Author:
Educurious ., Educurious .
Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson, Lesson Plan, Module, Teaching/Learning Strategy, Unit of Study
Level:
Middle School
Tags:
  • PBL
  • Project Based Learning
  • Social Studies
  • Washington
  • Washington State History
  • pbl
  • project-based-learning
  • social-studies
  • wa-science
  • wa-sel
  • wa-social-studies
  • washington
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Roaring Rivers

    Roaring Rivers

    Overview

    This unit begins with a challenge in which students must make a decision for the common good. The task highlights the importance of considering various stakeholder perspectives in order to serve the common good. Students transfer what they have learned to their study of a major dam project in Washington State. Teams focus on one of four projects (Upper Skagit Hydroelectric Project, Lower Snake River Project, Columbia River Gorge Project, Columbia River Basin Project). Each team works together to understand the perspectives of diverse stakeholders as they develop a response to the unit-driving question: How can dams in Washington serve the common good? Teams apply what they have learned to come up with a recommendation for the future of the dam project that considers how it will impact people and places.

    Module 1: Dams and the Common Good

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 1: Dams and the Common Good

    Roaring Rivers

    Module 1 Overview

    Module Overview

    In this module, students are introduced to the idea of the common good, and what it means to make a decision that serves the common good. They are launched into the unit by collaborating with their classmates and considering multiple stakeholders’ perspectives in order to make a community decision that benefits the common good. Students are then introduced to how Washington’s geography and climate have influenced the roles and locations of dams across the state. Next, they learn about the history and purposes of dams in different regions and how they are a feat of ingenuity, but also a point of tension between various stakeholders. This module prepares students with foundational knowledge about dams before they begin their focused research and make a recommendation for the future of a dam project in Washington.

    Lesson 1.1: Decisions for the Common Good (60 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Analyze the perspectives and complexities of a community issue.
    • Engage in collaborative decision-making that represents multiple perspectives.
    • Build inquiry around who the stakeholders are when considering a community issue.
    Students are launched into the unit with a challenge: Can they solve a community issue in a way that satisfies all stakeholders? After organizing into teams, students study the issue, consider diverse perspectives in the community, and come up with a solution that is considerate of all perspectives and serves the common good. Finally, students are introduced to the unit’s final product, for which teams study a controversial dam project, then create a public awareness campaign around a recommendation for the dam project that serves the common good.
    Lesson 1.2: Dams for the Common Good (70 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Analyze different positions on the issue of dams and how they impact a group of people in Washington.
    • Build inquiry around who the stakeholders are when considering the future of dams.
    In this lesson, students learn about how the Upper Skagit Tribe is affected by the damming of the Skagit River and how the tribe’s members are fighting for their livelihood. They draw on what they have learned from the Skagit River and their prior knowledge to generate ideas about the controversy around dams and the stakeholders affected by them. Students research their stakeholder’s perspective, then apply what they learn to their team’s decision-making and public awareness campaign. Lastly, they create a Know & Need to Know chart for this unit by recording what they know so far about the controversy and future of dam projects in Washington and what questions they have.
    Lesson 1.3: Washington’s Physical Environment (65 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Identify the main rivers that flow through Washington and how they influence the state’s livelihood.
    • Identify how stakeholder groups were able take advantage of Washington’s natural resources and geography.
    Students are placed in their dam project teams and use interactive maps to explore the geography of Washington and the region where they live. They identify the rivers that flow through the state and the wildlife and natural resources they provide. Students also learn about the different climates that impact each region of the state, and consider the accessibility of water in particular areas. This lesson provides students with a deeper understanding of Washington and which stakeholders might take advantage of its diverse resources. Students later connect these understandings to their team’s recommendation for their dam project.
    Lesson 1.4: History and Purposes of Dams  (70 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Use a timeline to identify what led to the construction of dams in Washington.
    • Identify the different purposes of dams throughout the state.
    • Engage in collaborative discussions about how the purposes of dams have and continue to address the common good.
    In this lesson, students dive deeper into understanding the purposes and impacts of dams. They first read an article and watch a video to understand the history and purposes of dams dating back to ancient civilizations. Teams are each assigned a dam project to focus on for their public awareness campaign. They then use a timeline to understand the history of dams in Washington and identify the costs and benefits to the land, wildlife, and people in the state. Finally, students assess their new understandings and inquiries, and revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 1.1: Community Center Scenario and Organizer; Know & Need to Know chart
    • Lesson 1.2: Skagit River Dams Notes Organizer
    • Lesson 1.3: Geography and Climate Notes Organizer
    • Lesson 1.4: History and Purposes of Dams Notes Organizer; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer
    Vocabulary
    • climate: the weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
    • common good: anything that benefits and is naturally shared by all members of a given community, compared to things that benefit only the private good of individuals or sectors of society
    • economics: a field of study relating to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
    • ecosystem: a community of plants, animals, and other living organisms that interact as a system
    • geography: the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, climate, and the human societies that are spread across it
    • hydroelectric power: electricity generated through the use of water
    • interests: the things or activities that a person is curious or concerned about
    • irrigation: the process of bringing in water from another location for crops
    • precipitation: liquid or frozen water that forms in the atmosphere and falls to Earth
    • reservoir: a large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water
    • stakeholder: one who is involved in or affected by a course of action
    • utility: an organization that supplies a community with electricity, gas, water, or sewage services
    • weather: the state of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness, calm or storm, and clearness or cloudiness

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.1: Decisions for the Common Good

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    Why does Washington have so many dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze the perspectives and complexities of a community issue.
    • Engage in collaborative decision-making that represents multiple perspectives.
    • Build inquiry around who the stakeholders are when considering a community issue.

    Purpose

    You are launched into the unit with a challenge: Can you solve a community issue in a way that satisfies all stakeholders? After organizing into teams, you will study the issue, consider diverse perspectives in the community, and come up with a solution that is considerate of all perspectives and serves the common good. Finally, you will be introduced to the unit’s final product, for which each team will study a controversial dam project, then create a public awareness campaign around a recommendation for the dam project that serves the common good.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about a community issue: Learn about a scenario impacting the community you live in.
    2. Make a decision for the good of the community: Take on a community stakeholder position and use your Community Center Scenario and Organizer to collaborate with other community members to make a decision that will work for the good of the community.
    3. Debrief your decision-making process and experience: Reflect on the process of collaborative decision-making for the good of the community when different stakeholder perspectives must be considered. Think about whose perspectives are valued and how decisions are made for the common good.
    4. Introduce the unit and final product: Review the unit poster and learn about the public awareness campaigns you and your classmates will create to advocate for rivers and dams that serve the common good.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards

    SSS1.6-8.2 Evaluate the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.

    SSS3.6-8.1 Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.2: Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students are launched into the unit with a challenge: Can they solve a community issue in a way that satisfies all stakeholders? After organizing into teams, students study the issue, consider diverse perspectives in the community, and come up with a solution that is considerate of all perspectives and serves the common good. Finally, students are introduced to the unit’s final product, for which teams study a controversial dam project, then create a public awareness campaign around a recommendation for the dam project that serves the common good.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, organize your students into six equal groups.
      • Each student in a group represents an individual stakeholder. Decide how you want to group your students since they are collaborating on an issue. Consider which students may need additional scaffolding and support during group work.
    • For Step 2, print out the Teacher Resource: Stakeholder Perspectives handout and cut out the strips of paper with different stakeholder perspectives.
      • As students share their stakeholder perspectives with their groups, distribute the strips of paper providing more information about each stakeholder’s perspective to the students acting in the corresponding roles.
    • These extra perspectives are for the purpose of adding additional insights that the groups might not otherwise consider.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about a community issue(5 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to a community issue that does not have an easy or straightforward solution. In groups, students consider diverse stakeholder perspectives and recommend a solution for the good of the community. This prepares students to consider how all perspectives should be represented when decisions are being made that affect groups, communities, states, or regions.

    You might say: Each of you lives in some kind of neighborhood or community. Today you will be presented with an issue impacting a community and asked to propose a solution. As you listen to the scenario, consider who is impacted and how.

    [Slide 2] Students learn about a scenario that impacts the community where they live.

    • Distribute the Community Center Scenario and Organizer handout to each student. Ask them to follow along as you read the scenario in Part 1 aloud to the class.
    • Ask students to turn and talk with a partner to discuss what the issue is, what decision needs to be made, and who is impacted.
    • Invite students to respond. As they do, record their ideas about who is impacted on the board.
      • Possible responses: children and teens, retirement community, dog owners, environmentalists, community historians, families.
    Step 2: Make a decision for the good of the community(40 min)

    Purpose: Student groups collaborate to discuss how the issue at hand impacts stakeholders and the stakeholders’ perspectives on the issue, then decide on a solution for the common good.

    You might say: You have named many of the community members impacted by the building of the community center. Each group is a specific stakeholder that has an interest in what happens to the park. You will be put into groups to discuss how those stakeholders are impacted, then consider the diverse perspectives of all stakeholders to make a collaborative decision about the future of the park.

    [Slides 3–4] Have student groups take on the perspectives of different community stakeholders.

    • Slide 3. Have students respond to the following prompt.
      • What do you think it means to make a decision that is for the good of the community, or the common good?
        • Possible responses: everyone benefits; there is something for everyone, not just one person or group of people.
    • Invite students to respond and record their responses on the board. Narrow down the list to 3–4 criteria and have the students use these criteria for making their decisions.
    • Explain to students that when they are placed in their groups, they are to decide how the stakeholder they are representing is impacted, and then to make a decision that is for the good of the community.
    • Slide 4. Place students into equal groups of six and assign each student the perspective of a stakeholder: youth, families, the retirement community, environmentalists, dog owners, and community historians. Clarify that a stakeholder is a person who is involved in or affected by a course of action. Students may also choose their stakeholder perspective.
    • Have students look at Parts 2­–3 of the Community Center Scenario and Organizer handout and review the directions with them before they begin working.
    • Explain to students that as they are sharing their perspectives, you will hand them strips of paper that detail perspectives of the stakeholders they represent. Students should continue sharing their own ideas, but this may help them consider perspectives they may not have thought of on their own.

    [Slides 5] Have each group share its decision and how it is for the good of the community.

    • Explain to students that each group is given a chance to share its decision and rationale, then the class votes on if the community center should be built in the park.
    • Have each group share their decision.

    [Slide 6] Lead a Q&A.

    • Ask: Do you have any questions or concerns about the decisions made by the other groups in the class?
    • Provide a few minutes for groups to discuss the decisions of other teams and see if they have any questions or concerns about them. You can also provide groups time to respond to questions raised, if they would like to.
    • Explain to students that they should now debrief their decision-making experience, then the class votes on which solution for the community center to put on the ballot.
    Step 3: Debrief your decision-making process and experience(10 min)

    Purpose: Students debrief what it felt like trying to make a decision for the common good. This prepares them for thinking about perspectives of stakeholders when it comes to local, regional, and state-level decisions. This learning experience helps students enter into a unit for which they consider the controversial issue of dams in Washington, and how they can serve the common good in the future.

    You might say: Each one of you was assigned a particular stakeholder’s perspective, and each of you was invested because the decision for the community center was going to have a broad impact on the community. However, it also impacted others around you, and it was important to hear everyone out in order to make an informed decision that could benefit everyone.

    [Slide 7] Have students debrief what it felt like to make a decision for the common good.

    • Invite groups to discuss the questions below.
      • How did it feel to share your stakeholder’s perspective with your group members, knowing they had different interests in mind when it came to deciding what might be done to the park?
      • What was it like trying to come to a consensus or decision about if the city should go ahead with building the community center in the park?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that making a decision when there are multiple stakeholders with diverse perspectives is challenging, as students may have just experienced. Some decisions are more complex than others, and one must be informed in order make the best decision for the common good of a community.

    [Slide 8] Have students vote on the solution they feel is best for the good of the community.

    • Create a poll or have students vote on which solution is best for the good of the community, using the criteria they decided on in Step 2.
    • After students have voted, have them identify how their decision reflects what they established was most important based on their chosen criteria.
    Step 4: Introduce the unit and final product(5 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to the unit poster and the organization of the unit. This helps students understand how the content and their work throughout the unit prepare them to design a public awareness campaign about the future of dams in Washington.

    You might say: You will be learning about an important issue that has impacted many people and the environment in Washington. Dams have been around for a long time and have been a source of controversy all over the world. Throughout this unit, you will learn about the perspectives that different stakeholders have and how dams impact them.

    [Slide 9] Present the arc of learning for the unit via the driving questions.

    • The unit driving question: How can dams in Washington serve the common good?
    • Module 1: Why does Washington have so many dams?
    • Module 2: What are the costs and benefits of dams? 
    • Module 3: How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?
    • For the final product, student teams determine whether their specific dam project should be preserved, improved, or demolished, then create a public awareness campaign to convince stakeholders that their recommendation serves the common good.
    • Explain to students that they learn more about the connection between the content and the final product in the next lesson.

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 1.2: Dams for the Common Good

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    Why does Washington have so many dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze different positions on the issue of dams and how they impact a group of people in Washington.
    • Build inquiry around who the stakeholders are when considering the future of dams.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about how the Upper Skagit Tribe is affected by the damming of the Skagit River and how the tribe’s members are fighting for their livelihood. You will draw on what you have learned from the Skagit River and your prior knowledge to generate ideas about the controversy around dams and the stakeholders affected by them. You will research your stakeholder’s perspective, then apply your learning to your team’s decision-making and public awareness campaign. Lastly, you will create a Know & Need to Know chart for this unit by recording what you know so far about the controversy and future of dam projects in Washington and what questions you have.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on what it means to do something for the common good: Reflect on a set of images and define what you think it means for something to benefit the common good.
    2. Introduce students to the impact of dams on the Upper Skagit Tribe: Watch the King 5 video "Seattle’s Skagit River dams hurt salmon, orcas, and Native American culture, agencies say" to learn about how a Washington tribe is being impacted by the damming of the Skagit River and how the tribe’s members are fighting for their livelihood. As you watch, complete the Skagit River Dams Notes Organizer.
    3. Introduce the public awareness campaign and rubric: Watch a public awareness campaign video "The Last Days of Tua" to learn about the impact of dams on a farming community in Portugal to see how the public is being informed about this issue. Use the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric document to learn more about the public awareness campaign that you and your team of classmates will be creating for your final product.
    4. Create a class Know & Need to Know chart: Identify what you already know and still need to know about stakeholders’ perspectives on dams and about creating a public awareness campaign.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing: 70 minutes
    Standards

    SSS1.6-8.2: Evaluate the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sticky notes
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about how the Upper Skagit Tribe is affected by the damming of the Skagit River and how the tribe’s members are fighting for their livelihood. They draw on what they have learned from the Skagit River and their prior knowledge to generate ideas about the controversy around dams and the stakeholders affected by them. Students research their stakeholder’s perspective, then apply what they learn to their team’s decision-making and public awareness campaign. Lastly, they create a Know & Need to Know chart for this unit by recording what they know so far about the controversy and future of dam projects in Washington and what questions they have.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, read about the history of the term common good.
      • The term common good is often used in the fields of economics and political science. Common good refers to anything that benefits and is naturally shared by all members of a community, compared to things that benefit only the private good of individuals or sectors of society.
      • Read the ThoughtCo article "What is the Common Good in Political Science? Definition and Examples" to learn more about the history of the term and about modern examples that students may be able to connect to their lives.
    • For Step 2, familiarize yourself with the article about the Upper Skagit Tribe and Seattle City Light.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with the article accompanying the other video that you intend for students to watch.
      • Read the article from Undisciplined Environments, "The Last Days of Tua," to understand how the Foz Tua dam is impacting people in Portugal.
    • Note how this public awareness campaign is bringing knowledge and facts to the public.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on what it means to do something for the common good(10 min)

    Purpose: Students begin to think about what it means to do something for the good of the community and what it means to consider different stakeholders’ perspectives on an issue. They continue to draw on these ideas as they make decisions for the future of their dam project.

    You might say: In the previous lesson, you had a chance to consider multiple stakeholders’ perspectives around an issue impacting a community. You all took on the challenge of trying to come to a decision for the good of the community and thinking about what it means to do something for the common good. Today, you will be introduced to an issue that has impacted people all over the world that also impacts you, as residents of Washington.

    [Slide 2] Have students think about what they are willing to compromise on for the good of their community.

    • Ask students to think of a time when they had to give up or compromise on something they wanted so a group of people they cared for could have something that benefited them all.
    • Have students turn and talk about their experience with someone next to them.
    • Invite student volunteers to share their stories.

    [Slides 3–5] Introduce the concept of the common good.

    • Explain to students that you are going to show them some images, and they are to decide if what they see is something that benefits the common good, or only the good of some people.
    • As students look at the items on each slide, ask them to vote on whether the item benefits all people or only some people. Invite students to provide their reasoning for their vote.
      • Possible responses: All of the items benefit the common good except for the shopping mall. Shopping malls do not fill basic human needs, such as clean water, food, and air; they only benefit consumers with financial resources.
    • Facilitate a discussion by asking students to respond to the following prompts.
      • What makes something beneficial for the common good?
      • What makes something not beneficial for the common good?
    • Invite students to respond, and create a running list of criteria named that make something beneficial for the common good on the board.
      • Possible responses: Something that all or most people benefit from; something that is not just for a select group of people; something that works to everyone’s advantage; something that does not take away from the rights or opportunities of others.
    Step 2: Introduce students to the impact of dams on the Upper Skagit Tribe(25 min)

    Purpose: Students watch a video that introduces them to the controversy that surrounds dams in Washington. They learn about how the Upper Skagit Tribe has been impacted by dams and how its members are fighting to be heard when decisions are made about the damming of the Skagit River. This is also an opportunity for students to hear from stakeholders that should be considered when making decisions about the future of dams.

    [Slides 6–8] Introduce students to the tension between the Upper Skagit Tribe and Seattle City Light.

    You might say: As you likely realized, it can be challenging to make a decision for the good of everyone in a community and region. Some stakeholders are more impacted than others, and therein lies the challenge to acknowledge, value, and include the interests of everyone. Today, you are going to hear about how the Upper Skagit Tribe has been impacted by the use of dams for electricity.

    • Slide 7. Have students identify the Skagit River on the map of Washington.
    • Slide 8. Show students the zoomed-in version of the Skagit River, identifying that it begins in British Columbia, stretches 150 miles through the North Cascade mountains, and empties into the Salish Sea in Mount Vernon. Explain that it is the largest river in Washington and is the only river that is home to all five species of Puget Sound salmon, an important food source for orcas in the region.

    [Slides 9–10] Have students identify the ancestral land of the Upper Skagit Tribe.

    • Ask students if they can identify whose tribal land they are living on.
    • Have students identify the Upper Skagit Tribe’s land on the map.

    [Slide 11] Show students the damming of the Skagit River.

    • Have students turn and talk about the following prompts.
      • In what ways do you think the Skagit River is important for the Upper Skagit Tribe?
      • What do you know about dams on rivers and how they could impact the tribe’s access to salmon?
    • Invite students to share their responses.
    • Explain that in the early 1920s, the construction of three dams was approved so hydropower, or water power, could be used to generate electricity for residents of Seattle and the surrounding communities. The project was owned by Seattle City Light, a public utility company that provides electricity to residences and businesses. The Gorge Dam was completed in 1924, the Diablo Dam in the 1930s, and the Ross Dam in 1953.

