Author:
Michael Anderson
Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Material Type:
Full Course
Level:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
Tags:
  • Anatomy
  • Articulate
  • Biology
  • Life Science
  • Muscular System
  • Nervous System
  • Physiology
  • Rise 360
  • Skeletal System
  • Tennessee Open Education
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Graphics/Photos, Interactive, Text/HTML, Video

    Anatomy & Physiology 1 Course Modules to Accompany OpenStax Text

    Anatomy & Physiology 1 Course Modules to Accompany OpenStax Text

    Overview

    These course modules are meant to accompany the OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology textbook. Included within each subunit are both Articulate Rise 360 exported raw Web and SCORM 1.2 ZIP files. These files are to be Imported into a Learning Management System. Each module contains text and images from the OpenStax book, original text, openly licensed images from various sources, formative activities, and links to videos on public websites. The modules are free to use as needed. If modification is desired, please contact the author, and I will send you the Rise 360 source file.

    Unit 1: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology; Subunit 1: What is Life?

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each.
    • Describe the characteristics of life and their importance.
    • Define metabolism, including anabolism and catabolism.
    • Define metabolism.
    • Define homeostasis.
    • List the components of a feedback loop and explain the function of each.
    • Define negative feedback, give an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis.
    • Define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects.

    Unit 1: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology; Subunit 2: Science, and the Chemistry and Organization of the Body

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Define evolution, natural selection, mutation, and these terms’ relevance to human anatomy and physiology.
    • Define the terms hypothesis, theory, and law in the context of the scientific method.
    • Describe the process of the scientific method.
    • Contrast inductive and deductive reasoning.
    • Describe the importance of the peer-review process.
    • List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. 
    • Give an example of each level of organization.
    • Describe the fundamental composition of matter.
    • Identify the four most abundant elements in the body.
    • Identify the three subatomic particles.
    • Explain the relationship between an atom’s number of electrons and its relative stability.
    • Distinguish between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds.
    • Explain the importance of the inorganic compounds that contribute to life, such as water, salts, acids, and bases.
    • Describe a person in anatomical position and how to use the terms right and left in anatomical reference. 
    • List and define major (select) directional terms.
    • Describe the location of (select) body structures, using appropriate directional terminology.
    • Identify the various planes in which a body might be dissected.
    • Describe the appearance of a body presented along the various planes. 
    • Describe the location of the body cavities and identify major organs found in each cavity.
    • Describe the location of the four abdominopelvic quadrants and the nine abdominopelvic regions and list the major organs located in each.
    • Describe the location of (select) structures of the body, using basic regional and systemic terminology.
    • Describe the structure and function of the serous membranes.

    Unit 1: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology; Subunit 3: Cell and Tissue Biology

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane, including its regulation of materials into and out of the cell.
    • Compare and contrast three of the four important classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds—proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
    • Describe specific transport processes including passive vs active (diffusion and osmosis).
    • Define extracellular and intracellular fluids.
    • Describe the functions of the various cytoplasmic organelles.
    • Describe how proteins are transported from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus, and from the Golgi apparatus to the cell membrane.
    • Describe the three types of cytoskeletal filaments.
    • Identify the functions and locations of cilia and flagella within the human body.
    • Explain the structure and contents of the nucleus.
    • Explain the process of DNA replication.
    • Describe nucleic acids according to their composition and functional importance to human life.
    • Describe the process by which a cell builds proteins using the DNA code.
    • Explain the steps of DNA replication.
    • Describe some differences between DNA and RNA.
    • Explain the steps of transcription.
    • Explain the process of translation.
    • List the stages of the cell cycle in order, including the steps of cell division in somatic cells.
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the implications of losing control over the cell cycle.
    • Define the term histology.
    • Name the four primary classes into which all adult tissues are classified.
    • Compare and contrast the general features of the four major tissue types.
    • Describe the properties that distinguish epithelium from other tissue classes.
    • Describe the properties that most connective tissues have in common.
    • Discuss the types of cells found in connective tissue.
    • Explain what the matrix of a connective tissue is and describe its components.
    • Explain what distinguishes excitable tissues from other tissues.
    • Identify the main types of tissue membranes.
    • Describe the structure and function of endocrine and exocrine glands and their respective secretions.
    • Describe the different types of exocrine glands.

