each step is completed, and the explanation is written.

    Look for:

    • The initial model to show a flatter landscape without so much rock, cliffs or perhaps even the lakes
    •  Then revised with new information learned during the video and discussion. Such as lots of water rushing over the area and eroding away rocks and soil and finally, the landscape we see today.
    • They should include the idea of lots of water, rushing fast over the Dry Falls area and carrying away rocks and soil.  They should include the idea that harder rocks remained as did the lakes at the bottom.  They could include the idea of lots of water being stored at Lake Missoula because it backed up behind a glacier ice dam.

    Student Samples for Lesson 3 Model:

    Individual Student Model Example 1  Individual Student Model Example 2Individual Student Model Example 3  Individual Student Model Example 4Individual Student Model Example 5

    Lesson 4 Maps

    Navigation Routine, Investigation Routine, Putting the Pieces Together Routine

    Materials:

    Day 1 of Lesson 4

    Day 2 of Lesson 4

     

    Preparation

    • Practice with Google Earth using the directions handout to be prepared to guide and trouble shoot students’ work.  Decide if this is best as a demonstration, individual or partner activity.
    • Queue up the Niagara Falls and mega flood videos to be sure they will run.
    • Explore and practice with the Native Lands, languages and Treaties Map to understand what to highlight for students as you demonstrate.
    • Make copies for each student of the Indigenous Peoples’ Legend T-Chart (if using instead of a science notebook page) and make copies for each student of the Indigenous Peoples’ Legend: Tsi-Laan (Deep Waters) reading.

     

    Vocabulary

    • Simulation- a computer model of something, especially for the purpose of study
    • Indigenous-originally from a place; native

     

    ** Continue to add words with definitions to the Vocabulary/Word Wall as they are used in the lesson and videos.  (L.4.4)

     

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

     

    Procedures

    Procedure 1:

    • Show Slide 21.  Remind students that in our last few days we have learned a lot about the Ice Age Mega Floods and how they eroded the land of central and eastern Washington.  Tell them that you have a couple of videos that are short but might give them an idea of the amount of water that we’re talking about.
    • Show the Niagara Falls Video just up to timestamp 2:40. Explain that Niagara Falls is still flowing today in upper New York State.  (if a map of the U.S. is available point out how far away Niagara Falls is by pointing to upper New York State.
    • Ask students to talk with elbow or table partners about what they observed in the video.  They should be mentioning the sound, the amount and speed of water, the spray from the Falls, the force or power of the water, etc.

    Procedure 2:

    • Say, “That’s a lot of water, isn’t it?  And it seems to move pretty fast and with a lot of force.  Now let’s look at a simulation of what the Ice Age Floods might have looked like”
    • Show, The making of the mega floods simulation for Nick on the Rocks. you could just watch the last part of the video from timestamp 3:13, however, the discussion of the making of the simulation can spark a great discussion about the job of computer programmers viable and useful career.  Highlight those kids who really enjoy computer work could do this kind of work.
    • Ask students to again discuss with an elbow or table partners what they observed from the video.  They should be mentioning the amount of the water, the speed of the water, etc. 

    Procedure 3:

    •  Show Slide 22 and explain to students that the class will do a little more learning about the Dry Falls area.  The slide shows a map from the simulation of the Ice Age Floods seen previously.  It could certainly be played again but the focus is on the fact that it is a map.  
    • Tell students that we will be using maps to understand the landscape in the Ice Age Floods area.  The second map on Slide 22 is different, It shows us some of the landforms but also shows manmade features such as towns and dams.  It also shows tribal lands.  You can see the Confederated Tribes of the Yakama Nations, The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe of Indians.  All indigenous people who lived and traveled through the Dry Falls and Scabland areas.
    • A third type of map seen on Slide 22 is Google Earth.  Ask students to indicate if they have ever seen or used Google Earth.  It is an interactive, computer map that can help us see the landscape in lots of different ways.

    Procedure 4:

    • Click on Slide 23. The spinning Earth picture is linked to Google Earth Link to Dry Falls Washington.  Hand out the Dry Falls on Google Earth directions handout. Students can use this to navigate the Google Earth procedure, or the teacher can use it to do the step-by-step procedure as a demonstration or with students following along on computers.
    • Demonstrate for students what they will see as they click or enter the link. Then work through the directions step by step or allow students to do that, to observe the Dry Falls and Scabland features and to have Google Earth calculate mileages.
    • Engage students in some questions like the following as they work:
      • “If you were to plan a trip to Dry Falls How long would it take you to get there?”  “How far away is it from where you live?”
      • “How far would it be to Niagara Falls?”  “Could you get there as fast as you can to Dry Falls?”
      • “Other places where erosion happened are the Grand Canyon, Arches National Park, John Day Oregon.  What do those places look like on Google Earth?”

    Formative Assessment:  Observe students as they navigate Google Earth and provide direct assistance until they feel confident. Can they navigate to other areas such as those where erosion happens with ease? If not, it might be helpful to demonstrate for the class as they work, and verbally narrating your procedure to ensure they are seeing the various things on Google Earth.