    [Slides 12–13] Show students the video about the impact of dams on the Upper Skagit Tribe.

    • Explain to students that they are going to watch a video clip from a news article about the impact of dams on tribes and their connection to salmon, but they also hear about another stakeholder of dams: the energy companies that use the dams for hydropower. This hydropower is converted into electricity, which is sold to people living all over the state to power homes, schools, businesses, and more.
    • Explain to students that as they watch and listen to the video, they can complete the Skagit River Dams Notes Organizer. They should focus on the questions below as they watch the video.
      • Who is impacted by the dams, or who are the stakeholders?
      • Why do they care?
      • Whose perspectives are recognized in this video, and whose perspectives are missing?
      • Whose perspective should be recognized or prioritized when it comes to the dams?
    • Slide 12. Play the video, "Seattle’s Skagit River dams hurt salmon, orcas, and Native American culture, agencies say."
      • Pause at [1:55] and ask: In what ways do you think the Skagit River is important to the Upper Skagit Tribe?
        • Possible response: The river is the lifeblood of the tribe; it has provided salmon and resources to the tribe members for thousands of years.
      • Pause at [2:23] and ask: Who is benefiting from the hydropower generated by the dams?
        • Possible response: Seattle City Light and people who pay for electricity.
      • Pause at [4:50] and ask: What is the perspective of Seattle City Light?
        • Possible response: They have no intention of taking advantage of the tribes, and hope to listen and change their mission as needed; they think the salmon are not affected, because salmon were not in that part of the river to begin with and could not have made it past the natural barriers in the river.
      • Pause at [5:45] and ask: What is the perspective of the biologist?
        • Possible response: Salmon naturally swim upstream and should be able to navigate around natural barriers; a study should be conducted to see if any salmon made it past the dams.
      • Play the video to [7:45].
    • Slide 13. Have students turn and talk about the following prompts.
      • What does the Upper Skagit Tribe need? What are the tribe members asking for?
      • Why do you think they feel like they are not being heard?
      • Elicit responses from students.
    Step 3: Introduce the public awareness campaign and rubric(25 min)

    Purpose: Now that students have a basic understanding of the controversy around dams, they consider how a community on the other side of the world, faced with the prospect of damming a river and changing a region forever, is coming together to educate people and address the issue. This step helps students continue to unpack the complexities inherent in damming Washington’s rivers, and inspire students to propose solutions for the future that consider all stakeholders and serve the common good.

    [Slides 14–15] Introduce students to a public awareness campaign.

    • Slide 14. Revisit the unit poster and read the final product aloud to students.
    • Slide 15. Explain that there are many different types of public awareness campaigns: posters, videos, social media ads or clips, billboards, or infographics. They typically come in whatever form is most effective in making sure the public sees them.
    • Explain to students that they are working in project teams to create a public awareness campaign that proposes a recommendation about the future of dams.

    [Slide 16] Show the trailer for the public awareness video about the impact of dams in Portugal.

    • Explain to students that they are watching a trailer for a movie made to bring awareness to the issue of a dam being constructed in Portugal and how it is impacting farmers and the community there.
    • Talking points:
    • The construction of dams impacts people all over the world. You are going to be watching a trailer about a large dam that is under construction in Portugal’s Alto Douro region for the purpose of generating clean, hydroelectric power. To put the dam in, parts of the area will be flooded, and a river that many enjoy for recreation will be impacted.
    • This public awareness campaign was created to inform the public about the impact of the dam on the ecology, and how the power generated from this dam will be minimal, but there is an environmental and financial cost that everyone has to pay.
    • As you watch the video, listen for the perspectives of those most impacted.

    [Slide 17] Facilitate a discussion about what students noticed in the video.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts.
      • What are the perspectives of the people in the video, and how do they feel about the construction of the dam?
      • Do they feel that their perspectives are being heard?
    • Invite students to share their responses and for others to add to their classmates’ ideas.

    [Slide 18] Introduce the public awareness campaign rubric.

    • Distribute the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric to each student.
    • Clarify for students that they are learning about how dams have impacted different stakeholders, and their task is to work with a team using different stakeholder perspectives to come up with a recommendation about the future of dams in Washington.
      • Skagit River Hydroelectric Project: Ross, Diablo, and Gorge Dams
      • The Lower Snake River Project: Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, Little Goose, and Lower Granite Dams
      • The Columbia River Basin Project: Grand Coulee Dam
      • The Columbia River Gorge Project: Bonneville, John Day, Dalles Dams
    • Go over the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric with the class and answer any questions students might have.

    [Slide 19] Have students choose the stakeholder perspective they want to research for the final product.

    • Explain to students that they have a chance to select which stakeholder they seek to understand and represent on their project team. They select their top three choices from the five choices listed:
      • Environmentalists
      • Tribes
      • Farmers
      • Energy companies
      • Community members
    • Distribute a sticky note to each student and have them write their name and their top three choices.
    • Collect the sticky notes at the end of the class session, and use student preferences when you assign students to their public awareness campaign teams.

    Teacher Tip: Organizing Project Teams

    We understand that organizing students into project teams can be a complex task. In project-based learning, it is important that students are supported by both you and their peers in fulfilling their roles and tasks. Read this Edutopia article for more information on how to facilitate efficient group work that values the diversity of voices and abilities in your class: "Not Just Group Work — Productive Group Work!

     
    Step 4: Create a class Know & Need to Know chart(10 min)

    Purpose: Now that students are grounded in the issue and the final product—creating a public awareness campaign—they create a class Know & Need to Know chart to help them track what they know about the future of damming in Washington, and what they want to know about creating a public awareness campaign to educate others about possible solutions and diverse perspectives.

    [Slide 20] Have students assess their prior knowledge about dams and public awareness campaigns.

    • Create a class Know & Need to Know chart to engage students in activating what they already know about the unit topic and final product, as well as raising questions they want to answer.
    • Facilitate a Turn and Talk on the four questions below, then a whole-class share-out.
      • What do you know about the ways in which different stakeholders are impacted by dams?
      • What do you need to know about the ways in which different stakeholders are impacted by dams?
      • What do you know about creating a public awareness campaign that highlights stakeholder perspectives and proposes a call to action about the future of dams?
      • What do you need to know about creating a public awareness campaign that highlights stakeholder perspectives and proposes a call to action about the future of dams?
    • Explain to students that as they progress through the unit, they continue revisiting and updating the Know & Need to Know chart.

    Teacher Tip: Tracking and Resolving Questions With a Know & Need to Know Chart

    A Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website.

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.3: Washington’s Physical Environment

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    Why does Washington have so many dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the main rivers that flow through Washington and how they influence the state’s livelihood.
    • Identify how stakeholder groups were able take advantage of Washington’s natural resources and geography.

    PurposeYou will be placed in your dam project teams and use interactive maps to explore the geography of Washington and the region where you live. You will identify the rivers that flow through the state and the wildlife and natural resources they provide. You will also learn about the different climates that impact each region of the state, and consider the accessibility of water in particular areas. This lesson will provide you with a deeper understanding of Washington and which stakeholders might take advantage of its diverse resources. You will later connect these understandings to your team’s recommendation for your dam project.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Make personal connections to Washington’s geography and climate: Reflect on the outdoor activities that you enjoy participating in and how they are connected to the state’s geography and climate.
    2. Explore Washington’s geography and climate: Watch the Oregonian video "Columbia River, Great River of the West" to understand the importance of rivers to the region, people, and environment. Learn more about Washington’s physical features, resources, and climate by reading the Choose Washington article "Washington State's Diverse Climate and Geography" with a partner and completing the Geography and Climate Notes Organizer.
    3. Get to know Washington’s rivers: Test your knowledge by identifying the state’s rivers on the Rivers of Washington map, and learn more about the rivers that flow through and power our state.
    4. Meet your project team: Meet the project team you will be working with to create your public awareness campaign. Each of you will advocate for a different dam stakeholder, and together you will collaborate on a call to action for a dam project in Washington. You will begin your work together by drafting your Team Commitments.
    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:65 minutes
    Standards

    G1.6-8.3: Analyze maps and charts from a specific time period to understand an issue or event.

    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Folders for student organization
    Lesson Overview
    Students are placed in their dam project teams and use interactive maps to explore the geography of Washington and the region where they live. They identify the rivers that flow through the state and the wildlife and natural resources they provide. Students also learn about the different climates that impact each region of the state, and consider the accessibility of water in particular areas. This lesson provides students with a deeper understanding of Washington and which stakeholders might take advantage of its diverse resources. Students later connect these understandings to their team’s recommendation for their dam project.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 4, assign students to project teams based on their stakeholder choices from Lesson 1.2.
      • Each student on a team advocates for a particular stakeholder: community members, farmers, energy companies, tribes, or environmentalists.
      • Each team is assigned one of four dam projects to research. The range of research required varies across each dam project, so consider your groupings when deciding which dam project to assign to each team. For example, the Columbia River Basin Project is focused on the Grand Coulee Dam, while the other three dam projects each involve multiple dams. Some students in your class may benefit from the focus on one dam rather than multiple. The research is scaffolded in the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric (Lesson 1.2) and in the Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer (Lesson 1.4).
      • Depending on the number of students in your class, you may need to assign more than one team to one or more of the dam projects. In this case, each team should still create their own public awareness campaign.
      • If you end up with extra students who are not able to make a team of five, have them join another group so that some groups may have two students representing the same stakeholder. You may choose to group according to your knowledge of students’ strengths and challenges.
      • In the next lesson, project teams are assigned to specific dam projects across the state. Be prepared to assign teams with one of the dams or sets of dams below.
        • Skagit River Hydroelectric Project: Ross, Diablo, and Gorge Dams
        • The Lower Snake River Project: Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, Little Goose, and Lower Granite Dams
        • The Columbia River Basin Project: Grand Coulee Dam
    • The Columbia River Gorge Project: Bonneville, John Day, and Dalles Dams

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Make personal connections to Washington's geography and climate(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on their favorite outdoor activities and how they are connected to Washington’s geography and climate.

    [Slide 2] Have students share their favorite outdoor activities.

    You might say: One of the many unique things about living in Washington is that there are so many activities available at our fingertips, and if you want to enjoy activities such as boating, swimming or hanging out by a lake, hiking, or biking, you do not have to go very far to do so. Dams make some of these activities possible. Today, we are going to explore our state’s geography and climate in order to understand how dams became a part of the infrastructure of our state.

    • Have students turn and talk with a partner about the prompts below.
      • What are some outdoor activities that you enjoy participating in throughout the year?
      • What is the ideal weather or climate for those activities?
    • Invite student volunteers to share their responses, encouraging a variety of activities to be shared.
    • Be prepared to share some examples yourself so students are exposed to a variety of activities; ideally, suggest activities that don’t require resources some students may not have. Examples: playing basketball outside, biking, running, building a snowman, or walking with friends or family members.
    • Highlight activities that might be done in or around particular geographic features—such as mountains, forests, or bodies of water—and under specific weather conditions. Show the range of activities that can be enjoyed throughout the state.
    Step 2: Explore Washington’s geography and climate(30 min)

    Purpose: Students analyze different maps to understand the connection between Washington’s geography and climate. This helps students understand how diverse the state’s climate and geography are, and how they impact the ways people live, work, and play.

    [Slide 3] Have students watch a video that highlights Washington’s largest river and its climate and geography.

    • Explain that students watch a video clip highlighting the beauty of one of the largest rivers in the Pacific Northwest: the Columbia River.
    • Explain to students that as they are watching the video, they should note what they observe about the geography, climate, river, and dam.
    • Play the Oregonian video "Columbia River, Great River of the West" from [0:00–3:00] for students to see how people enjoy rivers in the region.
    • Ask: What did you notice about the environment and how people use the river?
    • Ask students what questions have come up for them about the state’s geography, climate, rivers, and dams. These questions can be added to the Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.2.

    [Slide 4] Engage students in a conversation about the difference between weather and climate.

    You might say: Washington has a variety of climates throughout the state. The climate impacts outdoor activities and maybe even whether or not you decide to go outside on any given day. Climate also has an impact on where people choose to live and what kinds of work opportunities are available. Today, you will analyze several maps in order to understand the diversity of Washington’s climate.

    • Ask students to explain the difference between weather and climate in their own words.
    • Have students share what they know about the general climate of the region in which they live.
    • Clarify for them the difference between weather and climate. Weather consists of the short-term changes in the atmosphere that students see on a day-to-day basis, while climate describes the average weather one can expect over time in a particular region. Provide examples from the region where you live.

    [Slides 5–6] Have students read about and analyze climate and precipitation maps of Washington.

    • Slide 5. Explain to students that people talk about the climate and geography of Washington based on its regions, since different parts of Washington have different climates.
    • Have students identify the different regions they see on the map. Ask students to share stories about any experiences of being in other regions of Washington and what the weather was like when they were there.
    • Ask students to share what they know about the geography or physical features of the regions they have visited.
    • Slide 6. Explain to students that the geography and climate of Washington are often connected. Have students look at the physical map of Washington and share their observations. Encourage students to share what they think the different colors and lines represent on the map.
      • Possible responses: The brown color represents mountain ranges and peaks; the green color represents forests; the blue lines represent the rivers; light blue shapes represent bodies of water such as lakes.
      • Possible responses: There are mountains in Central and Eastern Washington; there are no larger bodies of water in Central or Eastern Washington; Central and Eastern Washington look very dry; Western Washington is very green, so there may be more trees or forests there; there are a lot of rivers throughout the state.
    • Explain to students that they work with a partner to read the Choose Washington article "Washington’s Diverse Climate and Geography."
    • Distribute the Geography and Climate Notes Organizer and explain that they should complete the organizer together.

    [Slide 7] Facilitate a class discussion about the article.

    • Have students respond to the following discussion prompts.
      • What did you notice about the connection between Washington’s diverse geography and climate?
      • How do you think the geography and climate impact people’s lifestyles, what activities they enjoy, and what types of jobs they might have?
    • Invite students to share their responses and encourage the class to build off of one another’s ideas.
    Step 3: Get to know Washington’s rivers(15 min)

    Purpose: Students identify the main rivers that flow through the state and consider how people in different regions access water. This step leads students to think about the role of dams.

    [Slides 8–9] Have students share what they know about the rivers in Washington.

    You might say: There are many rivers flowing through our state. Some of these rivers play a critical role in how different regions access water for farming, electricity, recreational activities, and basic needs like clean drinking water. Let’s identify some of the main rivers that flow through Washington.

    • Slide 8. Have students look at the map. Ask: How many rivers can you identify?
    • Put the students into pairs, then distribute a copy of the Rivers of Washington handout to each pair and have them label as many of the rivers on the blank map as they can.
    • After students have completed the handout, have student volunteers identify the rivers they are familiar with on the blank map on the screen.
    • Slide 9. Point out major rivers, such as the Columbia River, showing where it starts in British Columbia and travels south through Washington and empties into the Pacific Ocean on the coast of Oregon. Point out how the Snake River branches off the Columbia River in the Palouse region of the state. Point out the Skagit River located in the Puget Sound region.
    • Ask: What do you know about rivers?
    • Record student responses on the board.
      • Possible responses: Rivers form geographic features like valleys, lakes, and canyons; rivers are home to many fish and other wildlife; rivers are a source of freshwater; rivers are sometimes polluted by humans; many rivers flow into a larger body of saltwater; rivers are powerful forces; a river forms when gravity leads water to flow from a higher elevation down to a lower elevation.

    [Slide 10] Have students make a connection between the rivers and geography of Washington.

    • Ask: How do you think rivers are connected to the geography and climate of Washington?
    • Ask: When you look at this map of the geography of Washington, and you also know about the different climates throughout the state, how are people across the state impacted by rivers and what they provide?
      • Possible responses: Central or Eastern Washington may not get as much rain in the summer, which might affect what farmers can grow there; when it is hot across the different regions of Washington, people may try to find lakes and rivers to cool off or play in.
    • Explain that rivers are a powerful resource, and many people are trying to protect Washington’s rivers and the benefits they provide.
    • Ask:
      • How do you think rivers connect us?
      • How might rivers divide us?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that there are also many social, economic, and political issues around rivers that have divided us, and those are the issues they are exploring in this unit.
    Step 4: Meet your project team(15 min)

    Purpose: Students are organized into their project teams based on their choices from the previous lesson.

    [Slide 11] Assign students to their teams.

    You might say: In the previous lesson, you each had a chance to decide which stakeholder you wanted to represent in your project team. You will now be put into your teams, in which each stakeholder perspective will be represented.

    • Organize students into teams, such that all five stakeholders are represented in each.
    • Project the names of the students who make up each team, or write them on chart paper.
    • Have students gather with their teams. Explain that they are working together throughout the unit to create a public awareness campaign.
    • Ask each team member to complete the following sentence stem and share their responses with their team members:
      • I work best in a team when _________.
      • I feel supported in a team when __________.
    • Distribute the Team Commitments handout and direct each team to write their commitments to their work and to one another.
    • Distribute a folder to each team for organizing their handouts and notes. Provide a space in the classroom for teams to place their folders at the end of class.

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.4: The History and Purposes of Dams

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington state serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    Why does Washington have so many dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Use a timeline to identify what led to the construction of dams in Washington.
    • Identify the different purposes of dams throughout the state.
    • Engage in collaborative discussions about how the purposes of dams have and continue to address the common good.

    Purpose
    In this lesson, you will dive deeper into understanding the purposes and impacts of dams. You will read an article and watch a video to understand the history and purposes of dams, dating back to ancient civilizations. Your teams will each be assigned a dam project to focus on for your public awareness campaign. You will use a timeline to understand the history of dams in Washington and identify the costs and benefits to the land and people in the state. Finally, you will assess your new understandings and revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Make personal connections to community decisions: Think about how you felt when a decision was made about the city or community you live in and how it impacted you.
    2. Learn about the history and purposes of dams: Read the National Geographic Society article "Dams" and watch the AFP News Agency video "The Power of Dams" to learn about what led to the construction of dams and what purposes they serve in different regions of the world. Connect your learning in the History and Purposes of Dams Notes Organizer.
    3. Locate your project team’s assigned dam project: Use the ArcGIS interactive map "Major Dams in Washington" to locate the dam(s) that your team will research for your public awareness campaign.
    4. Understand the timeline and history of dams in Washington: Use the Timeline of Dams in Washington handout to learn about what led to the construction of some of the dams and their impact on the land, wildlife, and people in Washington. Record your learning in your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    5. Revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart: Assess your new understandings and inquiries, and add to the class Know & Need to Know chart.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    H4.6-8.2: Analyze how a historical event in Washington state history helps us to understand contemporary issues and events.