    Unit 2: Nervous System; Subunit 1: Nervous System Functions and Nervous Tissue

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • List the parts of the nervous system that constitute the central nervous system (CNS) and those that constitute the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
    • Differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.
    • Describe the major functions of the nervous system.
    • Describe the basic structure of a neuron.
    • Identify the different types of neurons on the basis of polarity.
    • Describe the functional and structural differences between gray matter and white matter structures.
    • List the types of glial cells, and assign each to the proper division of the nervous system.
    • Explain how neurons transport materials between the cell body and tips of the axon.
    • Explain how damaged nerve fibers regenerate.

    Unit 2: Nervous System; Subunit 2: Nerve Impulses

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the concept of an excitable membrane.
    • Explain the difference between ligand-gated, mechanically gated, voltage-gated, and leakage ion channel proteins.
    • Define conceptually and numerically the resting membrane potential of excitable cells.
    • Describe the events that lead to and propogate an action potential.
    • Define depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization.
    • Compare propogation of an action potential along unmyelinated and myelinated axons.
    • Define graded potential and describe the two types of postsynaptic potentials.
    • Describe the two types of summation they apply to graded potentials.
    • Define the elements of a synapse in the context of neuron-neuron communication.
    • Describe the process of neurotransmission.
    • Describe and give examples of representative neurotransmitters.
    • Compare and contrast ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors.

    Unit 2: Nervous System; Subunit 3: Sensation and the Somatic Nervous System

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the pathways that sensory systems follow into the central nervous system.
    • Differentiate between the two major ascending pathways in the spinal cord.
    • Describe the pathway of descending motor commands from the cortex to the skeletal muscles.
    • Differentiate between the two parts of the corticospinal tract.
    • Distinguish between general and special sense.
    • Describe different types of sensory receptors.
    • Describe the structures responsible for the special senses of taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision.
    • Describe the process of transduction for the gustatory and olfactory senses.
    • Describe the means of mechanoreception for hearing and balance.
    • List the supporting structures around the eye and describe the structure of the eyeball.
    • Describe the processes of phototransduction.

    Unit 2: Nervous System; Subunit 4: Autonomic Nervous System

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Name the components that generate the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses of the autonomic nervous system
    • Explain the differences in output connections within the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
    • Describe the signaling molecules and receptor proteins involved in communication within the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
    • Compare the structure of somatic and autonomic reflex arcs.
    • Differentiate between short and long reflexes.
    • Determine the effect of the autonomic nervous system on the regulation of the various organ systems on the basis of the signaling molecules involved.
    • Describe the effects of drugs that affect autonomic function.
    • Describe the role of higher centers of the brain in autonomic regulation.
    • Explain the connection of the hypothalamus to homeostasis.
    • Describe the regions of the CNS that link the autonomic system with emotion.
    • Describe the pathways important to descending control of the autonomic system.

    Unit 2: Nervous System; Subunit 5: Gross Anatomy of the Nervous System

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the basic physical events in the evolution of the human nervous system.
    • Describe the structure of a nerve.
    • Identify the layers of connective tissue within a nerve.
    • Describe the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves and specify their location relative to the anatomy of the skeletal system. 
    • Identify the anatomical features seen in a cross sectional view of the spinal cord. 
    • Contrast the relative position of gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord with the corresponding arrangement of gray and white matter in the brain.
    • Identify the meninges and describe their functional relationship to the brain and cranial bones.
    • Describe the fluid-filled chambers within the brain.
    • Describe the functions of cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the details of its production, its circulation within the central nervous system, and its ultimate reabsorption into the bloodstream.
    • Describe the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.
    • Describe the major subdivisions and anatomical landmarks of the brain.
    • Describe the locations of its gray and white matter.
    • List the components of the hindbrain and midbrain and their functions.
    • Name the three major components of the diencephalon and describe their locations and functions.
    • Identify the five lobes of the cerebrum and their functions and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
    • Describe the location and functions of the basal nuclei and limbic system.
    • Identify the brain regions concerned with consciousness and thought, memory, emotion, sensation, motor control, and language.
    • List the 12 cranial nerves by name and number.
    • Describe the specific functions of each of the cranial nerves and classify each as sensory, motor or mixed.
    • Describe the attachments of a spinal nerve to the spinal cord.
    • Trace the branches of a spinal nerve distal to its attachment.
    • Name the five plexuses of spinal nerves and describe their general anatomy.
    • Name some major nerves that arise from each plexus.