     

    Good place to break if time dictates break for Day 2 of Lesson 4

    Procedure 4:

    • Show students Slide 24 and remind them that we saw this map yesterday and talked about the tribal areas we might see in the Dry Falls area of Washington.  Tell them that actually it can be challenging to put boundaries on tribal areas as Indigenous People moved throughout central and eastern Washington and didn’t identify just one area as their home like we might do today.  Even though this map shows us an area for the Yakama that does not include Dry Falls, we know that they traveled and lived all over this part of Washington.
    • Show Slide 25 and tell students that this map can maybe help us understand the traditional areas where Indigenous people lived a little better.    Use the link to navigate to the interactive Native Lands, Laguages & Treaties Map | Native-Land.ca | Our home on native land. This probably works best as a demonstration as the map can be a little confusing. To focus the map on Dry Falls type in Dry Falls Visitor Center, Route 17, Coulee City, Washington 99115, United State in the search box in the upper left of the map. ( the map will zoom in to just Dry Falls/Coulee City so you will need to use the minus icon to zoom out.  You will no longer see “Dry Falls” labeled but you will see “Coulee City” and that is very close by.)
    • Click on the various colored areas and discuss with students that they overlap because Indigenous People lived in and moved about in areas with other tribes and groups of Indigenous People.  The main tribes you should see are those shown on the slide: Moses/Columbia,  Nespelem,  Yakama , Syilx tmixʷ (Okanagan). These are linked on the slide, and each can lead you to more information about that group if you want to explore more.
    • Now show Slide 26 and tell students that Indigenous People have other ways of knowing or understanding the landscape around where they lived.  One story from the Yakama Nation is their explanation of how Coyote, created Dry Falls.
    • Go through the directions from the slide to have students connect the legend to the landscape from the Ice Age Floods:
      • Make a T-chart in your science notebook (or use the handout)
      • Label the columns:
        • Part of the landscape from the legend
        • Where this is at Dry Falls/Scablands
      • Read the Indigenous Peoples’ Legend: Tsi-Laan (Deep Water). You may want students to partner read or do a guided reading with the class depending on your students’ reading abilities and needs.
    • Stop after each colored paragraph of the legend and ask students to note landscape features and what they might correlate to in the Dry Falls or Scablands landscape.   These could be rocks, cliffs, rivers, pools/lakes, the great falls, etc.

    As the class works through the legend, making notes have them discuss with partners, table groups or as a whole class what things they think correlate.  (RL4.1)

    Lesson 5 Written Assessment

    Putting the Pieces Together Routine

    Materials:

    Preparation

    • Make copies of the Gotta Have It Checklist for each student.  Copy half as many sheets as students and cut the sheets in two as they are two per sheet.

    Vocabulary

    Make the Vocabulary/Word Wall available for students to reference as they do their writing. Remind them to use the words we’ve earned to remind them of what they want to write about.

     

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1:

    •  Show Slide 27 and remind students that when we started to study Dry Falls, we were trying to find out what caused this unique landform in the middle of Washington state.
    • Show Slide 28.   Let students know that today they will be writing their explanation of what happened at Dry Falls that formed it.   Remind them of the two pictures that we first saw and thought about when we began to think about the phenomena of Dry Falls.
    • Show students the Gotta Have It checklist and review each item on the checklist.
    • Remind students that they should use what they have learned so far to write a two-paragraph paper/essay about “What happened at Dry Falls?” using their notes in Noticing and Wondering charts, models, other notes they have written, as well as the class charts and Vocabulary/Word Wall in writing their explanation.
    • Give students some sentence starters that could be helpful in their writing to transition from one idea to another, such as:
      • I used to think but now I think…..
      • The evidence that changed my mind is……
      • This evidence supports my claim……
      • The reason why I think Dry Falls was formed by…
      • Both pictures show....
    • Give students time to write the explanation about what formed Dry Falls and the Scablands. (W.4.8) (W.4.9)

    Summative Assessment:  This final lesson provides a summative assessment opportunity.

    Possible Rubric:   

    • The writing has a topic sentence that introduces the subject of your writing.  It makes a claim about what happened to form Dry Falls that includes the idea that :
      • Dry Falls was formed by the process of erosion. 
      • The erosion was fast and caused by Ice Age floods
    •  include at least three examples of supporting evidence from videos, maps, pictures and experiments/investigations such as:
      • sugar cubes dissolved/fell apart quickly with lots of water moving fast
      • the video about Mega floods showed how all that water came down across Washington to make the Scablands including Dry Falls when an ice dam broke letting water out of Lake Missoula
      • tornadoes in the water carved potholes with tiny bubbles
      • On Google Earth the Scablands showed that erosion washed away soil and rocks
      • the pictures of Dry Falls show bare rock cliffs and small lakes at the bottom and this must have happened suddenly with lots of water
      • the erosion video showing what happens with water erosion
    • in your explanation be sure to talk about erosion, Scablands, water and other factors that the evidence showed you,
    •   include your reasons for thinking that the evidence supports the claim you made,
    •   write your concluding statement (summarize your claim and reasoning in one sentence. For example: “In conclusion……..” or “As you can see….”)