    H2.6-8.4: Explain and analyze how technology and ideas have impacted Washington state history since statehood.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students dive deeper into understanding the purposes and impacts of dams. They first read an article and watch a video to understand the history and purposes of dams dating back to ancient civilizations. Teams are each assigned a dam project to focus on for their public awareness campaign. They then use a timeline to understand the history of dams in Washington and identify the costs and benefits to the land, wildlife, and people in the state. Finally, students assess their new understandings and inquiries, and revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 3, consider scaffolds and supports for teams as they begin their work together.
      • As teams begin their work together, take note of groupings and interactions.
    • Consider what scaffolds or supports are needed for individual teams as they progress in their work.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Make personal connections to community decisions(5 min)

    Purpose: Students think back to the launch lesson activity and consider how community decisions can have positive and negative effects. They consider how a decision has impacted them in order to make a personal connection to how the construction of dams had a significant impact on the people and environment.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on a decision that impacted their lives.

    You might say: In the first lesson of our unit, you had a chance to brainstorm about a decision that was going to impact multiple stakeholders: how a community center would benefit the common good, but also what it could cost other stakeholders to go along with that decision. Today, you will learn more about the history of dams and begin to build inquiry about how the construction of dams was harmful or beneficial.

    • Ask students: What does it mean to consider the costs and benefits of a decision?
    • Provide an example of a past decision for which you had to weigh the costs and benefits.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner about the questions below.
      • Think about the neighborhood or city where you live. What is one change you would make to it?
      • Explain who that change might benefit. To whom might there be a cost?
    • Invite student volunteers to share their responses.
    • Explain to students that the terms cost and benefit are often used by economists when weighing the expected financial gain from a decision against the potential losses it could cause. These terms apply not only to monetary issues, but also to our day-to-day decisions.
    • Explain to students that, as they have learned, sometimes not all perspectives are taken into consideration when a decision is made. As they learn about why dams were constructed in Washington, it is important that they think about whose perspectives were considered and whose were not.
    Step 2: Learn about the history and purposes of dams(30 min)

    Purpose: Students read an article and watch a video in order to understand the reasons for the construction of dams in different regions of the world. This content will help students build inquiry around why dams might be necessary and who they benefit.

    [Slide 3] Have students learn about the history and purposes of dams.

    You might say: Dams have a complicated history, which affects the decisions that are made about them today. Your role as a project team is to research the history and issues connected to dams in Washington, and come up with a call to action about your team’s assigned dam project. You will read an article about the history of dams and watch a video that highlights the different purposes for which they are built. This will provide you with some foundational knowledge before you begin to learn about local dams.

    • Ask: Can you think of any innovations or technology that were invented by ancient civilizations and persist to this day? Provide the example of the plow.
      • Possible responses: dams, irrigation systems, farming and agricultural practices, weaponry, food preservation techniques, writing, tools, different uses of fire, hunting and gathering techniques.
    • Explain to students that they are working with a partner to read the National Geographic Society article "Dams" and watch the AFP News Agency video "The Power of Dams". In pairs, have students use the History and Purposes of Dams Notes Organizer to capture their learning.
    • Organize students into pairs or have them choose a partner.
    • Distribute the History and Purposes of Dams Notes Organizer to each pair and go over the directions.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate a class discussion about what students learned.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts.
      • What were some of the key purposes of dams in the past?
      • Dams are a fascinating symbol of ingenuity. In what ways are they seen as a benefit and a harm to the environment?
      • Many of the dams constructed hundreds of years ago continue to stand today. What questions do you have about the benefits or challenges of having these dams exist today?
    • Add student inquiries to the class Know & Need to Know chart started in Lesson 1.2.
    Step 3: Locate your project team’s assigned dam project(10 min)

    Purpose: Students get into their project teams and locate the dam that is the focus of their public awareness campaign.

    [Slides 5–6] Have students get into their project teams to locate the dam they are assigned.

    • Have students gather with their team members from Lesson 1.3.
    • Slide 5. Assign a focal dam project to each group, and have each student take out the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric they were given in Lesson 1.2. Have them write down the name of their dam project where indicated on the document. When assigning each team their dam project, tell them the name of the river the project is located on and the name of the project. For example, the dams on the Skagit River are part of the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project.
    • Slide 6. Explain to students that in Washington alone, there are 1,166 dams. In King County, there are 124 dams, which is twice as many as any other county in the state. Explain that many of the dams in King County serve the purpose of flood control.
    • Invite students to access the ArcGIS interactive map "Major Dams in Washington" to locate the project their team has been assigned. Explain that this interactive map highlights major dams in the state, but there are smaller ones spread throughout the state that are not included on the map.
    • Model how to use the interactive map by choosing and clicking on a dam. A box appears that indicates the name of the dam and its owner, agency, and location. Have students note the river, owner, and type of agency associated with their dam(s) on their Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric.
    • Indicate to students that a federal dam is operated and owned by the United States government, while a local dam is owned by the city or county.
    • Ask students what they notice and what they wonder about the locations of dams spread across the state. Add student inquiries to the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Step 4: Understand the timeline and history of dams in Washington(20 min)

    Purpose: Students use a timeline to identify the significant events that led to the construction of dams in Washington. This helps students understand the specific purposes of Washington’s dams as they begin their team’s research for their public awareness campaign.

    [Slides 7–9] Have students make connections between the geography of the state and the purposes of dams.

    • Slide 7. Use the physical map of Washington to remind students of its geography.
    • Slide 8. Explain to students that they are connecting the dots between what they have learned so far about the geography and climate of Washington and the purposes of dams.
    • Ask: How might dams serve a purpose where we live?
      • Possible responses: Some regions of the state do not receive an adequate supply of water, so dams might help with creating reservoirs; agricultural areas need water for irrigation; some dams are needed for navigation purposes, so that boats or ships can pass; dams are used to supply power to customers all over the state.
    • Slide 9. Ask a student volunteer to read the quote on the slide.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner to see if they can identify the reasons for the construction of dams in Washington.
      • Possible responses: navigation, irrigation, development of water power, and flood control.

    Help students understand the timeline of events that led to the need for dams in Washington.

    • Explain to students that they are looking at a timeline of events leading up to the construction of the dams in Washington, and their task is identifying the purposes of dams across the state and their impact on different stakeholders.
    • Have students remain in their teams and distribute the Timeline of Dams in Washington handout to each student. They are to look at the timeline together, but should individually highlight points on the timeline when dams have impacted the stakeholder group for whom they are advocating.
    • Distribute the Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer and go over the directions with the class.
    • Explain to students that they should complete Part One of the Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer using the information from the timeline.

    [Slide 10] Facilitate a class discussion to connect the purposes of dams with the stakeholders’ perspectives.

    • Ask:
      • As the dams were being constructed, what else was going on that had costs and benefits to the land, wildlife, and the different communities of people in the state?
        • Possible responses: The salmon population was impacted; irrigation helped farmers; the tribes’ traditional fishing grounds were flooded; local power companies found many opportunities to generate electricity; the land and ecosystem were threatened; there was transport of goods to other parts of the country or world.
      • In what ways do the different stakeholder interests compete or conflict with each other? Do you think there is a way for all stakeholders to benefit?
    Step 5: Revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on what they have learned so far about dams and public awareness campaigns by revisiting the class Know & Need to Know chart.

    [Slide 11] Have students reflect on their new understandings and inquiries.

    • Explain to students that it is important to assess what they have already learned and what they continue to have questions about. For this, revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart they started in Lesson 1.2.
    • Since the class may have added new questions to the chart earlier in the lesson, have them add ideas to what they now know.
    • Ask:
      • What do you now know about dams and public awareness campaigns?
      • What are you still wondering about dams and public awareness campaigns?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 2: Influencing the Future of Dams

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 2: Influencing the Future of Dams

    Roaring Rivers

     

    Module 2 Overview

     

    Module Overview

    In this module, students learn about the costs and benefits of dams for different stakeholders: environmentalists, farmers, tribes, community members, and energy companies. Students develop their understanding of the costs and benefits by engaging with primary and secondary sources and conducting their own research. Dam project teams collaborate to negotiate the tensions, compromises, and concessions that are necessary to make an evidence-based recommendation about their team’s dam project and how it impacts the common good.

    Lesson 2.1: The Impact of Dams on the Environment (80 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Analyze primary and secondary sources on the Hoover Dam to begin understanding how dams impact the environment.
    • Read an informational article about the dam project assigned to my team for information on the history, impacts, and controversy of the dam project.
    Students learn about the environmental impacts of one of the largest dams in the United States, the Hoover Dam, by analyzing videos and an article that highlight its costs and benefits to the people, land, and wildlife. They then read an informational text on the dam project their team was assigned to begin learning about its costs and benefits to Washington. Finally, students use what they have learned to reflect on the shared and different interests that their stakeholder group has with the Environmentalist.
    Lesson 2.2: The Impact of Dams on Tribes (90 minutes)
    Learning Targets: 
    I can:
    • Learn about how tribal sovereignty and tribal water rights were often not considered when dams were being built.
    • Listen to and watch video of tribal members describing the consequences and impacts of the Dalles dam on their tribe.
    • Research the impacts and consequences of my dam project on tribes.
    In this lesson, students learn about the impact of dam projects on the lives and subsistence of tribes. They listen to first-hand-accounts of the silencing of Celilo Falls and the river when the dam project was completed. Then, students continue researching their dam project by seeking to understand how it impacted the lives and livelihood of tribes in Washington.
    Lesson 2.3: The Impact of Dams on the Economy (95 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify and evaluate the different sources of energy that people rely on and the advantages and disadvantages for using them.
    • Use primary and secondary sources to understand the how dams have changed the way water and energy have influenced the economy of a region.
    • Research how my team’s dam project has costs and benefits to the economy.
    Students continue to deepen their knowledge about one of the purposes of dams, which is to generate electricity for many regions of the state. They learn about the different ways in which the region and state gets electricity, with hydroelectric energy being the source that powers most of Washington. Students use primary and secondary sources to compare costs and benefits of hydroelectric energy from dams and how it impacts multiple stakeholders. Lastly, they use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of their team’s dam project.
    Lesson 2.4: The Impact of Dams on Agriculture (85 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Analyze primary and secondary sources to understand the impact of dams on farming and agriculture.
    • Conduct research on how my dam project has an impact on farmers and agriculture in Washington.
    • Collaborate with my team to consider the diverse perspectives of the stakeholders that are impacted by our dam project.
    Students learn about how dams have been used for irrigation dating back to ancient civilizations. They use their knowledge about the geography of Washington to understand which regions have used dams to sustain the agriculture industry. They also learn about issues that can impact all stakeholders of a region and continue to address what it means to make a decision for the common good. Students use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of their dam project.
    Lesson 2.5: The Impact of Dams on a Community (80 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify the different ways that community members enjoy, access, and use water as a resource.
    • Analyze the multiple perspectives and positions of community members to inform my team’s decision about the future of dams.
    • Research the costs and benefits of my team’s dam project on communities in order to make an informed decision for our team’s public awareness campaign.
    Students learn about how dams impact people in different communities in different ways. They first identify the ways in which people enjoy and use water as a resource. They then learn about the costs to a community when a dam is constructed by considering diverse perspectives. Students synthesize their learning in order to make an informed recommendation about the future of their dam project and their team’s public awareness campaign.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 2.1: Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Stakeholder Interests Reflection
    • Lesson 2.2: Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Stakeholder Interests Reflection
    • Lesson 2.3: Forms of Energy Notes Organizer; Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer; Dam Project Article and Resource Guide; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Stakeholder Interests Reflection
    • Lesson 2.4: Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Stakeholder Interests Reflection
    • Lesson 2.5: Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Stakeholder Interests Reflection
    Vocabulary
    • agriculture: the practice of farming or cultivating soil and raising livestock for the purpose of preparing or marketing crops or food items
    • aqueduct: a channel used for the movement of water from one area to another
    • biomass: renewable matter used as a source of fuel
    • drought: a prolonged period of low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water
    • economy: the structure and use of material resources, such as money
    • ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
    • fossil fuels: fuel or energy sources, such as coal or gas, found in the earth’s crust
    • geothermal: relating to or produced by the internal heat of the earth
    • Indigenous: a group of people who were the first to inhabit the land, and who share ancestral ties to the land and resources where they live
    • industrialization: the development of the economy from industrial growth
    • infrastructure: the physical organization and facilities needed to operate society
    • irrigation: the watering of land by artificial means to foster plant growth
    • keystone species: a species of plant or animal that is key to the survival of an ecosystem
    • livelihood: a way of life; a means of support or subsistence
    • municipal: relating to a city or town and its governing body
    • nuclear: relating to the nucleus of an atom
    • overgrazing: excessive grazing by livestock that causes damage to grassland
    • radiation: a form of energy that travels in the form of waves or particles
    • renewable energy: a source of energy that is not depleted through use
    • resistance: the refusal to accept or comply with something
    • silt: fine sand or clay carried by running water
    • solar: relating to the sun
    • subsistence: a source or means of obtaining the necessities to support life

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.1: The Impact of Dams on the Environment

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    What are the costs and benefits of dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze primary and secondary sources about the Hoover Dam to begin understanding how dams impact the environment.
    • Read an article about the dam project assigned to my team for information on its history, impacts, and controversies.

    Purpose

    You will learn about the environmental impacts of one of the largest dams in the United States, the Hoover Dam, by analyzing a video and an article that highlight its costs and benefits to the people, land, and wildlife. You will then read an informational text on your assigned dam project to learn about its costs and benefits to Washington. Finally, use what you have learned to reflect on the shared and different interests that your stakeholder group has with the environmentalist.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Connect to the resources around you: Use the Resource Web to reflect on your access to and use of four resources: electricity, water, fish, and culture.
    2. Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam: Watch the Smithsonian video "How the 726-Foot-Tall Hoover Dam was Built Ahead of Schedule" and read the Water Encyclopedia article "Hoover Dam" to learn about the costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam to the environment. Record your notes in the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    3. Learn Navigating Text strategies: Learn about reading strategies you will use throughout the course in order to read in an active, strategic way.
    4. Read an informational article about your team’s dam project: Read a specific article provided by your teacher to learn about the costs and benefits of your dam project and how they impact different stakeholder interests. Record your research on your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    5. Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests: Use the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout to reflect on where you stand on the future of your team’s dam project.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:80 minutes
    Standards

    E1.6-8.2: Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues of Washington state in terms of costs and benefits for different groups.

    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students learn about the environmental impacts of one of the largest dams in the United States, the Hoover Dam, by analyzing videos and an article that highlight its costs and benefits to the people, land, and wildlife. They then read an informational text on the dam project their team was assigned to begin learning about its costs and benefits to Washington. Finally, students use what they have learned to reflect on the shared and different interests that their stakeholder group has with the Environmentalist.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, consider the variety of responses students may have for how to define and access culture as a resource.
    • Read this ThoughtCo article about how culture can be defined in a way that goes beyond traditions and celebrations: "So What is Culture, Exactly?"
    • Students may struggle with understanding the idea of culture as a resource. In this unit, salmon and the land are positioned as cultural resources for Washington tribes, which are tied to their livelihood. Students’ examples of cultural resources might include family, foods, stories, language, or knowledge.
    • In this unit, culture is referred to as a way of life, or way of seeing and interacting with the world. For the tribes, the fate of salmon had a cultural impact. Tribes’ traditions, livelihood, celebrations, ceremonies, and stories often include the salmon as a key species in the ecosystem, and the loss of salmon has had a detrimental effect on them.
    • For Step 1, create your own Resource Web as a model or example for the class.
    • For Step 4, become familiar with each team’s informational article in order to help students navigate the text.
    • Each team reads an informational article specific to their dam project. Read through each article to build foundational knowledge about each dam project. Use one of the articles to model how teams navigate the text.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Connect to the resources around you(10 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on the importance of four resources in their lives: electricity, water, fish, and culture. They connect to this reflection as they think about how dams impact those four resources, and use these connections to make a recommendation for their team’s dam project.

    [Slide 2] Have students make personal connections to four resources in their lives.

    You might say: As you and your team develop your stance on the future of your assigned dam projects, you are going focus on four resources: water, fish, electricity, and culture. Today, you will begin making connections to what those resources are and why they could be important to you.

    • Explain to students that they are working on a Resource Web, where they make personal connections to the four resources: water, fish, electricity, and culture. They are to think about how those resources are important to them and how they have access to them.
    • Ask students to turn and talk with a partner and share: How might water, fish, electricity, and culture be seen as resources for people to use?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Clarify that a cultural resource is a one they may not see, nor is it something provided to them; it is a part of who they are, and how they and their community see the world. Provide examples from your own life.
    • Distribute the Resource Web and have them put their names in the center of the web.
      • Have students list all of the things they use each resource for (i.e., brushing teeth, drinking, washing clothes, flushing the toilet, a family heirloom, etc.). Have students do this for each resource, so they can see how that resource is present in their life.
    • When students have finished, bring the class back together and have students eliminate the resource they think they can live without. Repeat this exercise until they only have one left.

    [Slides 3] Facilitate a discussion about students’ Resource Webs.

    • Have students turn and talk with a different partner and respond to the following prompts.
      • How did you make your decision for which resources to eliminate?
      • What would you be willing to compromise on?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that each of the four resources are ones we rely on in some way. As the unit progresses, students deepen their understandings of how dams impact those resources positively or negatively.
    Step 2: Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam(20 min)

    Purpose: Students analyze infographics on the environmental impact of the Hoover Dam as a case study, and make connections between this content and their team’s assigned dam project.

    [Slides 4–6] Introduce students to the Hoover Dam.

    You might say: Each of your teams will be focusing on different dam projects in Washington, but for now, we will use a well-known dam in the United States as a case study: the Hoover Dam. This will help your team learn what information to look for and consider as you conduct research on your own dam projects.

    • Ask students if they have ever heard of or visited the Hoover Dam, and have them share any prior knowledge of or connections to the dam.
    • Explain to students that they are watching a brief video about the Hoover Dam. As they watch, have them listen for information on what it took to build the dam.
    • Slide 4. Play the Smithsonian video "How the 726-Foot-Tall Hoover Dam was Built Ahead of Schedule" [3:32].
    • Slide 5. After showing the video, ask students: What was done to the Colorado River and the surrounding land in order to construct the Hoover Dam?
    • Slide 6. Explain to students that the Hoover Dam attracts visitors from all over the world, and Lake Mead is a popular recreational site for visitors.

    [Slide 7] Define ecosystem and discuss with students.

    • Explain to students that their focus in this lesson is on the environmental impacts of dams, such as on land, the ecosystems, and wildlife.
    • Ask students where they have heard the word ecosystem before and have students share any prior knowledge.
    • Explain that an ecosystem is defined as a geographic area where plants, weather, animals, and other organisms work together to support one another. For example, a change in weather or climate can affect what plants grow in an ecosystem, which then affects what herbivorous animals eat. If animals cannot adapt to the changes in an ecosystem, they either die or need to move to another ecosystem.
    • Explain that there is a lot more to learn about ecosystems, some of which may have learned in a science class, but for the purposes of this unit, students just need to understand that every living thing in an ecosystem can harm or support the survival of other organisms within that ecosystem.
    • Remind students that what happens in rivers also impacts oceans. So, it is important for students to think about the chain of impact on an ecosystem.
    • Talking points:
      • Explain that the impact of dams on ecosystems have been a heavily debated issue between environmental groups, energy companies, and dam owners.
      • Ecosystems not only provide a hospitable place for salmon and other wildlife, but also help with flood control, maintaining climates, and providing spots for recreational use.
      • The balance of ecosystems is also important for sustaining life in an area. This is something especially important to the traditions and beliefs of the tribes, and they see salmon as being a critical element of the ecosystem.
      • The population of wild fish is so low that there is a risk to the ecosystem in the region.
      • Dams all over the world have altered the natural landscapes that plants, animals, and people call their home, and the debate is often around how to restore a healthy ecosystem while balancing other stakeholder perspectives.