    Unit 3: Skeletal System; Subunit 1: Skeletal System Function and Osseous Tissue

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Name the tissues and organs that compose the skeletal system.
    • Distinguish between bones as a tissue and as an organ.
    • Describe the major functions of the skeletal system. 
    • Distinguish between the two types of bone marrow.
    • Distinguish between the diaphysis and epiphyses of a long bone.
    • Describe the functions of various structures of a long bone.
    • List and describe the cells, fibers, and ground substance of bone tissue. 
    • State the importance of each constituent of bone tissue. 
    • Describe the functions of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
    • Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone.
    • Identify the structures that compose compact and spongy bone.
    • List and describe the cells, fibers, and ground substance of cartilage tissue. 
    • Describe the functions of chondrocytes.
    • Distinguish between the three types of cartilage.
    • Describe how bones are nourished and innervated.

    Unit 3: Skeletal System; Subunit 2: Ossification and Bone Repair

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Define ossification.
    • List the steps of intramembranous ossification.
    • List the steps of endochondral ossification.
    • Explain the growth activity at the epiphyseal plate.
    • Compare and contrast the processes of modeling and remodeling.
    • Differentiate among the different types of fractures.
    • Describe the steps involved in bone repair.
    • Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue.
    • List the nutrients that affect bone health.
    • Discuss the role those nutrients play in bone health.
    • Describe the effects of hormones on bone tissue.
    • Describe the effect of too much or too little calcium on the body.
    • Explain the process of calcium homeostasis.

    Unit 3: Skeletal System; Subunit 3: Joint Anatomy

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Distinguish between the functional and structural classifications for joints.
    • Describe the three functional types of joints and give an example of each.
    • List the three types of diarthrodial joints.
    • Describe the structural features of fibrous joints.
    • Distinguish between a suture, syndesmosis, and gomphosis.
    • Give an example of each type of fibrous joint.
    • Describe the structural features of cartilaginous joints.
    • Distinguish between a synchondrosis and symphysis.
    • Give an example of each type of cartilaginous joint.
    • Describe the structural features of a synovial joint.
    • Discuss the function of additional structures associated with synovial joints.
    • List the six types of synovial joints and give an example of each.
    • Describe the bones that articulate together to form selected synovial joints.
    • Discuss the movements available at each joint.
    • Describe the structures that support and prevent excess movements at each joint.

    Unit 3: Skeletal System; Subunit 4: Gross Anatomy of the Skeletal System

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Classify bones according to their shapes.
    • Describe the function of each category of bones.
    • Define and list examples of bone markings.
    • Discuss the functions of the skeletal system.
    • Distinguish between the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.
    • Define the axial skeleton and its components.
    • Define the appendicular skeleton and its components.
    • List and identify the bones of the brain case and face.
    • Locate the major suture lines of the skull and name the bones associated with each.
    • Locate and define the boundaries of the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae, the temporal fossa, and infratemporal fossa.
    • Define the paranasal sinuses and identify the location of each.
    • Name the bones that make up the walls of the orbit and identify the openings associated with the orbit.
    • Identify the bones and structures that form the nasal septum and nasal conchae, and locate the hyoid bone.
    • Identify the bony openings of the skull.
    • Describe each region of the vertebral column and the number of bones in each region.
    • Discuss the curves of the vertebral column and how these change after birth.
    • Describe a typical vertebra and determine the distinguishing characteristics for vertebrae in each vertebral region and features of the sacrum and the coccyx.
    • Define the structure of an intervertebral disc.
    • Determine the location of the ligaments that provide support for the vertebral column.
    • Discuss the components that make up the thoracic cage.
    • Identify the parts of the sternum and define the sternal angle.
    • Discuss the parts of a rib and rib classifications.
    • Describe the bones that form the pectoral girdle.
    • List the functions of the pectoral girdle.
    • Identify the divisions of the upper limb and describe the bones in each region.
    • List the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the upper limb.
    • Define the pelvic girdle and describe the bones and ligaments of the pelvis.
    • Explain the three regions of the hip bone and identify their bony landmarks.
    • Describe the openings of the pelvis and the boundaries of the greater and lesser pelvis.
    • Identify the divisions of the lower limb and describe the bones of each region.
    • Describe the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the lower limb.