    Appendix: Lesson Resources

    Pear Deck/Google Slides for Unit: https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1_SpnFg4YKZ9xT2uGv6IIoRDGhm1iZ-bL3JMGrHR0V2g/copy  

    Unit Resources For Student Self-Assessment:

    The slides below are Slides 30-34 at the end of the slide deck and may be used for students to self assess emotional status and readiness to learn in each lesson.  Insert them where you choose in your copy of the slide deck.

     

     

    Lesson 1 Resources

    Lesson 1, Resource 1: Dry Falls picture for Noticing and Wondering

     

    Lesson 1, Resource 2: Dry Falls Artist Painting from Dry Falls Visitor Center Sun Lake-Dry Falls State Park

     

     

     

    Lesson 1, Resource 3:  I noticed….recording sheet

    Name _____________________________

    Date _______________________________

     

    SCIENCE NOTEBOOK PAGE -I noticed …….

    Draw or write what you notice  about the pictures in the space below

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    I noticed  _________________________________________________

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    _________________________________________________________.

     

    Lesson 1 , Resource 4:  I wonder….recording sheet

    Name ______________________________


    Date _______________________________

     

    SCIENCE NOTEBOOK PAGE - I wonder…….

    Draw or write what you wonder about in the space below

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    I wonder _________________________________________________

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    _________________________________________________________.

     

     

    Lesson 2 Resources

    Lesson 2, Resource 1

     

    Erosion Video: The Power of Water for Kids: How Erosion by Water Shapes Landforms for Children - FreeSchool  (linked in slide deck)

     

    Lesson 2, Resource 2

    Erosion-Power of Water recording sheet link

    What Happened at Dry Falls?

    Lesson 2

    Name: ___________________________

    Date: ___________________

    Erosion - The Power of Water

    Erosion is: ___________________________________________________________________ 

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    One fact I learned about erosion is ________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    Another fact I learned about erosion is _____________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    Finally, the most interesting thing I learned about erosion is ____________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

     

    Lesson 2, Resource 3

     

    Erosion Experiment Recording Sheet link

    What Happened at Dry Falls Lesson 2 Erosion Experiment

    Name _____________________

    Date ______________________

     

    “What happened to the materials?”

     

    Slow erosion

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Fast erosion

    Combination

    Explain what you observed happening to the rock, sugar cubes and sugar or dirt  in each scenario?

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    Lesson 3 Resources

    Lesson 3, Resource 1

    WA OER Mega Floods Initial Model Handout

     

    Initial Model

    Name: _____________________________                           Date:_____________________________

     

    Develop an initial model to explain “What effects of erosion by water or ice changed the landscape of the scablands over time?

    • Show what you think was happening to the land ( How did the potholes form?) 
    • Use pictures, symbols, and words to help explain what caused these changes to happen over time.

    What do you think happened in this system that would help explain what caused this kind of event?

     

    |

    |

     

     

     

     

     

     

    How Dry Falls Looked before Erosion

    During  the Ice Age Megaflood

    After the Ice age Megaflood

     

    What do you think happened at Dry Falls that would help explain what caused the landscape to look the way it does?

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    Lesson 3, Resource 2

    Aerial Views of Dry Falls:  Dry Falls Floodscape by Bruce Bjornstad Dry Falls Floodscape https://youtu.be/cfR-T-ZOKvo (linked in slide 15)

     

    Lesson 3, Resource 3

    Ice Age Flood Simulation video: simulation video https://tinyurl.com/Ice-Age-Floods

     

    Lesson 3, Resource 4

    (https://vimeo.com/331335155 )

     

    Lesson 4 Resources

    Lesson 4, Resource 1

    Niagara Falls video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTOHJZY2VRE&t=86s

     

    Lesson 4, Resource 2

    The making of the mega floods simulation for Nick on the Rocks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhUenP-BjZw&t=1s  

     

    Lesson 4, Resource 3

    https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fzJLWu27fHh_aonew0JqrYe7jBQyuYdAdKNkk2RA8Cw/copy

    Lesson 4 Resource 4

    WA OER Indigenous Peoples’ T-Chart https://docs.google.com/document/d/17j5jEe79eQSi7vaiIpCdsrTUQW_lQJy8/copy

    Lesson 4, Resource 5

    Indigenous Peoples’ Legend TSI-LANN (Deep Water)

    Lesson 5 Resources

    Lesson 5, Resource 1

     

    Name: ____________________

    Date: _____________________

    Gotta Have It Checklist

    What Happened at Dry Falls?

     

    Write an explanation of what happened to form Dry Falls. Be sure you:

     

    --have a topic sentence that introduces the subject of your writing and states your claim about what happened to form Dry Falls,

    --include at least three examples of supporting evidence from videos, maps, pictures and experiments/investigations,

    --  in your explanation be sure to talk about erosion, Scablands, water and other factors that the evidence showed you,

    -- include your reasons for thinking that the evidence supports the claim you made,

    --write your concluding statement (summarize your claim and reasoning in one sentence. For example: “In conclusion……..)