    [Slide 8] Introduce students to the environmental policies that need to be considered when making decisions about dams.

    • Explain to students that when decisions need to be made about dams, there are many factors that go into those decisions. To consider the environment and the needs of the ecosystem, dam owners are responsible and obligated to meet requirements to ensure the impact on the environment is minimal.
    • Talking points:
      • There are a number of responsibilities that dam owners must fulfill when operating a dam. You are learning about some of these legal obligations designed to protect the environment.
      • The Endangered Species Act, passed in 1973, requires protection for critical habitat areas and the development of recovery plans for species listed as endangered or threatened. Because several species of salmon in the region are on that list, dam owners are obligated to consider how the dam impacts the habitats and survival of the endangered fish. This requires coordination among federal, state, tribal, and local efforts.
      • The Clean Water Act of 1972 regulates the quality of the water and the pollutants that enter it in United States. This act holds dam owners responsible during the relicensing process to ensure that the operation of dams does not raise water temperatures and/or release particular gases that harm salmon and steelhead. Dam owners are continuing to figure out how to decrease water temperatures.
      • The Northwest Power Act of 1980 was established to provide an adequate and reliable energy supply to people living in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Part of this plan was to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the hydropower dams in the Columbia River Basin.
      • The National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) of 1969 was a critical law that empowered communities to protect themselves and their environment from dangerous or poorly planned federal projects. Some of those include dams owned by the federal government. NEPA holds the government accountable by reviewing the impacts of dams on water quality, soil erosion, habitats, as well as the economic and social impacts on nearby communities. If problems are foreseen, the government must have a plan of action to mitigate the negative impacts of the dams.
      • Lastly, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is an agency that regulates the distribution of electricity, natural gas, and oil. They are in charge of licensing and inspecting privately owned hydropower projects. This takes place every 30–50 years. Federal dams, such as the Snake River dams and the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington, as well as the Hoover Dam, are not subject to this, but still have great accountability to NEPA and environmental responsibilities.
      • This information is useful for several stakeholder groups to understand, such as the environmental stakeholders, as well as the energy companies.

    [Slides 9–11] Have students learn about the costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam.

    • Explain that there have been lasting impacts on the environment since the Hoover Dam was constructed.
    • Distribute the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer and clarify the directions for students. As you proceed through the slides about the Hoover Dam’s impact on the environment, have students complete the part of the table about the impact on the environment. Students add to this organizer in the following lessons.
    • Slide 9. Talking points:
      • When the Hoover Dam was being constructed, it changed the landscape of an ecosystem that was important to local wildlife. Some of the animals impacted in the region were the burrowing owl, the ring-tailed cat, and the bighorn sheep, just to name a few. These animals depended on nourishment from plants that were affected by the inconsistent flow of water from the dam.
      • Habitats can also be destroyed due to the change in water flow and lack of sedimentation. Sedimentation, or the process of materials settling to the bottom of the river, helps provide nutrients for many habitats. Lack of sedimentation can lead to the extinction of species dependent upon these nutrients.
      • The change in the water flow, oxygen levels in the water, the chemical makeup of the water, and many other factors can impact a habitat or ecosystem. Even slight changes to a habitat or ecosystem can influence the survival of species there.
      • What do you think can happen when disruption to an ecosystem cannot support certain animals or wildlife?
        • Possible responses: Animals may move to another area for survival; animals or plants may die.
    • Provide students with time to complete the table in their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    • Slide 10. Talking points:
      • When the flow of water coming from a dam is inconsistent, how do you think this impacts fish?
        • Possible responses: The change in flow can confuse fish; fish need a steady flow of water to guide them; if water is stagnant or not flowing, this disrupts fish migration.
      • Several fish species that once lived in the Colorado River, including the humpback chub and the razorback sucker, have already been declared endangered as a result of the controlled flow from the dam. The populations of some of these fish have decreased by 80% in the last 70 years.
    • Provide students with time to complete their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    • Slide 11. Talking points:
      • The land and the environment have also been impacted. Due to the dam’s control of water and little rainfall, the Colorado River Basin has been at risk of drought. This impacts the thousands of people who rely on this water for survival.
      • Additionally, dams and reservoirs create methane gas, which contributes to climate change.
      • Consider the time of year when you often see plants flourishing.
      • Especially during the warm summer months, hot temperatures and lower levels of oxygen in the water stimulate a great deal of biological activity in the water, which produces greenhouse gases. These greenhouse gases also contribute to climate change.
    • Provide students with time to complete their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    • Have student volunteers share some of the environmental costs of the Hoover Dam.
      • Possible responses: Threat to a range of wildlife, such as fish, owls, sheep, and plants; scarcity of water in the Colorado River Basin; pollution through greenhouse gases from the dam; impact on water and soil for farmers.
    • Explain to students that they are reading a brief article to learn more about the costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam.
    • Have students read the Water Encyclopedia article "Hoover Dam" with a partner. Have them add to the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer as they read.

    [Slide 12] Facilitate a class discussion about the impacts of dams on resources.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts.
      • Why do you think there is so much controversy around dams when it comes to the environment?
      • Think back to the four resources: fish, electricity, water, and culture. How do you think the Hoover Dam has impacted those four resources?
        • Possible responses: The dam impacted water as a resource because it controlled flooding downstream, created a reservoir for water storage and recreation, and provided irrigation for farmers; it impacted electricity as a resource because it provided energy for three states; it impacted fish as a resource because it affected the ecosystem of the river, threatening its fish population; it impacted culture as a resource because it changed the landscape and led to increased tourism, jobs, and the development of large cities in the region.
    Step 3: Learn Navigating Text strategies(10 min)

    Purpose: Students are oriented to the Navigating Text strategies used throughout the course. This prepares students to be active, strategic readers who can effectively navigate complex texts and apply what they learn to their project work.

    Teacher Tip: Supporting disciplinary literacy in PBLWe use the metaphor of wayfinding to show how a reader can learn from text like a voyager finds their way through the world. Wayfinding has its deepest roots in ancient Indigenous navigation techniques, such as the Polynesian practices of open-ocean voyaging portrayed in the Disney film Moana. Today, wayfinding also describes the work of architects who design ways to guide people through complicated urban settings, such as campuses and public transportation systems. Wayfinding represents the creative problem-solving of humans as they journey through the unknown. (Please see the Literacy Framework for full citations.)If students are unfamiliar with wayfinding, consider watching a portion of the PBS documentary Wayfinders: A Pacific Odyssey, or sharing one of the following articles about how the practice is highlighted in Moana to inspire a spirit of wayfinding when students navigate text.

    [Slide 13] Introduce the Navigating Text approach, as illustrated on the slide.

    You might say: Throughout this project, one of the important ways we will learn about Washington’s history is by reading texts. Some will be primary sources and others, like the article we’ll read today, will be secondary sources. I’d like to introduce you to the way we’ll approach learning from texts, and then each of your teams will try it out as you read an article about your dam project.

    Walk students through the Navigating Text approach: Tell students that we can approach learning from text like a wayfinder approaches going on a journey (see the Teacher Tip for more information). Elicit student ideas for the following questions:

    • What do you think needs to happen before wayfinders begin a journey?
    • What do they do while they are on their journey?
    • What happens when they arrive at their destination?

    Connect to students’ ideas about wayfinders while introducing the three-part approach.

    • Set a navigation plan: Students prepare to read.
    • Stay on course: Students actively make sense of text as they read and take notes with a partner.
    • Arrive, unpack, and share: Students reflect on what they read and apply what they learned to the project.

    You might say: A Navigation Plan helps wayfinders get where they are going. What do you think a Navigation Plan includes? [elicit ideas]

    Wayfinders need navigation skills or they will certainly get lost! We are going to think about reading the same way that wayfinders think about going on a voyage. A good Navigation Plan for reading means we have a clear purpose in mind. We know where we are going and why it matters for our project.

    Then, we need to “map our course,” or figure out how we are going to reach our destination. Just as wayfinders prepare to navigate through unfamiliar places, we’ll take a look at the text to see if anything ahead looks tricky or challenging.

    Wayfinders use their knowledge of the environment (such as stars, waves, and the flight patterns of birds) and special tools like maps and compasses. We’ll also make sure we have the right tools for reading, like graphic organizers or sticky notes.

    We’ll pack what I like to call our “Survival Kit”. A wayfinder’s Survival Kit might contain things like a fire starter, extra food, and other essentials to use in unexpected conditions. In our case, we’ll need a set of strategies for when we get lost in a text or stumble on words or ideas we don’t know.

    Wayfinders often work as a team. We’ll also gather our team, by finding partners to read and talk with.

    While we are reading, just like wayfinders are constantly checking their maps and using their tools to stay on course, we’ll keep our purpose for reading in mind so that we stay focused on the project goals. We’ll work with our teammates to read and make sense of texts, and we’ll use our Survival Kits if we have any trouble.

    At the end of a journey, wayfinders arrive at their destination, unpack their gear, and share their experience. For us, arriving at the end of a text means that we’ll make sense of what we learned and apply it to our project work.

    Let’s try this together as you read an article about your team’s dam project.

    Step 4: Read an informational article about your team’s dam project(30 min)

    Purpose: Students develop foundational knowledge about their team’s dam project to prepare for asking questions and researching answers that inform their public awareness campaign.

    [Slide 14] Set a navigation plan for reading the dam project article.

    • Lost or confused? Reread, read on, stop and clarify, ask for help, or review the purpose for reading.
    • Stuck on unfamiliar words or ideas? Break down complex words, phrases, or paragraphs.
    • Need more help or more information? Use all text features, such as graphics, captions, or defined vocabulary words for support.

    [Slide 15] Choose one of the articles and read the first section aloud to engage students with the text and model expectations.

    • Demonstrate how to read the article with the purpose in mind, using the tools discussed and the close reading questions. Choose one article to use as an example.
    • Remind students that informational articles usually provide many details that are helpful for understanding the main idea, but that not all details need to be recorded or memorized. The reading purpose helps students determine what is really important to pay attention to and what’s less important.
    • Demonstrate how to link information in the article to the reading purpose by marking it with a checkmark and annotating the text.
      • Example: Identify the main idea of Paragraph 1 and connect it to the reading purpose. Summarize it briefly in the margins.
    • Model how to identify a confusing part and use one of the survival kit strategies.
      • Example: Students may be unfamiliar with how hydroelectric energy works and how it impacts the land and people. A strategic reader looks ahead, reads and rereads, stops to clarify, and uses text features for support, such as the vocabulary in the margins.
    • Provide time for students to read and annotate the articles, then answer the close reading questions.

    Stay on course.

    • When appropriate, support students in clarifying confusing sections (marked with a question mark).
    • Periodically ask students in each group to explain where they used check marks and how the information they marked relates to the reading purpose.

    [Slide 16] Have students add notes to their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.

    • Have each team take out their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer and use their article to address the questions in Part 2 of the organizer. Though each student completes their own sections of the organizer, the student with the role of the environmental advocate facilitates the team’s discussion on how their assigned dam project had an environmental impact on fish, water, electricity, and culture.
    • Teams come together to answer questions on the Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer by drawing on their annotations, what they already know about their dam project, and what they know about public awareness campaigns.
    • For better comprehension, encourage students to discuss as a team, then write their collective responses.
    • Point students to Questions 4 and 5 to highlight the questions that help them connect information in the article to their public awareness campaign.

    Arrive, unpack, and share.

    • After teams have completed their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer, ask each team to share their summary statements from their articles.
      • Ask teams to identify the most effective summary statements, which should succinctly summarize the main points in their team’s article.
    • Facilitate a discussion of their responses to the public awareness campaign connection questions
      • Rather than providing answers to questions asked by teams, encourage students to identify ways they might research their questions.
      • As needed, consider synthesizing student questions and posting them on the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Teacher Tip: Differentiation While Navigating TextThe four articles in this lesson follow a similar pattern in structure and in the way students may navigate the text: students read and annotate the article, answer close reading questions, connect to their public awareness campaign, and finally, summarize the article’s main ideas. Students are intentionally asked to revisit the article throughout the unit; this is because reading research shows students deepen their comprehension when they read texts multiple times. However, if you’re working with strong readers, or are short on time, consider the following ways to differentiate.
    • Strong readers: Students read and answer the close reading questions independently, then work with partners or teams to complete the Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    • Self-assess with the close reading questions: Rather than asking teams to complete the close reading questions together after reading, ask partners to quiz each other with the questions (divide the questions equally). It is an open-book assessment, so partners should revisit the article as needed to prepare their answers.

     

    Step 5: Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests(10 min)

    Purpose: Student teams reflect on their new understandings of environmental impacts and where their stakeholders’ interests overlap or diverge. These conversations help students begin to think about the tensions around stakeholder interests and how they can make a recommendation for the common good.

    [Slide 17] Have teams complete the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.

    • Facilitated by the person on each team researching the environmentalist perspective, have teams respond to the following reflection prompt and complete the directions on the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.
      • Based on your new understanding about the impacts of your dam project on the environment, where do your stakeholders share an interest with environmentalists? How are your stakeholders’ interests different?
      • What questions do you now have about your dam project?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.2: The Impact of Dams on Tribes

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    What are the costs and benefits of dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Learn about how tribal sovereignty and tribal water rights were often not considered when dams were being built.
    • Listen to and watch video of tribal members describing the consequences and impacts of the Dalles dam on their tribe.
    • Research the impacts and consequences of my dam project on tribes.

    PurposeIn this lesson, you will learn about the impact of dam projects on the lives and subsistence of tribes. You will listen to firsthand accounts of how the silencing of Celilo Falls and the Columbia River changed the land and people. Then you will continue researching your dam project and seeking to understand how it impacted the lives and livelihood of tribes in Washington.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your cultural resource: You will reflect back on your Resource Web to connect with cultural resources that are important to you and the communities to which you belong.
    2. Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on tribes: Explore images and the website, The Ten Tribes Partnership to learn about the tribes’ perspectives when the Hoover Dam was constructed, and how tribes want to make their voices heard about the future of the Colorado River. Continue to add to your Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    3. Research the impact of your dam project on Washington tribes: Listen to tribe members’ stories about how dams changed their lives and connection to their land by watching the listening to the song and videos, "Celilo Falls" and "Celilo Falls Silenced by the Dalles Dam." Continue to conduct individual research on how your dam project impacted the tribes in Washington and add to your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer. 
    4. Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests: Use the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout with your team to reflect on their different and shared interests with the tribes.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes (2 days)
    Standards
    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about the impact of dam projects on the lives and subsistence of tribes. They listen to first-hand-accounts of the silencing of Celilo Falls and the river when the dam project was completed. Then, students continue researching their dam project by seeking to understand how it impacted the lives and livelihood of tribes in Washington.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, look through the Ten Tribes Partnership website.
      • Student teams explore the website to understand how the Colorado River Basin tribes have been fighting for a voice in the management of the river.
    • For Step 2, familiarize yourself with the background of the fight for water rights between the Colorado River Basin tribes and the government.
    • For Step 3, watch the video "Celilo Falls Silenced by the Dalles Dam."
      • This video is rich with information, and you may choose to show the students more of it if you have time. This video benefits the team focused on the Columbia River Gorge Dam Project the most, but is a clear example of the loss of a rich cultural resource to the tribes.
    • In preparation for the feedback session and presentations in Module 3, consider inviting stakeholder experts from the community to provide feedback on team recommendations for their dam projects and/or attend the presentations.
    • If you are inviting any guests or experts from the community, decide ahead of time when you would like students to present their public awareness campaigns. The timing of each lesson and preparation for the presentations varies depending on the number of teams in your class.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your cultural resource(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on a cultural resource that helps them connect to their families and the communities to which they belong. This connection prepares them to think about the importance of fish as a part of the culture and livelihood of the tribes.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on and share about their cultural resource.

    You might say: In the previous lesson, you made personal connections to four resources in your life. One of those was a cultural resource. Cultural resources are different from other types of resources because they are personal and a part of our identity. They also connect us to our families and the communities to which we belong. Today, you will learn how dams impacted a critical cultural resource for Washington’s tribes.

    • Have students look at the cultural resources listed on their Resource Web from the previous lesson.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner about one of the cultural resources on their Resource Web.
    • Ask: What cultural resource connects you to your family or community?
    • Share an example of your own.
    • Invite student volunteers to share one of their examples.
    • Explain that because cultural resources are not the same for everyone and may not be visible, it is important to learn about how different cultural resources have meaning for people. This helps in understanding the perspectives of others when they are different from our own.
    Step 2: Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on tribes(25 min)

    Purpose: Students analyze images and a website to understand the perspectives of the tribes which were impacted by the construction of the Hoover Dam and continue to be impacted by decisions made about the Colorado River. Students begin to understand the challenge of deciding what is best for the common good in the presence of competing interests.

    [Slides 3–7] Help students learn about how the Hoover Dam impacted the Colorado River Basin tribes.

    You might say: Tribes all over the country and world have been affected by the construction of dams, especially with respect to their land, water rights, and culture. In Washington, salmon are an important part of the ecosystem and play a critical role in the livelihood and cultural practices of the tribes. We will continue looking at the case study of the Hoover Dam to understand how it impacted tribes in the region.

    • Explain to students that there is a long history and relationship between the tribes of the Colorado River Basin and the Colorado River.
    • Talking points:
      • The construction of the Hoover Dam shifted a great deal of wealth from the local tribes to those who sought to gain from the river’s water and power. In the name of industrialization, the land, water, and fishing rights of tribes were significantly impacted.
      • Slide 3. In 1922, seven of the Colorado River Basin state governments—Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming—divided the Colorado River among themselves, but the tribes were left out of those conversations, even though they had a legal right to the water.
      • Slides 4. The Navajo tribe, in particular, was seen as a threat to the construction of the dam. Their reservation spanned across Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico. The Colorado River Basin states saw that the silt from overgrazing on the reservation would pile up behind the dam and destroy it. Overgrazing could be caused by plants being exposed to intensive grazing by animals over a long period of time. It could also be caused by agricultural practices that affect the land and its ability to give plants time to recover. Overgrazing could also cause soil erosion, which was causing silt build up to go into the Colorado River.
      • The United States government officials ordered the overgrazing to stop by forcing the Navajo to reduce their number of sheep and goats in order to save the dam. This had a devastating impact on the tribe’s economy.
      • Slide 5. At that time, Navajo women owned most of the animals used for grazing. A group of them, led by a woman named Denehotso Hattie, rebelled against the government’s plan for managing their land.
      • Despite the Navajo resistance, the government moved forward with reducing their livestock. Since goats and sheep were a part of Navajo subsistence, this change decimated the Navajo economy.
      • Slide 6. In 1992, ten tribes along the Upper and Lower Colorado Basin joined together to raise their voices about the management of the Colorado River. There is not enough water in the river for all of the tribes and states which rely on it, which raises the controversial question of whose interests should be protected or considered. As of now, more than 100,000 people in the Navajo Nation do not have running water, even though they have a legal right to it.
    • Explain to students that they access The Ten Tribes Partnership website to understand the perspectives of the tribes and their work to protect their economy and water rights. Explain to students that they are to also identify some of the resources that are important to the tribes’ cultures and livelihood.
    • Have students add to the section on tribes in their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.