    Unit 4: Muscular System; Subunit 1: Muscular System Function and Muscle Tension

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the functions of muscles.
    • List the characteristics of muscle tissue.
    • Review the different types of muscle tissue.
    • Describe the layers of connective tissues packaging skeletal muscle.
    • Describe the connective tissue components of a muscle and their relationship to the bundling of muscle fibers.
    • Explain how muscles work with tendons to move the body.
    • Explain concentric, isotonic, and eccentric contractions.
    • Describe the length-tension relationship.
    • Explain what a motor unit is and how it relates to muscle contraction.

    Unit 4: Muscular System; Subunit 2: Muscle Tissue Anatomy and Physiology

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Identify areas of the skeletal muscle fibers.
    • Identify the components of a sarcomere.
    • Differentiate between the proteins that comprise thick and thin filaments.
    • Describe the structure of the junction where a nerve fiber meets a muscle fiber.
    • Explain how a nerve fiber stimulates a skeletal muscle fiber.
    • Explain how stimulation of a muscle fiber activates its contractile mechanism.
    • Describe the components involved in a muscle contraction.
    • Explain how muscles contract and relax.
    • Describe the sliding filament model of muscle contraction.
    • Describe intercalated discs and gap junctions.
    • Describe a desmosome.
    • Describe a dense body.
    • Explain how smooth muscle works with internal organs and passageways through the body.
    • Explain how smooth muscles differ from skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    Unit 4: Muscular System; Subunit 3: Muscle Metabolism, Fibers, and Repairs

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Identify the different sources of ATP that muscle cells rely upon.
    • Explain how skeletal muscle meets its energy demands during rest and exercise.
    • Explain the basis of muscle fatigue and soreness.
    • Discuss why extra oxygen is needed even after an exercise has ended.
    • Describe the types of skeletal muscle fibers.
    • Explain fast and slow muscle fibers.
    • Describe hypertrophy and atrophy.
    • Explain how resistance exercise builds muscle.
    • Describe the function of satellite cells.
    • Define fibrosis.
    • Explain which muscle has the greatest regeneration ability.

    Unit 4: Muscular System; Subunit 4: Joint Movements

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Define the different types of body movements
    • Identify the joints that allow for these motions
    • Describe the bones that articulate together to form selected synovial joints.
    • Discuss the movements available at each joint.
    • Describe the structures that support and prevent excess movements at each joint.

    Unit 5: Integumentary System; Subunit 1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Integumentary System

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the different functions of the skin and the structures that enable them.
    • Explain how the skin helps maintain body temperature.
    • Describe the normal and pathological colors that the skin can have, and explain their causes.
    • Identify the components of the integumentary system.
    • Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer.
    • Identify and describe the hypodermis and deep fascia.
    • Describe the role of keratinocytes and their life cycle.
    • Identify the accessory structures of the skin.
    • Describe the structure and function of hair and nails.
    • Describe the structure and function of sweat glands and sebaceous glands.

    Unit 5: Integumentary System; Subunit 2: Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Skin

    The lessons within this subunit cover the following learning objectives:

    • Describe the three most common forms of skin cancer.
    • Describe several different diseases and disorders of the skin.
    • Describe the effect of injury to the skin and the process of healing.