    [Slide 7] Facilitate a class discussion on the Hoover Dam’s impact on tribes.

    • Have students respond to the following prompt.
      • What were some of the competing stakeholder interests that you learned about today?
        • Possible responses: The tribes needed to be able to manage their land and access to water; the tribes needed their livestock in order to build their economy; the government needed to reduce the amount of livestock belonging to the tribes in order to prevent silt from damaging the dam; the government wanted to build the dams for jobs and to generate energy for the region; the different states and their residents need water; the tribes were concerned for the lack of access to their cultural resource and how the loss of water and land could also impact the ecosystem.

    Teacher Tip: Culturally Responsive Teaching When Talking About Tribes

    Step 3: Research the impact of your dam project on Washington tribes(50 min)

    Purpose: Students use the resources about their dam project to conduct research on how it impacted different stakeholders. They use their new understandings to reflect with their team about how their stakeholder’s interests are shared by or conflict with those of the local tribes.

    You might say: The construction of dams changed the lives of tribe members all over the country. They impacted the tribes’ land rights, fishing rights, and sacred grounds. When the Hoover Dam was constructed, a resource that provided subsistence for the Navajo was taken away. Washington’s dams had a similar impact on its tribes. For teams researching the Dalles and the Grand Coulee Dams, the construction of those dams changed the lives of the tribes in the regions where those dams were placed and tribes also had to mourn the loss of a cultural resource. Before you begin your research, it is important to develop an understanding of the impact experienced by the tribes and hear their perspectives.

    [Slides 8–10] Introduce students to Celilo Falls.

    • Explain to students that one of the dams that had a significant impact on the tribes is the Dalles Dam, which is located where the Columbia River straddles the border of Washington and Oregon.
    • Explain to students that they are watching a video that shows what used to be a historic fishing ground to the tribes. The song they are listening to is by the artist Arigon Starr, and is called “Celilo Falls.”
    • Slide 8. Play the video "Celilo Falls" [2:53] and have students watch for evidence of what makes it significant to the tribes.
    • Slide 9. Next, play the video "Celilo Falls Silenced by the Dalles Dam" [5:45–8:00]. Students hear the reactions of those who watched Celilo Falls get flooded and how this event impacted them.
    • Slide 10. After watching both videos, ask students: Based on what you observed, what do you think were some of the cultural and social impacts of the damming of Celilo Falls on the tribes?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that the tribes most impacted on the border of Oregon and Washington were the Yakama, Nez Perce, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Upper Chinookan Wasco, Sk’in-a-ma, Klickitat, and Sahaptin.

    Remind students that, for the tribes, there are several impacts to consider when it comes to their resources. For example, fishing is a cultural practice and tradition, and that they view fish to be a vital part of the ecosystem.

    [Slide 11] Have students conduct individual research on their dam project.

    • Students should continue to use the resources provided in their team’s dam project article and resource guide as well as the Timeline of Dams document from Lesson 1.4.
    • Have students add to their notes in Part 3 of their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    • Explain that students continue learning about the impact of their dam project on their assigned stakeholder individually, then come together to understand their shared and different interests.
    • As students do their independent research, monitor their progress and understanding of the resources. Remind them to use the reading skills they learned previously to help navigate the texts.

    Have the students assigned to advocate for the environmentalists and tribes meet with you.

    • Explain to the two groups that one thing both of their groups have in common is their focus on the environment and ecosystem, and that environmental groups often consider the tribal perspectives as they voice their perspective on what should be done about dams. What both groups fight for is a healthy balance to the ecosystem.
    • Explain that fish, particularly salmon, are seen as a critical part of the ecosystem. They are what scientists call keystone species, which are organisms that hold an ecosystem together. Without them, the ecosystem might not exist, and other organisms would not be able to adapt to that ecosystem.
    • Remind them that salmon eventually make their way down to the ocean, where orcas and many other species rely on them. Ask students what might happen if the salmon population went extinct—how might that impact the river and marine ecosystems?
    • Explain that tribes traditionally celebrate the journey and return of the salmon. This is why the salmon is a cultural resource for the tribes, and is seen as a symbol of determination and renewal.
    Step 4: Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests(10 min)

    Purpose: Student teams reflect on their new understandings of the impacts of the dam projects on tribes and where their stakeholders’ interests overlap or diverge. These conversations help students think about the tensions around stakeholder interests and how they can make a recommendation for the common good.

    [Slide 12] Have teams complete the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.

    • Facilitated by the person on each team researching the tribes’ perspectives, have teams respond to the following reflection prompt on the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.
      • Based on your new understandings of the impact of your dam project on the tribes, where do your stakeholders share an interest with the tribes? How are your stakeholders’ interests different?
      • What questions do you now have about your dam project?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.3: The Impact of Dams on the Economy

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    What are the costs and benefits of dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify and evaluate the different sources of energy that people rely on and the advantages and disadvantages for using them.
    • Use primary and secondary sources to understand the how dams have changed the way water and energy have influenced the economy of a region.
    • Research how my team’s dam project has costs and benefits to the economy.

    Purpose

    In your teams, you will continue to deepen your knowledge about one of the purposes of dams, which is to generate electricity for many regions of the state. You will learn about the different ways in which the state accesses electricity, though most of Washington runs on hydropower. Your teams will use primary and secondary sources to compare the costs and benefits of hydroelectric energy, and how its use impacts multiple stakeholders. You will use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of your dam project.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your connection to electricity as a resource: Reflect back on your Resource Web to make connections to electricity as a resource and consider its role in your life.
    2. Learn about the different forms of energy: Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable forms of energy by reading the National Geographic article "Renewable Energy" and watching two National Geographic videos: "What Are Fossil Fuels?" and "What Is Nuclear Energy?". Look at the data on this webpage, "Most & Least Energy-Expensive States" to see where Washington falls in relation to other states. Record your learning in the Forms of Energy Notes Organizer.
    3. Analyze the economic impacts of the Hoover Dam: Learn about the different economic impacts of the Hoover Dam and continue adding new understandings to your Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Notes Organizer.
    4. Research the economic impacts of your dam project: Use the resources in your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer to conduct individual research on how your dam project impacted its local economy.
    5. Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests: Use the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout with your team to reflect on the different and shared interests relating to your dam project.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:95 minutes (2 days)
    Standards

    E1.6-8.2: Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues of Washington state in terms of costs and benefits for different groups.

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students continue to deepen their knowledge about one of the purposes of dams, which is to generate electricity for many regions of the state. They learn about the different ways in which the region and state gets electricity, with hydroelectric energy being the source that powers most of Washington. Students use primary and secondary sources to compare costs and benefits of hydroelectric energy from dams and how it impacts multiple stakeholders. Lastly, they use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of their team’s dam project.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For this lesson, consider amplifying the voice of an expert in the community.
      • If possible, invite someone from the local public utility company to be a guest speaker in your classroom about how power is generated in the region and the costs and benefits to different stakeholders. This authentic experience can connect students to how they and their families use power.
    • For Step 2, decide how you want to divide the sections of the article to each student on each team.
      • In this step, student teams watch the two videos together. When they read the article on renewable energy, each team member is learning about one form of renewable energy. You can choose the form of energy you want each team member to read, or have students decide within their teams.
      • They can then share about the form of energy they researched and each team member can complete the organizer as they learn from one another.
      • Familiarize yourself with the three National Geographic resources below to understand some of the complex ideas students may come across.
    • For Step 4, prepare to support small groups and/or individual students to monitor the progress of their research.
      • Based on your formative assessments of where students or teams are in their research, make a plan to support students or teams.
      • While students are conducting their independent research, use this time to assess students’ progress by pulling individual students, small groups, or teams to work with you.
    • You may also decide if you will work with a stakeholder group or a dam project team.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your connection to electricity as a resource(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on the role of electricity in their lives. This leads to a discussion about where they think Washington’s energy comes from.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on and share their connections to electricity.

    You might say: Earlier on, you made personal connections to four resources in your life. One of those resources was electricity. We all rely on power in some way, and it plays a huge role in Washington’s economy. Today, you will learn about how dams and water have an impact on the economy and how power companies use energy from dams to generate power for millions of people.

    • Have students look at their connections to electricity that they listed on their Resource Web in Lesson 2.1.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner and share one or two of the ways they benefit from electricity.
    • Ask: How do you and your family benefit from electricity?
    • Invite student volunteers to share one of their examples.
    Step 2: Learn about the different forms of energy(30 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the resources that are used to generate power for many communities. Through this, students learn that Washington relies mostly on hydropower, and they build on their understanding of the costs and benefits of dams on the economy.

    [Slides 3–5] Teach students about different sources of energy.

    • Slide 3. Ask students: What resources do we rely on for power?
      • Possible answers: coal, oil, nuclear reactions, natural gas, water, wind, sun, heat from deep below the earth’s surface
    • Slide 4. Explain that the world uses a variety of sources to generate energy. Have students identify on the graph the nine sources of energy that the United States relies on.
    • Explain that energy sources are categorized as either renewable or non-renewable. Use the graph to show students that the renewable forms are biomass, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and geothermal energy.
    • Direct students to get into their teams to learn about the different forms of energy and complete the Forms of Energy Notes Organizer.
      • As a team, they watch the two videos and answer the questions that relate to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. They also read an article about different forms of renewable energy.
      • When accessing the article on renewable energy, teams should read the first paragraph together. They should then assign one form of renewable energy to each team member, who completes the question that aligns with what they read. Each team member should also read the last paragraph. After teams have finished watching the videos and reading the article, they each share information about their assigned form of energy. As each team member speaks, the others should answer the questions that correspond to what their teammate is sharing.
      • This is a good time to remind students about the Navigating the Text reading strategies below.
        • Identify the purpose for reading.
        • Scan the article or resource for text features to support your reading.
        • Identify tools and mark up the text for key details that support your purpose for reading.
        • Reread if you are confused, and break down words and ideas to work through them.
    • Refer students back to Slide 4 and ask:
      • Which source of energy is consumed most in the United States?
      • Which forms of energy are consumed the least? Why do you think that is?
    • Ask: What is a renewable resource that we have a lot of in Washington?
    • Possible answers: rain, water.
    • Explain that because Washington has an abundance of water, it is heavily relied on as an energy source.
    • Slide 5. Ask students what they notice on the graph to be a primary source of energy in Washington.
    • Ask: Why do you think the other renewable sources of energy are consumed at a higher rate than others?
      • Possible responses: Some parts of the state do not receive enough sun to generate enough solar energy; some sources of energy are more costly; some sources may generate too much pollution; we rely heavily on hydroelectric energy and are trying to decrease our reliance on non-renewable energy sources.
    • Clarify to students that the goal is to use renewable energy, but renewable may not always mean it is free of pollutants or does not contribute to greenhouse gases. For example, we know that water is a renewable resource and that is why hydropower is a reliable source of energy in places like Washington. However, some dams can also create conditions in the water for greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide to be released. This can be more harmful to the environment than the use of fossil fuels. Each dam and each reservoir varies due to their location and design features.
    • Explain that in Washington, there was one nuclear power plant: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Richland is located in the southeastern region of the state, where the Yakima and Columbia Rivers meet. There are some risks associated with nuclear power plants, and Hanford is currently the most-contaminated nuclear site in the United States even though it is not in use anymore, so emergency procedures are often put into place to keep residents safe from the harmful effects of radiation exposure. In the past, there have also been environmental impacts on the ecosystem as radioactive elements called radionuclides have been released into the air and downstream in the Columbia River. This has impacted cows grazing in the fields nearby as well as the fish. This also had a significant impact on tribes relying on the fish as a part of their customary diet. To this day, environmental groups continue to monitor the impact on people and the environment.
    • Remind students of the legal and environmental obligations and costs of maintaining dams that impact energy companies, as well as dam owners and community members who pay tax dollars for the maintenance of dams, or for river restoration.

    [Slide 6] Help students understand the economic costs and benefits of having access to hydroelectric energy.

    • Explain that unlimited access to water and hydroelectric energy has its advantages.
    • Have students look at the “Total Energy Costs by State” chart on the WalletHub web page, "Most & Least Energy-Expensive States."
    • Ask students: What do you notice about where Washington falls on the list?
    • Explain that some states, due to their geography or climate, have challenges in their infrastructure to produce energy themselves and need to purchase it from other states. In some other states, the demand for electricity is growing faster than the state’s infrastructure and energy production, and that is why the costs are higher.
    • Clarify to students that the cost of removing a dam is also very expensive. In some cases, taxpayers are the people who are paying for the removal and the restoration of the river.
    • Explain that there are debates to remove some dams and not others. For example, for the Skagit River Dams, there is talk of just removing the Gorge Dam and replacing the lost energy with another form of energy, such as wind or solar power. If all the dams were removed, the loss of energy would impact energy costs for Seattle City Light customers until another source of energy can be found. These are some of the decisions and compromises that need to be considered. For those learning about multiple dams, it is important to consider what these compromises or options might look like.
    • Explain that the dams also provided thousands of jobs for people coming out of the Great Depression, and continue to do so today.
    • Ask students: What other economic impacts do you think dams might have for farmers, tribes, environmentalists, and the community?
      • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that to students that they learn more about the impact on farmers in the next lesson.

    [Slide 7] Facilitate a class discussion about reliable forms of energy in Washington.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts.
      • Now that you know how heavily our state relies on hydroelectric energy, what does that tell you about the need for dams?
      • What other options for energy production might make sense for Washington?
    • Invite students to respond and build off of one another’s ideas.
    Step 3: Analyze the economic impacts of the Hoover Dam(20 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about how the Hoover Dam has had an economic impact on those who benefit from the power it generates and that all stakeholder interests always need to be considered when decisions are made about the dam. Students learn that there are many economic factors at play when deciding the future of a dam, and they should be considered when students are creating their public awareness campaign.

    You might say: The Hoover Dam was one of the biggest public works projects in the country during the Great Depression, and it impacted the economy on many levels, including attracting tourists. Its initial purpose was to control flooding and tame the Colorado River, but it also provides power and water to millions of people in the drought-prone states of California, Nevada, and Arizona. Energy companies should always consider the needs of those they serve when making decisions.

    [Slides 8–13] Have students consider the economic costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam.

    • Explain to students that as they continue to learn about the economic costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam, it is important to also make connections to the dam project to which their teams are assigned.
    • Clarify to students that economic impact refers to a financial effect. For example, when the Hoover Dam was completed, the increase in tourism had a positive financial impact on the region. Visitors were spending money in the area, which boosted the economy.
    • Have students take out the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer. Explain that, as you go through the slides and provide facts about the Hoover Dam, they are to decide if that fact provided an economic cost or benefit, and for whom. Explain to students that they are to take notes in the organizer.
    • Explain that unlike Washington, which has an ample supply of water, Lake Mead and the Colorado River are at risk for low water levels. Ask: What is the economic impact on those paying for the electricity?
    • Invite students to respond and make connections.
    Step 4: Research the economic impacts of your dam project(30 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about how the Hoover Dam has had an economic impact on those who benefit from the power it generates and that all stakeholder interests always need to be considered when decisions are made about the dam. Students learn that there are many economic factors at play when deciding the future of a dam, and they should be considered when students are creating their public awareness campaign.

    You might say: The Hoover Dam was one of the biggest public works projects in the country during the Great Depression, and it impacted the economy on many levels, including attracting tourists. Its initial purpose was to control flooding and tame the Colorado River, but it also provides power and water to millions of people in the drought-prone states of California, Nevada, and Arizona. Energy companies should always consider the needs of those they serve when making decisions.

    [Slides 8–13] Have students consider the economic costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam.

    • Explain to students that as they continue to learn about the economic costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam, it is important to also make connections to the dam project to which their teams are assigned.
    • Clarify to students that economic impact refers to a financial effect. For example, when the Hoover Dam was completed, the increase in tourism had a positive financial impact on the region. Visitors were spending money in the area, which boosted the economy.
    • Have students take out the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer. Explain that, as you go through the slides and provide facts about the Hoover Dam, they are to decide if that fact provided an economic cost or benefit, and for whom. Explain to students that they are to take notes in the organizer.
    • Explain that unlike Washington, which has an ample supply of water, Lake Mead and the Colorado River are at risk for low water levels. Ask: What is the economic impact on those paying for the electricity?
    • Invite students to respond and make connections.
    Step 5: Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests(10 min)

    Purpose: Student teams reflect on their new understandings of the impacts of the dam projects on the economy and where their stakeholders’ interests overlap or diverge. These conversations help students continue thinking about the tensions around stakeholder interests and how they can make a recommendation for the common good.

    [Slide 15] Have teams complete the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.

    • Facilitated by the person on each team researching the energy companies’ perspectives, have teams respond to the following reflection prompt on the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.
      • Based on your new understandings of the economic impact of your dam project, where do your stakeholders share an interest with the energy companies and others with an economic interest in the dam(s)? How are your stakeholders’ interests different?
      • What questions do you now have about your dam project?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.4: The Impact of Dams on Agriculture

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    What are the costs and benefits of dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze primary and secondary sources to understand the impact of dams on farming and agriculture.
    • Conduct research on how my dam project has an impact on farmers and agriculture in Washington.
    • Collaborate with my team to consider the diverse perspectives of the stakeholders that are impacted by our dam project.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about how dams have been used for irrigation dating back to ancient civilizations. You will use your knowledge of the geography of Washington to understand which regions have used dams to sustain the agriculture industry. You will also learn about issues that can impact all stakeholders of a region and continue to address what it means to make a decision for the common good. You will use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of your dam project.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your agricultural resources: Reflect back on your Resource Web to make connections to agriculture as a resource and its role in your life.
    2. Learn about the role of dams in irrigation: Identify the different ways that reservoir water is used to benefit a community, and how geography and climate influence the agriculture of a region. Use the web page "Agriculture: A Cornerstone of Washington’s Economy" to learn about which crops bring the most money into the state.
    3. Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on agriculture: Learn about how the construction of the Hoover Dam impacted farmers through the "Jim Henness Interview." You can read the Jim Henness Interview Transcript as you listen. Watch the video in the article "Water Cutbacks Set to Begin a Deal Designed to 'Buy Down Risk' on the Colorado River" and continue to add new understandings to your Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Notes Organizer.
    4. Research the impact of your dam project on Washington farmers: Use the resources in your Dam Project Article and Resources Guide to conduct individual research on how your dam project impacts agriculture and farming.
    5. Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests: Use the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout with your team to reflect on the different and shared interests relating to your dam project.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:85 minutes (2 days)
    Standards

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students learn about how dams have been used for irrigation dating back to ancient civilizations. They use their knowledge about the geography of Washington to understand which regions have used dams to sustain the agriculture industry. They also learn about issues that can impact all stakeholders of a region and continue to address what it means to make a decision for the common good. Students use these new understandings to consider different stakeholder perspectives and decide the future of their dam project.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with the interview with Jim Henness.
      • The full interview is almost 60 minutes, but students listen to and read only pertinent portions of the interview transcript. These sections guide students toward thinking about the impact of the drought on farmers and how it changed the way they farmed.
      • As students listen to the audio, use the time stamps provided in the Jim Henness Interview Transcript. Alternatively, you can have students read the transcript without playing the audio recording. Clarification points and teacher-prompted questions are provided in the Jim Henness Interview Transcript: Teacher Resource.
    • You may also want to check in with the students who are researching the farmers’ perspectives. It is important that they understand where their dam project is located and where farmland is in relation to the dam(s).
    • Based on formative feedback, while students are conducting their independent research, use this time to assess students’ or team progress. You may also decide to work with dam project teams or stakeholder groups.
    • For Step 4, prepare a plan to work with individual students or small groups to monitor the progress of their research.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with the geography of the Colorado River Basin.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your agricultural resources(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on the role of agriculture in their lives. This guides students to make connections between Washington’s geography, agriculture, and their dam project.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on and share their connections to agriculture.

    You might say: In a previous lesson, you made personal connections to four resources in your life. One of those resources was agriculture. We all rely on agriculture, farmers, and produce from different parts of our state. You already learned about the connection between dams and how energy influences our economy. Today, you will learn about the influence of dams on our agricultural economy.

    • Have students look at their connections to agriculture listed on their Resource Web from Lesson 2.1.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner about one or two of the ways they benefit from agriculture.
    • Ask: How do you and your family benefit from agriculture?
    • Invite student volunteers to share one of their examples.
    Step 2: Learn about the role of dams in irrigation(10 min)

    Purpose: Students focus on the role of dams in Washington’s irrigation system. They begin to understand the costs and benefits of dams for farmers and the agricultural economy.

    [Slides 3–6] Teach students about how dams were used for irrigation in ancient civilizations.

    • Slide 3. Ask students: Dams create reservoirs as a way to store water. How do you think people use this water?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Slide 4. Explain that water stored in reservoirs can be used in different ways, including for farming, water activities, household use, and drinking water.
    • Explain that the water released from the reservoir on the other side of the dam flows downstream. The amount of water that is released depends on various factors, such as how the dam is constructed and its current water level, which is important to consider for flood prevention.
    • Slide 5. Remind students that the ancient Mesopotamians may have been some of the first people to build dams in the fourth century B.C.E. They were built to provide farmers with a steady source of water to irrigate their crops. This was necessary to feed a growing population. Later on, in the first or second century C.E., the ancient Romans built dams to divert water for drinking, bathing, and irrigation.
    • Slide 6. Explain how farmland is often irrigated today. Remind students that different regions of the world have different amounts of water available to them.
    • Have students recall: Based on what you learned about the geography and climate in Washington, how does Washington fare when it comes to rainfall and access to water?
    • Explain to students that equitable access to water is a global issue. This brings us back to the question, How do rivers connect us, and how do they divide us? Let students know they revisit this topic at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 7] Have students recall the state’s geography and climate, and consider how those connect to local agriculture.

    1. Slide 7. Ask students: What parts of Washington are well-known for their agriculture?
      • Possible answers: Central and eastern Washington.
    2. Ask students: What parts of the state tend to receive less rainfall, or have more limited access to water?
      • Possible answers: Central and eastern Washington.
    3. Have students look at the Washington State Department of Agriculture webpage, Agriculture: A Cornerstone of Washington’s Economy.
    4. Ask: According to the information on the webpage, which crop earns the most money for our state?
    5. Explain that Washington’s exporting of these products all over the world is a significant contributor to our economy. These products keep farmers and other workers employed. Without them, and the state’s water management and irrigation systems, our economy would suffer.
    Step 3: Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on agriculture(30 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about how the Hoover Dam impacts the agricultural community and dive into an issue affecting all stakeholders in the region: the low levels of water in the Colorado River and Lake Mead, and their consequences for everyone’s access to water.

    You might say: Even before the Hoover Dam was constructed, farmers had wanted to find ways to control the Colorado River and divert some of its water to their farmlands. Upon the dam’s completion in 1936, the water stored in Lake Mead changed the lives of many people. However, understanding the impact of the dam on the lives of farmers also requires understanding the land, climate, and geography, and how those three elements influence the survival of crops, especially during a dry season.

    [Slides 8–9] Teach students about how the Hoover Dam changed the lives of farmers.

    • Explain to students that they are continuing their case study of the Hoover Dam. As they learn about the costs and benefits of the Hoover Dam, they should also make connections to their dam projects.
    • Have students take out their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Notes Organizer. Explain that they are to take notes in the table about the costs and benefits to farmers as they listen and discuss.
    • Slide 8. Ask students: What do you think the Colorado River was like prior to the construction of the Hoover Dam?
      • Possible responses: The river flowed naturally, there was no reservoir, and farmers must have had limited access to its water.
    • Talking points:
    • Before the dam was constructed, farmlands were often flooded by heavy snowmelt in the spring and summer, destroying their crops and uprooting vegetation. In the dry months, sometimes the river would not provide enough water for farmers to sustain their crops or livestock.
    • However, once the dam was completed, it was used to prevent flooding and create a reliable supply of water throughout the year.
    • Before the dam was built, 600,000 acres of land were irrigated; now, 2.16 million acres of land are irrigated. The reliable water source combined with the hot, dry climate in the region has enabled farmers to grow new crops, such as cantaloupe, alfalfa, barley, corn, and small fruits.
    • Slide 9. When the reservoir Lake Mead was created, it was able to provide water to over 25 million people in the southwestern United States, enabling farmers to feed a growing population.

    [Slides 10–14] Teach students about the current issues impacting stakeholders of the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead.

    • Slide 10. Remind students that the southwest portion of the United States is known for its dry climate, particularly in the summer months. Have students identify the states that the Colorado River runs through.
    • Slide 11. Ask students:
      • How might drought impact the various stakeholders of the Hoover Dam? What about your team’s dam project?
      • How might a stakeholder who is upstream or downstream from the dam during a drought explain how they are impacted?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Slide 12. Talking points:
      • You will be listening to an interview with a farmer, Jim Henness, who farmed cotton in Arizona. He was interviewed in 2004 due to his involvement with an organization called the Central Arizona Project (CAP), which was established to bring renewable and secure water to the people of Arizona.
      • Arizona is one of the seven states that receives water from the Colorado River Basin. The Lower Basin consists of Arizona, Nevada, and California, with Arizona receiving 2.8 million acre-feet of water, the least of the three states. For perspective, one acre-foot can supply three families with water for a year. One acre-foot equals 326,000 gallons of water. This could be enough to cover the size of a football field, one foot deep in water.
      • CAP has worked to preserve and manage Arizona’s water supply through a system of pumps, tunnels, and aqueducts that distribute water from Lake Havasu throughout the state. When water is available, CAP delivers it for treatment for industrial or municipal needs, farmers, and tribes. The tribes can use the water in their communities or lease it to others. Mexico is also guaranteed a portion of the water, based on a treaty signed in 1944.
      • The majority of CAP water is used for agriculture. In the interview with Jim Henness, you will hear questions about how receiving CAP water has impacted farming. It is also important to know that some of the power to operate the system that distributed the water came from the Navajo Power Generating Station and the Hoover Dam. The Navajo Power Generating Station was a large coal-fueled power generating plant on the Navajo Nation that closed in 2019. It had helped supply power to customers in Arizona, Nevada, and California. It had also provided the power for pumping water from the Colorado River for CAP.
    • Invite students to sit in pairs and distribute the Jim Henness Interview Transcript to each pair.
    • Refer to the Jim Henness Interview Transcript: Teacher Resource for time stamps. These signal when to stop the audio recording so you can clarify points and ask questions.
    • Explain to students that they are watching a brief video about the Colorado River and Lake Mead being at risk of low levels of water. As students watch, have them think about which stakeholders are impacted.
    • Slide 13. Play the video captioned “How the Colorado River Drought Deal Works” [2:00] from the article "Water Cutbacks Set to Begin a Deal Designed to 'Buy Down Risk' on the Colorado River."
    • Ask: Which stakeholders are at risk in this situation? Which benefit from it?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that, in this particular situation, the impacts of climate change, such as extreme heat as well as the overuse of water, are some of the causes for the low levels of water. Seven states met in 2019 to discuss the management of the Colorado River, with each agreeing to take less than their share in order to keep water in the reservoir and to also make sure farmers and tribes do not suffer. This was part of the Drought Contingency Plan.
    • Explain that this situation is a regional emergency that impacts multiple stakeholders. Dams are just one way to manage water, and are part of the solution to provide water security for stakeholders.
    • Clarify to students that, in Washington, the climate and geography of the state provide different circumstances for stakeholder groups to consider. Clarify to students that the dams have an economic impact on farmers in certain regions of the state who grow crops and products for export. For example, one of the main purposes of the Snake River Dams is to provide a transportation route for grain to get to the Port of Portland for overseas export. Removing these dams would require an alternative method of transport and could have an impact on the economy. Explain that, as students conduct their research, it is important to understand the costs and benefits to removing, modifying, or keeping the dams as they are.
    • Slide 14. Ask students to discuss the questions below.
    • In this situation, how do you see rivers connecting and dividing people?
    • Is there a way to make a decision for the common good?
    Step 4: Research the impact of your dam project on Washington farmers(30 min)

    Purpose: Students continue their individual research to understand the perspectives of the stakeholders for whom they are advocating. They use their new understandings to help them make a recommendation about the future of their dam project.

    You might say: Based on what you learned about the Hoover Dam, you may now realize that multiple stakeholders are impacted by what happens to the water in the regions where they live. It is important to consider others’ perspectives and new ideas to solve a problem for the common good. As you continue your research and work with your team, these are the decisions you will need to consider when you make a recommendation for your dam project.

    [Slide 15] Have students conduct individual research on their dam project.

    • Remind students to access the article about their team’s dam project from the previous lesson, the Timeline of Dams, and their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    • Explain to students that they are continuing to learn about the impact of their dam project on their assigned stakeholder individually, but come together to understand their shared and different interests.
    • As students are doing their independent research, monitor their progress and understanding of the resources.
    • At this time, you may also choose to select a group of stakeholders or a team to work with. Monitor their progress and understandings of the costs and benefits of their dam project.
    Step 5: Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests(10 min)

    Purpose: Student teams reflect on their new understandings of the impacts of the dam projects on farmers and where their stakeholders’ interests overlap or diverge. These conversations help students continue thinking about the tensions around stakeholder interests and how they can make a recommendation for the common good.

    [Slide 16] Have teams complete the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.

    • Facilitated by the person on each team researching the farmers’ perspectives, have teams respond to the following reflection prompt by following the directions on the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.
      • Based on your new understandings of the impacts of your dam project, where do your stakeholders share an interest with the farmers? How are your stakeholders’ interests different?
      • What questions do you now have about your dam project?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.5: The Impact of Dams on a Community

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington state serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    What are the costs and benefits of dams?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the different ways that community members enjoy, access, and use water as a resource.
    • Analyze the multiple perspectives and positions of community members to inform my team’s decision about the future of dams.
    • Research the costs and benefits of my team’s dam project on communities in order to make an informed decision for our team’s public awareness campaign.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about how dams impact community members in different ways. You will first identify the ways in which people enjoy and use water as a resource. Then you will learn about the costs to a community when a dam is constructed by considering diverse perspectives. You will synthesize your learning in order to make an informed recommendation about the future of your dam project and your team’s public awareness campaign.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect back on your connections to the resources in your life: Reflect back on your Resource Web to make connections to each of the resources. Make new connections to those resources in your life.
    2. Identify ways that communities access water: Watch a brief video, "White Salmon River Rafting," and analyze images. Then read the Project 562 article "Every Person Living in the Northwest Should Know This History" to begin a discussion about the different ways people use water. You will also watch the video "Canoe Journey 2017 Recap" to understand how tribes use rivers to connect to their traditions and land.
    3. Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on a community: Learn about how the construction of the Hoover Dam had an impact on different communities, past and present. In teams, you will read the article "St. Thomas, Nevada" and watch the video embedded in the article, "A Doomed Town Rises, St. Thomas, Nevada." Continue to add new understandings to your Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Notes Organizer.
    4. Research the impact of your dam project on community members: Use the resources in your team’s dam project article and resource guide as well as your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer to conduct individual research on how your dam project had an impact on people who lived in the region.
    5. Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests: Use the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout with your team to reflect on the different and shared interests relating to your dam project.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:80 minutes (2 days)
    Standards

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    SSS1.6-8.1: Analyze positions and evidence supporting an issue or an event.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sticky notes
    Lesson Overview
    Students learn about how dams impact people in different communities in different ways. They first identify the ways in which people enjoy and use water as a resource. They then learn about the costs to a community when a dam is constructed by considering diverse perspectives. Students synthesize their learning in order to make an informed recommendation about the future of their dam project and their team’s public awareness campaign.
    Teacher Preparation
    • In this lesson, students are tasked with stepping back and reflecting on connections across stakeholder perspectives.
      • Everyone is considered part of a community and has been impacted by the existence of dams in Washington, even people who do not physically live close to a dam.
      • Many students have probably enjoyed some time near or at a lake. While some lakes are not created by dams, the lakes that many people enjoy are tied to recreational areas, which were established due to the dams.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with St. Thomas, Nevada.
    • If you are asking community experts or stakeholders to provide feedback on teams’ recommendations, you can choose to send them each team’s recommendation after Lesson 3.1 and have them provide feedback to each team.
    • If you have invited any outside community members or stakeholders to provide feedback on the dam project recommendations, be sure to communicate with them when this will take place.
    • You may also want to check in with the students who are researching the farmers’ perspectives. It is important that they understand where their dam project is located and where farmland is in relation to the dam(s). You may also want to check in with the students who are researching the communities that have been impacted by dams. It is important that they understand where their dam project is located and learn about different communities upstream and downstream from the dam. Students can use maps for this task. Students researching community member and tribal perspectives can also work together, since tribes were impacted on many social, cultural, and environmental levels, and are crucial members of the greater community.
    • For Step 4, prepare a plan to work with individual students or small groups to monitor the progress of their research.
      • Based on formative feedback, while students are conducting their independent research, use this time to assess students’ or team progress. You may also decide to work with dam project teams or stakeholder groups.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect back on your connections to the resources in your life(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on the role of water in their lives. This leads students toward a discussion about how people enjoy, access, and use water as a resource.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on and share their connections to their resources.

    You might say: In the past few lessons, you’ve had opportunities to think about how dams connect us to different resources. Because of dams and water management, we have access to electricity, produce and crops that feed us, some aspects of the cultural traditions that make us who we are, and water, which we have learned is not always available everywhere. Today, we will make connections to water as a resource and how we, as members of different communities, have benefited from reliable access to water.

    • Have students look at their connections to water that they listed on their Resource Web from Lesson 2.1.
    • Have students turn and talk with a partner about one or two of the ways they benefit from water.
    • Ask: How do you and your family benefit from water?
    • Invite student volunteers to share one of their examples.
    Step 2: Identify ways that communities access water(20 min)

    Purpose: Students identify and discuss the ways that different communities can be impacted by a dam. They learn that while there are benefits to some community members, there are costs to others, and they use this information to think about the complex ways that dams impact multiple stakeholders.

    [Slides 3–6] Have students brainstorm ways that community members access water.

    • Remind students that earlier in the unit, they discussed activities that involve being near a lake or body of water. Explain that there is no shortage of bodies of water in Washington, and people have access to lakes, rivers, creeks, the bay, and the ocean.
    • Explain to students that they are watching a brief video and looking at several images to get them thinking about the ways that people might access water in our state. Explain that you will ask for their ideas and thoughts after they watch the video and view the images, but in the meantime, they are to note the following information on a sticky note.
      • What they notice (What do they see? What is happening?)
      • What they wonder
    • Distribute four sticky notes to each student.
    • Slide 3. Play the video, "White Salmon River Rafting" [2:19]. When you click on the link, it starts the video near the end, but play the video from the beginning. Give students a minute to jot down their observations.
    • Slides 4–6. Show the image on each slide and have students record their observations.
    • Invite students to share their observations.
    • Ask: What do you notice about these images—especially how people are using the water?
      • Possible answers: People are using the water for recreational activities, including swimming, rafting, boating, and fishing.

    [Slides 7–10] Have students brainstorm ways that community members use water.

    • Explain to students that they are doing the same thing with this next set of images. Distribute four sticky notes to each student.
    • Show each image and have students record their observations.
    • Ask: What do you notice about these images—especially how people are using the water?
      • Possible answers: The people in these images are using the water out of need or for economic purposes, including farming, exporting products, and generating electricity.

    [Slides 11—12] Teach students some of the ways that community members celebrate their culture with water.

    • Explain to students that water carries life and meaning for the tribes in Washington. Explain that, as a class, they are reading the article, "Every Person Living in the Northwest Should Know This History."
    • Slide 11. Explain that the Salish Sea extends across the U.S.–Canada border and includes the waters of the Strait of Georgia, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the San Juan Islands. A strait is a narrow passage that connects two larger bodies of water. Because the Coast Salish people are the Indigenous people who live in southwest British Columbia and northwest Washington, both Washington and the British Columbia formally recognize the former Strait of Georgia and Strait of Juan de Fuca as the Salish Sea in honor of the Coast Salish people. They are a group of ethnically and linguistically related Indigenous people in the Pacific Northwest. The Coast Salish make up a number of tribes with distinct cultures and the tribes speak one of the Coast Salish languages.
    • You may choose whether you want to read sections of the article to the class or invite student volunteers to read aloud. Emphasize the first and last paragraphs on the page about the significance of the Salish Sea and what it means to the Coast Salish.
    • Ask: What does water traditionally and culturally mean to the tribes?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Slide 12. Explain to students that they are watching a brief video that shows one of the canoe journeys in 2017 and what it means to some of the tribes in the state. Play the video, "Canoe Journey 2017 Recap" [1:00], which is embedded in the same article.
    • Talking points:
      • How one uses and values water often depends on one’s connection and access to it, like we just saw in the story and traditions of the Coast Salish people. It is important to understand that tribal water rights, connection to the ecosystem, and culture offer us a valuable perspective on water as a resource.
      • You saw examples of how people access water, but in some parts of the country and the world that is not always applicable, even though water is a human right. In some cases, access to water is limited due to drought or pollution.
    Step 3: Analyze the impacts of the Hoover Dam on a community(15 min)

    Purpose: Students read about how the Hoover Dam changed a community, but also created new ones. Students identify who benefited from the construction of the dam and who paid a price. They then apply this knowledge to the dam project they are assigned and consider the perspectives of community members who were impacted.

    [Slide 13] Teach students about the residents of St. Thomas.

    • Ask students: What can you recall about what happened to Celilo Falls when the Dalles Dam was constructed, and what impact that had on the tribes?
      • Possible answer: Lake Celilo was formed and inundated the falls, which were the traditional fishing grounds of the tribes.
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that there is a ghost town that still stands in Nevada. The only way people can see this town, St. Thomas, is when the water levels are low enough to expose what is left of the town.
    • Explain to students that they are looking at the National Park Service website to read about St. Thomas and what it was like when its residents had to leave before their town was flooded.
    • Have students gather in their teams to read "St. Thomas, Nevada" and watch the video embedded in the article, "A Doomed Town Rises, St. Thomas, Nevada" [6:46].
    • Have students complete the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Notes Organizer as they read the article.

    [Slide 14] Have students reflect back on how other communities were impacted by the Hoover Dam.

    • As a team, have students look back at the notes in their Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer and consider what the costs and benefits were for the following communities.
      • Tribes of the region
      • Communities who receive power and water from the dam
      • Communities living around Lake Mead
      • Communities living downstream from the dam
    • Have students record their notes in the Costs and Benefits of the Hoover Dam Organizer.
    • Once teams have had time to record their notes, have student volunteers share their new connections.
    • Talking points:
      • While one town was lost, another was created. Since thousands of people were working on the dam, a new city—Boulder City—was developed to house and provide for the needs of those working on the dam. It had schools, stores, and playgrounds, like any town would.
      • The construction of the Hoover Dam impacted the people and economy of Las Vegas, due to the increases in tourism and access to water and electricity. New roads were developed, which allowed more people to move to the area.
      • During the dam’s construction, its workers often traveled to Las Vegas to gamble. This trend has continued to today. Recent data shows that when visitors go to see the dam, they also visit Las Vegas.
      • The development of the area around Lake Mead also attracted people looking to settle in new lakeside communities.

    [Slide 15] Facilitate a discussion about the impact of the Hoover Dam on different communities.

    • Have students revisit the following questions.
      • In this situation—in which different communities are impacted—how do you see rivers connecting and dividing people?
      • Is there a way to make a decision for the common good?
    • Invite students to respond and add onto each other’s responses.
    • Guide students toward thinking about what the common good might mean in this case. It could be a matter of survival, having drinking water, or electricity to carry out daily activities.
    Step 4: Research the impact of your dam project on community members(30 min)

    Purpose: Students continue their individual research to understand the perspectives of the stakeholders for whom they are advocating. They use their new understandings to contribute to their team’s recommendation about the future of their dam project.

    You might say: As you continue to learn about your stakeholders’ perspectives on your dam project, let’s step back and reflect on the conversations you have had with your team at the end of each lesson. In the case of Hoover Dam, many stakeholders and community members have been impacted for decades—some of those stakeholders’ perspectives were valued more than others, as you have learned in the past few lessons. Think about the risk of drought now impacting all stakeholders of the Colorado River Basin. In this situation, how does one make a decision for the common good? As you begin to wrap up your research today, this is a question to keep at the forefront of your mind.

    [Slide 16] Have students conduct individual research on their dam project.

    • Remind students to access the article about their team’s dam project from the previous lesson, the Timeline of Dams, and their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    • Explain to students that they are continuing to learn about the impact of their dam project on their assigned stakeholder individually, but come together to understand their shared and different interests.
    • As students are doing their independent research, monitor their progress and understanding of the resources.
    • At this time, you may also choose to select a group of stakeholders or a team to work with. Monitor their progress and understandings of the costs and benefits of their dam project.
    Step 5: Reflect on your team’s stakeholder interests(10 min)

    Purpose: Student teams reflect on their new understandings of the impacts of the dam projects on community members and where their stakeholders’ interests overlap or diverge. These conversations help students continue to think about the tensions around stakeholder interests and how they can make a recommendation for the common good.

    [Slide 17] Have teams complete the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.

    • Facilitated by the person on each team researching the community members’ perspectives, have teams respond to the following reflection prompt by following the directions on the Stakeholder Interests Reflection handout.
      • Based on your new understandings of the impacts of your dam project, where do your stakeholders share an interest with the community members? How are your stakeholders’ interests different?
      • What questions do you now have about your dam project?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 3: Taking Action for the Common Good

    Module Overviewicon

    Module 3: Taking Action for the Common Good

    Roaring Rivers

    Module 3 Overview

    Module Overview

    In this module, project teams synthesize their research and new understandings in order to make a decision for the future of their dam project. Students first learn about the different stakeholder perspectives and factors that were considered when the fate of the Elwha Dam was decided. Project teams use a flow chart to guide their decision-making about their dam project, while considering the tensions and compromises that must be made for the common good. Project teams then draft their decision, create their public awareness campaign, and get feedback from stakeholder groups to refine their recommendation. Lastly, project teams present their final public awareness campaign and reflect on their work together as a team.

    Lesson 3.1: Deciding the Future of Dams (100 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Evaluate solutions that have been made about dams in Washington and how those decisions have impacted people and the environment.
    • Collaborate with my team to make an evidence-based recommendation about the future of our dam project using multiple stakeholder perspectives.
    • Prepare a draft of our team’s public awareness campaign to present to a group of stakeholders.
    Students learn about decisions that have impacted dams and whether the dams were removed, modified, or preserved to best meet the needs of the region and its people. Students identify the impacts on the people and land after the removal of the Elwha Dam in Washington, and what goes into the decision-making process for dams. Using their research, they collaborate with their teams to make a recommendation for the future of their dam project that takes into consideration the perspective and interests of all stakeholders.
    Lesson 3.2: Share, Evaluate, and Revise your Recommendation (210 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Share my dam project team’s recommendation to the class and receive feedback from stakeholder teams to strengthen our work.
    • Collaborate with my stakeholder group to evaluate and provide specific and actionable feedback to each dam project team on their recommendation for their dam project.
    In this lesson, students share recommendations for the future of their team’s dam project with their stakeholder group for feedback about its strengths and limitations. Students then reconvene with their dam project team to review input from all stakeholder groups and make necessary concessions, compromises, and changes to their recommendation in preparation for their public awareness campaign presentation.
    Lesson 3.3: Present your Public Awareness Campaign (105 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Work with my team to present our public awareness campaign that includes a collaborative, evidence-based recommendation for the future of a controversial dam project.
    • Convince stakeholders and audience members that our team’s recommendation for the future of our dam project best serves the common good.
    • Engage in a thoughtful team reflection about our team’s presentation and what we learned from our classmates’ presentations.
    Students engage in the culminating experience of presenting their public awareness campaign and watching their classmates share theirs. Their team’s goal is to use their presentation to convince stakeholders and audience members that their recommendation for the future of their dam project is the best way to serve the common good. Students have a chance to provide feedback to each other dam project team and then engage in a team reflection.
    Lesson 3.4: Reflect and Look Ahead (65 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Reflect on how the perspectives of different stakeholders were engaged throughout the dam project decision-making process.
    • Discuss how dams can serve and harm the common good.
    Students reflect on how the damming of roaring rivers in Washington has imperiled ecological systems, people, and communities, and what power stakeholders have in bringing the rivers back to life for the common good. They engage in a discussion with their classmates to answer the module and unit driving questions. Finally, students watch a video and reflect on the importance of rivers in connecting people to each other and the land.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 3.1: Dam Project Decision Flow Chart; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Team Exit Ticket
    • Lesson 3.2: Dam Project Feedback Form; Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer; Team Exit Ticket
    • Lesson 3.3: Public Awareness Campaign Feedback Form; Team Reflection
    • Lesson 3.4: Unit Self-Reflection Form
    Vocabulary
    • compromise: an agreement that is reached by each side making concessions
    • concession: something done or given up in order to reach an agreement
    • evidence-based: shown to be valid through scientific or experimental evaluation

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.1: Deciding the Future of Dams

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Evaluate solutions that have been made about dams in Washington and how those decisions have impacted people and the environment.
    • Collaborate with my team to make an evidence-based recommendation about the future of our dam project using multiple stakeholder perspectives.
    • Prepare a draft of our team’s public awareness campaign to present to a group of stakeholders.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about decisions that have impacted dams and whether the dams were removed, modified, or preserved to best meet the needs of the region and its people. You will identify the impacts on the people and land after the removal of the Elwha Dam in Washington, and what goes into the decision-making process for dams. Using your research, you will collaborate with your team to make a recommendation for the future of your dam project that takes
    into consideration the perspective and interests of all stakeholders.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart: Assess your new understandings about your team’s dam project and the public awareness campaign, and add new wonderings to the class Know & Need to Know chart.
    2. Identify the factors that influenced decisions about two dams: Watch the video "Return of the River" and read the article "Elwha: Roaring Back to Life" to learn about the factors that influenced the decision to remove the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams in Washington’s Olympic Peninsula by using the Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart. Consider how these factors apply to your team’s dam project.
    3. Make an evidence-based recommendation for your dam project: Draw on the notes from your Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer, Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric, and your team’s Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart to help your team make an evidence-based recommendation about the future of your team’s dam project.
    4. Complete a Team Exit Ticket: Reflect with your team in a Team Exit Ticket about the compromises and agreements that have gone into your recommendation for the future of your team’s dam project, set team goals, establish tasks, and indicate where you need more support.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:100 minutes (2 days)
    Standards

    E1.6-8.2: Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues of Washington state in terms of costs and benefits for different groups.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B: Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students learn about decisions that have impacted dams and whether the dams were removed, modified, or preserved to best meet the needs of the region and its people. Students identify the impacts on the people and land after the removal of the Elwha Dam in Washington, and what goes into the decision-making process for dams. Using their research, they collaborate with their teams to make a recommendation for the future of their dam project that takes into consideration the perspective and interests of all stakeholders.
    Teacher Preparation
    • In preparation for team presentations, be sure to locate any materials or equipment the teams may need.
    • You may use this time to monitor team progress as they work through the resources to make their recommendation for the future of their dam project. Check in to make sure they are citing their sources as evidence for their reasons and decision.
    • By the end of the lesson, teams should have made their decisions. If time is short, decide when students may need to complete work outside of class time.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Revisit the class Know & Need to Know chart(10 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on and assess their new understandings by revisiting the class Know & Need to Know chart. This helps students recognize the progress they have made and consider what they need to know in order to complete their team’s public awareness campaign.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect back on what they have learned and what they still need to know to make a recommendation for their dam project.

    • Refer students to the class Know & Need to Know chart.
    • Ask students:
      • What do you know about the ways in which different stakeholders are impacted by dams?
      • What do you need to know about the ways in which different stakeholders are impacted by dams?
      • What do you know about creating a public awareness campaign that highlights stakeholder perspectives and proposes a call to action about the future of your dam project?
      • What do you need to know about creating a public awareness campaign that highlights stakeholder perspectives and proposes a call to action about the future of dams?
    • Record student responses in the chart.
    Step 2: Identify factors that influenced the decision about two dams(30 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the factors that went into the decision to remove the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams, and consider how those factors might apply to what they know about their team’s dam project. Students apply these considerations to their public awareness campaign.

    You might say: You and your teams have learned a lot about the impacts of dams on different stakeholders. You have learned about the benefits of dams to many communities, and have also learned about the costs that some communities have had to endure as a result of dams. Today, you will draw on your research to make a collaborative and evidence-based recommendation for the future of your dam project, and will draft your team’s public awareness campaign.

    Before you do that, it is important to understand some decisions that have already impacted the outcome of dams. In the United States, 1,797 dams have been removed since 1912; 69 of those were removed just in the year 2020. However, making the decision to remove a dam isn’t easy. It takes a great deal of consideration of multiple perspectives, and a lot of planning due to environmental impacts. So, as your team makes a recommendation for your dam project, you will need to analyze the stakeholder perspectives you have each gathered during your research and decide what is best for the common good.

    [Slides 3–5] Introduce students to the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams.

    • Slide 3. Have students turn and talk with a partner about the questions below.
      • What do you think are some options for the future of dams? Are they worth keeping or removing? Can they be modified? What are some other options besides those three?
      • Based on the research you have done on your team’s dam project, whose perspectives have been prioritized in it thus far?
    • Elicit student responses.
    • Slide 4. Explain to students that there are usually three options when it comes to what can happen to a dam. It can be removed, it can be modified, or it can stay as is. However, there are also alternative options, such as only removing one dam along a river while keeping others. Any decision impacting what happens to a dam can take years of consideration and planning. That is what happened when it came to deciding the fates of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams on the Olympic Peninsula.
    • Slide 5. Explain that the Elwha Dam was constructed in 1913 on the Elwha River. The Glines Canyon Dam was built eight miles upstream from the Elwha Dam in 1926.
    • Explain that next, students learn about what went into the decision for the outcome of the two dams, and the anticipated impacts on the different stakeholders they have been focusing their research on.

    [Slides 6–10] Teach students about stakeholder perspectives relating to the removal of the dams.

    • Explain to students that they learn about the different stakeholder perspectives that were considered when looking at the future of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams.
    • Have students sit together with members of their dam project team.
    • Explain that as they learn about each stakeholder’s perspective, they are to also consider that stakeholder’s perspective in connection with their team’s dam project.
    • Distribute the Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart to each team and clarify directions for the students. They are to complete the handout together. Explain that as they learn about the decision-making process that was used to determine the future of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams, they are to fill in the flow chart. Students also complete a similar handout when considering the future of their team’s dam project. Provide teams time to fill in the flow chart after each slide. Direct students to go straight to Step 2 where they learn about how the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams impacted different stakeholders. In this case, they are considering the costs and benefits of removing the dams. Have students circle the word “removing” in the box for Step 2.
    • Slide 6. Explain that the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe has a connection and rights to the Elwha River, dating back thousands of years.

    Talking points:

      • In 1855, the Treaty of Point-No Point promised the local tribe fishing rights to the river.
      • Some members of the tribe lived on their reservation—572 acres of land near the mouth of the Elwha River—and they are known as the “Fish-Eaters” because of their reliance on a variety of native fish. The river provided them with fish and was a sacred site for them, but their land was buried when the Elwha Dam was built. The dams also blocked fish passage and the Klallam people watched in horror as they witnessed thousands of fish die at the base of the Elwha Dam. The decision to build the dams ignored the tribe’s treaty rights.
      • Removing the dam would uncover the tribe’s cultural resources and help reestablish its access to traditionally sacred sites. Scientists had intentions to restore the land and resources that had been altered over the years. The removal of the dam would give the tribe and the river time to heal.
    • Slide 7. Explain that the removal of the dam would have several impacts on the farming community. Talking points:
      • Dams provide a source of irrigation for farmland that may otherwise have inconsistent access to water. Removal would require a plan to provide a source of irrigation for farmland.
      • The Olympic Peninsula has been known to experience droughts. In recent reports from 2015 and 2019, there have been record low amounts of rain in the region and in the Elwha River since 1895. There was insufficient snowmelt to replenish the rivers, so farmers leased water from the state and decreased the amount of acreage for irrigation.
      • Farmers also had to decrease the amount of water to feed their livestock. This was done to make sure the salmon would survive.
      • Flooding, soil quality, and water quality are always the biggest concerns for those who farm downstream from any dam. Undamming a river increases its water’s flow, quality, and levels in particular areas.
    • Slide 8. Explain to students that pressure from environmental groups to remove the dams was heavily felt.

    Talking points:

      • Environmentalists saw many costs and benefits to removing the two dams.
      • Preserving the dams would continue to put the salmon population and ecosystem at risk.
      • Removing the dams would need to be done carefully, so as to not destroy the riverbed and for the survival of wildlife downstream.
    • Ask: What do you think happens to all the sediment backed up behind a dam, once the dam is removed? Think about the ecosystems and communities that can be impacted downstream.
    • Have students respond.

    Talking points:

      • Undamming a river needs to be done slowly and carefully.
      • Undamming a river could have harmful impacts on many species if not done carefully, but there are also long-term benefits.
      • In the case of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams, there were many benefits to restoring the ecosystem of the local fish and wildlife, which included elk, swans, ducks, and other threatened and endangered species.
      • The Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams blocked salmon passage and eroded the riverbeds needed to provide a habitat for spawning.
      • The temperature of the lakes also increased by 16 degrees Fahrenheit, which made it too warm for the fish to survive and led to the growth of parasites that wiped out 75% of the Chinook salmon population.
      • Attempts to put in a spawning channel and hatchery failed.  A spawning channel can be built where water flow could be controlled, which creates ideal spawning conditions for salmon. A fish hatchery is a place for artificial breeding, hatching, and rearing of fish. Hatcheries were developed to help mitigate, or solve the problems impacting wild salmon as a result of dams, but fish from hatcheries have not replaced populations of salmon and steelhead, and they have negatively impacted wild populations of the fish. Hatcheries are also costly to operate. Due to the failure of these plans, The National Marine Fisheries Service tried to intervene in 1986 to seek a resolution to the issues surrounding fisheries and hatcheries, while environmental groups pushed for the removal of the dam.
    • Slide 9. Explain to students that the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams helped fuel economic growth for the Olympic Peninsula and the community of Port Angeles.

    Talking points:

      • The dams provided power to industries in the region and provided jobs for thousands of people, especially in the industries of lumber and paper production. However, for example, the power generated from the dams provided only 38% of the electricity needed to operate the Daisowha American Paper Mill back then. The dams’ output of electricity was a yearly average of 19 megawatts. This raised a question of whether this low amount of power was worth the destruction of the ecosystem.
      • Removing the dams would require finding a different way to power the mill, which would also impact the cost of electricity for consumers.
    • Slide 10. Explain that communities are impacted in different ways when a dam is removed.

    Talking points:

      • The city of Port Angeles was divided on the decision, and its residents took six weeks to come to a community consensus about the future of the dam.
      • Many communities receive water for drinking or industrial use. The Port Angeles community was mainly concerned that removing the dam would impact their water quality.
      • The Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams also posed safety concerns, such as the potential for flooding and the safety of those who lived near the dams.
      • In 1912, when the Elwha Dam was almost complete, a portion of the dam gave way and impacted the land where the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe was residing. There was no loss of life, but their land was destroyed. There was also a risk of failure during maximum flooding, or when the dam was holding back the maximum amount of water. There was also risk from potential earthquakes.
      • With the removal of the dams, the reservoirs became less available for the community to use for recreational activities, such as fishing, boating, rafting, and hiking.
      • The power from the dams was generating only 38% of the electricity to operate one paper mill, so most community members did not see the electricity generated by the dams as a significant benefit.
    • Ask students if they think there are enough reasons and evidence to modify the dams or to preserve the dams based on what they have written. Ask student volunteers to provide reasons for their response.
    • After teams have made their notes about the costs and benefits to the multiple stakeholders, have them complete Steps 3 and 4 of their Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart.
    • Have each team share their reasons in Step 3 for the removal of the dams.
    • Explain to students that they are watching a video about the outcome of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams and the impact it had on the ecosystem.
    • Play the video "Return of the River" in its entirety [2:57].
    • Explain that the removal of these two dams was one of the largest dam removals in United States history.
    • Ask students: As you watched the video, what outcomes of the dam removals did you notice?
    • Have students skim through the Seattle Times article "Elwha: Roaring Back to Life" to look at the impact on the ecosystem and wildlife that have returned to the area.

    [Slide 11] Facilitate a discussion about how all dams are not created equal.

    • Have students respond to the following prompt: Do you think the decision to remove the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams could apply to the possible removal of the Hoover Dam? Why or why not?
    • Invite students to respond, and encourage others to add to their ideas.
    • Ask: Where do you see connections to your team’s dam project?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Acknowledge that some of the project teams have more than one dam to consider, such as the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project. Have students consider what it could mean to remove just one dam, or all of the dams. The reasoning for their ultimate decision should be clarified in their recommendation.
    Step 3: Make an evidence-based recommendation for your dam project(50 min)

    Purpose: Dam project teams work together and use multiple stakeholder perspectives to make an evidence-based recommendation for the future of their dam project. Teams use a public awareness campaign to inform an outside audience about the decision for their dam project.

    [Slides 12–13] Explain the idea of using evidence-based reasoning to back up team recommendations.

    • Ask students what reasons were used to remove the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams.
      • Possible responses: The power the dams provided was not enough to significantly benefit the community; studies showed that the fish were not able to travel upstream, which hurt the salmon population; the tribe’s livelihood and cultural resources were being compromised; the ecosystem was disrupted by the dams.
    • Ask students how stakeholders came up with those reasons for the removal of the dams.
    • Explain that using evidence-based reasons to back up a decision or a claim is an important part of informing the public about something. Use an example that students can relate to, such as the decision to buckle your seatbelt, or to use sunscreen when out in the sun. Explain that people make choices to do something based on evidence that that thing does or does not work.
    • Slide 12. Explain what it means to use evidence to back up a claim, or in this case, to back up their recommendation for the future of their dam project. Have students look at the graph generated by the Pacific Salmon Commission. Ask them how this evidence may have been used to make a recommendation for the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams.
    • Slide 13. Have students look at the snapshot from the United States Geological Survey website. Read the description to go with the image. Explain that the mouth of the Elwha River belonged to the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe. Ask students what they notice about the beach in the first image, before the removal of the dam. Next, ask students what they notice about the beach during and after the dam removal. Explain that the removal of the dam restored some of the tribe’s land and the coastal wetlands.
    • Ask students what recommendation they would make about the dam based on this evidence.
    • Invite students to share their recommendation using evidence they learned.
    • Share the example from the Evidence-Based Recommendation Example document, for how students can frame their decision in a way that is collaborative, evidence-based, and reflects a compromise.
    • Explain that as students are drafting their team’s recommendation for the future of their dam, it is important that they cite evidence for their reasons and claims.

    [Slide 14] Have dam project teams work together to make a decision about the future of their dam project.

    • Explain to students that they work with their teams to discuss the multiple stakeholder perspectives that influence the recommendation for their dam project.
    • Ask: Based on the discussions you have had with your team throughout the last few lessons, which of the three options for preserving, modifying, or removing your dam project are you leaning towards?
    • Have teams discuss their response and share with them that they are considering the costs and benefits to the option they are leaning towards, but must also be open to the idea that they can change their minds during this decision-making process.
    • Distribute a new, blank copy of the Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart to each team and have them complete the chart for their team’s dam project. Clarify how their completion of the chart is likely to be slightly different from when they completed it using the examples of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams.
    • Remind students they need to use evidence to support the costs and benefits to the stakeholder groups. This means they need to cite the sources where they found their information, which they tracked in their Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer.
    • Explain that each stakeholder advocate shares their stakeholder’s perspective while the other team members listen.
    • Clarify that the costs and benefits to each stakeholder are considered impacts, but as students address Step 4 in their Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart, this is where they need to work together as a team to consider the overall impacts on the stakeholder groups—what do they have in common, who is more vs. less impacted, and what compromises need to be made. Remind students of the launch activity, when they made a decision about the construction of the community center in the park, and what compromises needed to be considered in that situation.
    • As teams work, monitor their progress and collaboration. Make sure each stakeholder advocate has a chance to share and that all perspectives are considered.
    • Once teams have made their recommendations for their dam project, have them submit their recommendations to you. Prior to the next lesson, you need to create a document that includes each team’s dam project recommendation. Use the decision that each team wrote in Step 4 of their Dam Project Decisions Flow Chart to create the document. Stakeholder groups evaluate each team’s decision, so five copies of the document that lists all the recommendations need to be made.
    • If you were able to previously locate an available outside expert to partner with for this project, explain to students that in the following lesson, an outside expert from the community reviews each team’s recommendation.

    [Slide 15] Have students brainstorm how they want to present the decision for their team’s dam project.

    • Remind students that the purpose of their public awareness campaign is to inform the public about their recommendation for their dam project.
    • Explain that when the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams were removed, stakeholder groups had a role in informing the public about how the decision would impact different communities. The environmentalists, community members, and tribes played an active role in informing the public through meetings and public notifications. Remind students that use of the internet was much more limited in the 1990s, so public awareness campaigns looked very different at that time.
    • Remind students to look at their Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric. One part of the final product is for teams to collaboratively decide how they want to inform the public about the decision for their dam project.
    • Offer suggestions to teams, such as a slideshow presentation, infographic, video, social media post, or mixed media. Invite students to generate ideas and write them on the board.
    • Provide students with time to make a team decision about how they want to create their public awareness campaign, then make a list of materials and tasks needed in order to complete their final product. Teams can put their notes and ideas in their Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric.
    Step 4: Complete a Team Exit Ticket(10 min)

    Purpose: Teams plan ahead and create next steps for designing their public awareness campaign.

    You might say: Having a strong public awareness campaign is key to making sure a variety of people hear your message and are convinced to stand with you. In this Team Exit Ticket, you will set your goal and next steps to create your public awareness campaign together.

    [Slide 16] Have dam project teams complete a Team Exit Ticket.

    • Distribute the Team Exit Ticket and have teams respond to the following prompts.
      • We are going to present our public awareness campaign using one or two of the following media (circle one or two choices).
    • Slideshow
    • Video
    • Social media post
    • Infographic
    • Other: ________________
      • What are your team’s goals for your public awareness campaign?
      • What are at least three tasks that you will need to accomplish in order to meet these goals?
      • What is each team member’s role in completing these tasks?
      • What task(s) do you think will be the most challenging, and why? Who can you go to for support, either within or outside of your team?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.2: Share, Evaluate, and Revise Your Recommendation

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Share my dam project team’s recommendation to the class and receive feedback from stakeholder teams to strengthen our work.
    • Collaborate with my stakeholder group to evaluate and provide specific and actionable feedback to each dam project team on their recommendation for their dam project.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will share the recommendation for the future of your team’s dam project with your stakeholder group for feedback about its strengths and limitations. You will then reconvene with your dam project team to review the input from all stakeholder groups and make necessary concessions, compromises, and changes to your recommendation in preparation for your public awareness campaign presentation.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your team’s goals and tasks: Reorient yourselves to the previous lesson’s Team Exit Ticket and the goals and tasks that need to be completed in order for your team to be ready for your public awareness campaign presentation.
    2. Evaluate dam project recommendations and provide feedback: Collaborate with your stakeholder group to evaluate each dam project team’s recommendation for the future of their dam project. Complete the Dam Project Feedback Form to help the dam project team consider your stakeholder group’s interests when revising their recommendation for the common good.
    3. Revise your team’s dam project recommendation: Use the stakeholder groups’ feedback to revise your team’s dam project recommendation. Consider where tensions lie across the stakeholder groups, where they agree with each other, and where compromises and concessions can be made.
    4. Prepare your team’s public awareness campaign presentation: Use this time with your team to put together your public awareness campaign using your presentation mode of choice.
    5. Complete a Team Reflection: Using a Team Reflection, reflect back on your team’s successes and challenges in preparation for your public awareness campaign presentation.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:210 minutes (4 days)
    Standards

    E1.6-8.2: Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues of Washington state in terms of costs and benefits for different groups.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B: Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.5: With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Team Exit Ticket (Lesson 3.1)
    • Teacher-prepared Dam Project Recommendation for each dam project team
    • Dam Project Feedback Form
    • Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric (Lesson 1.2)
    • Public Awareness Campaign Research Organizer (Lesson 1.4)
    • Dam Project Article and Resource Guide (Lesson 2.1)
    • Team Reflection
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students share recommendations for the future of their team’s dam project with their stakeholder group for feedback about its strengths and limitations. Students then reconvene with their dam project team to review input from all stakeholder groups and make necessary concessions, compromises, and changes to their recommendation in preparation for their public awareness campaign presentation.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Decide how you want to adjust the lesson timing.
      • The timing for this lesson is based on how many dam project teams you have in your class. Class configurations may vary, depending on the groupings you decided on in Module 1, so you need to adjust accordingly.
      • Depending on how many dam project team recommendations need to be evaluated, this lesson may vary between 3–4 days.
    • Prior to this lesson, assess each dam project team’s progress on their recommendation.
      • Be prepared to support teams that may need to further develop their recommendation. You may want to work with dam project teams during Steps 3 and 4.
    • For Step 2, prepare copies of each team’s dam project recommendation for the five stakeholder groups.
      • An alternative option for students to review each recommendation and provide feedback would be to use a shared document through a service such as Google Docs.
      • If you are using hard copies, prepare 4–6 copies of the Dam Project Feedback Form for each stakeholder team. Count the number of dam project teams you have and print that many copies for each stakeholder team.
    • For Step 4, gather the materials or equipment that students may need to prepare their public awareness campaign presentations.
      • Project teams have indicated their mode of presentation and materials needed in their Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric in Lesson 3.1.
    • Throughout the lesson, assess where each team is in their preparation.
    • If teams need additional time to prepare for their final presentations, decide what you may need to assign as work outside of class time.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your team’s goals and tasks(5 min)

    Purpose: Students revisit their goals and next steps from their Team Exit Ticket from the previous lesson. This helps give teams a focus for the tasks needed to complete their public awareness campaign presentation.

    You might say: In this lesson, your team will have a chance to receive feedback on your recommendation for the future of your dam project. You will also be able to address the feedback you receive and improve your plan for your team’s public awareness campaign. Lastly, your team will have time to complete your preparation for your public awareness campaign presentation.

    Before we start on those tasks, let’s revisit your team and individual goals for your public awareness campaign presentation, and the tasks that you will need to complete to achieve those goals.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on the goals and tasks they set for themselves.

    • Distribute each dam project team’s Team Exit Ticket back to them.
    • Ask each group to reflect back on what they wrote and orient themselves to the tasks they hope to accomplish for the day.
    • Ask students to discuss the following questions.
      • What goals have you set, and what are the tasks that need to be accomplished in order to meet those goals?
      • What role does each of you have today?
    • Check in with each team to make sure each team member is aware of their task for the day.
    • Explain that you are around to support each team during their work time and help address any challenges teams may be experiencing.
    Step 2: Evaluate dam project recommendations and provide feedback(80 min)

    Purpose: Students gather in their stakeholder teams to evaluate each dam project team’s recommendation for the future of their dam project. Each stakeholder team evaluates each dam project team’s recommendation and provides feedback that is specific and actionable.

    You might say: Each of you has taken on a specific role to learn about different stakeholder perspectives on your assigned dam project, and contributed those perspectives toward helping your team make a recommendation for the future of your dam project. Right now, you will get into stakeholder groups, which means everyone in each group will represent the same stakeholder.

    Your task will be to evaluate each dam project team’s recommendation. You will first decide as a team if you can agree on their recommended solutions for their respective dam projects impacting the land and people in Washington. If not, what might you recommend that would make their solution work for you? What might your stakeholder group be willing to compromise on for the common good? You will then provide specific and actionable feedback to help them improve their recommendation.

    [Slide 3] Have students gather into stakeholder groups to evaluate dam project recommendations.

    • Distribute one copy of each dam project team’s recommendation to each stakeholder group. Explain that they need to work together and contribute their expertise in order to give the dam project team actionable and specific feedback. At least one person in each stakeholder group is also an expert on each dam project and needs to provide background information for their group, such as the location of the dam project, the region or communities impacted by the dam project, and some key costs and benefits the dam project has had on multiple stakeholders.
    • Distribute copies of the Dam Project Feedback Form to each stakeholder group. The number of copies depends on how many dam project teams are in the class. The group of stakeholders completes one feedback form for each recommendation they evaluate. Clarify how groups should complete the form.
    • Explain the feedback protocol each stakeholder group should follow to address the recommendations they read. Each recommendation should take about 20 minutes to evaluate.
      • The representative in the stakeholder group who is an expert on the dam project recommendation being evaluated provides background information (2 minutes).
      • Someone in the group reads aloud the dam project team’s recommendation (1 minute).
      • Each stakeholder team member shares whether they agree, disagree, or need more information, and explains why (1 minute each).
      • The group discusses the recommendation and considers what feedback and questions need to be addressed before they can make a decision. A designated notetaker completes the Dam Project Feedback Form, providing feedback and questions the dam project team needs to address in their revisions (10 minutes).
    • Monitor stakeholder teams to be sure they are staying on task and supported in providing their feedback.
    • Collect all completed forms from each stakeholder group.
    Step 3: Revise your team’s dam project recommendation(60 min)

    Purpose: Dam project teams review feedback from the stakeholder groups, then discuss and revise their original recommendations. Within their dam project teams, individual stakeholders should acknowledge where they need to concede and compromise for the benefit of the common good.

    [Slide 4] Bring dam project teams back together to review feedback from the stakeholder groups and revise their recommendation.

    • Invite students to gather again with their dam project teams.
    • Distribute the Dam Project Feedback Forms corresponding to each dam project team.
    • Explain to teams that their next task is to go through each of the feedback forms to identify whether their recommendation is worth considering, and to also evaluate the feedback and questions posed by each stakeholder group.
    • Remind students that their goals are to consider each stakeholder group’s perspective, recognize the challenge in addressing any competing interests, and make compromises and concessions for the common good. Explain that they need to make sure their recommendation convinces stakeholder groups that their decision is for the common good, and that the audience decides on whether they approve of each team’s recommendation based on their presentation.
    • Explain that teams have time to work on revising and finalizing their recommendation based on the feedback they received.
    Step 4: Prepare your team’s public awareness campaign presentation(60 min)

    Purpose: Dam project teams work together to prepare and complete their public awareness campaign presentations.

    [Slide 5] Have dam project teams collaborate to prepare and finalize their public awareness campaign presentations.

    • Remind teams of the brainstorming they did for their presentation in their Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric. Have teams refer back to their notes on how they plan to present their campaign.
    • Remind students that presentations should only be ten minutes long and need to convince stakeholder groups that their recommendation benefits the common good.
    • Encourage students to build scripts, decide who speaks and when, and find images, videos, or other media to use for their public awareness campaign presentation.
    • Remind students to look back at the Public Awareness Campaign Guide and Rubric for additional expectations for their presentation. Each team’s presentation should follow the order below.
      • Introduce yourselves and your team’s dam project, including where it is located.
      • Identify the tensions around your team’s dam project by highlighting the costs and benefits to each stakeholder group.
      • State your team’s recommendation and convince the audience how it benefits the common good.
    • Provide dam project teams with the materials and equipment they need for their presentation.
    • Provide time and support for teams to prepare and finalize their presentations. Some teams may need to spend more time outside of class to complete theirs.
    Step 5: Complete a Team Reflection(5 min)

    Purpose: Teams assess where they are in completing their tasks for their public awareness campaign presentation.

    [Slide 6] Have dam project teams complete a Team Reflection.

    • Distribute the Team Reflection and have teams respond to the following prompts.
      • What team success have you experienced in preparing your public awareness campaign?
      • What challenge have you experienced in preparing your public awareness campaign?
      • What materials and equipment do you still need for your presentation?

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.3: Present Your Public Awareness Campaign

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?

    Learning TargetsI can:

    • Work with my team to present our public awareness campaign that includes a collaborative, evidence-based recommendation for the future of a controversial dam project.
    • Convince stakeholders and audience members that our team’s recommendation for the future of our dam project best serves the common good.
    • Engage in a thoughtful team reflection about our team’s presentation and what we learned from our classmates’ presentations.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will engage in the culminating experience of presenting your public awareness campaign and watching your classmates share theirs. Your team’s goal is to use your presentation to convince stakeholders and audience members that your recommendation for the future of your dam project is the best way
    to serve the common good. You will have a chance to provide feedback to each other dam project team and then engage in a team reflection.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Prepare for your public awareness campaign presentation: Work with your team to make any final adjustments to your presentation and become familiar with the format for the day.
    2. Present your public awareness campaign: Showcase your hard work by presenting your team’s recommendation for your dam project through your public awareness campaign. Provide feedback to other teams on their presentations using the Public Awareness Campaign Feedback Form.
    3. Engage in a team reflection: Using the Team Reflection handout, take time to reflect on what you learned from doing your presentation and watching your classmates’ presentations.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:105 minutes (2 days)
    Standards
    C4.6-8.3: Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a state or local issue.
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.4: Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.5: Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students engage in the culminating experience of presenting their public awareness campaign and watching their classmates share theirs. Their team’s goal is to use their presentation to convince stakeholders and audience members that their recommendation for the future of their dam project is the best way to serve the common good. Students have a chance to provide feedback to each other dam project team and then engage in a team reflection.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Prior to the lesson, decide how you want to adjust the timing of the lesson and incorporate guests.
    • The timing of this lesson is based on how many dam project teams you have in your class. Class configurations may vary depending on the groupings you decided on in Module 1, so you need to adjust accordingly.
    • If you were able to invite guests to review the team recommendations and/or attend the presentations, incorporate time after the presentations for your guests to briefly share their feedback and how they would vote on the recommendations.
    • If guests authentically represent any of the stakeholder perspectives students have studied, have them share their perspectives with the class about the impact of dams in Washington. Have guests highlight the tensions and concessions that often need to be made in decisions for the common good.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Prepare for your public awareness campaign presentation(15 min)

    Purpose: Teams make final preparations for their public awareness campaign presentations and become familiar with the presentation format for the day.

    You might say: Today is a big day. Your teams will have a chance to showcase all the hard work you have put into your public awareness campaign and the recommendation for your team’s dam project. You will have a few minutes now to become familiar with the format of the presentations, ensure you have everything you need for your presentation, and make any final preparations.

    [Slide 2] Familiarize students with the presentation format for the day.

    • Remind the class that each team has about ten minutes to present their public awareness campaign, then five more minutes to take questions and comments. Types of presentations may vary, which may determine the need for preparation time for some teams.
    • Explain that after each team has completed its presentation, students complete the Public Awareness Campaign Feedback Form using the rubric. Clarify that their feedback should be specific and kind, and that they should highlight areas where each team was strong as well as what they are still wondering about.
    • At the end of the feedback form, students see that they have the opportunity to share whether they approve or disapprove of the presenting team’s recommendation for their dam project.

    Provide teams with time to make any final preparations for their presentations.

    • Support teams as they make their final preparations, and make sure each team has all of the materials or equipment they need.
    Step 2: Present your public awareness campaign(80 min)

    Purpose: Teams present their public awareness campaigns, in which they make a final recommendation for their dam projects and receive feedback from their classmates about their presentations.

    You might say: The moment has come for you to showcase your team’s public awareness campaign to your classmates and to stakeholders and guests from our community. Your goal is to inform and convince your audience, through your presentation, that your recommendation has accounted for all stakeholder perspectives and benefits the common good. After the presentations, the audience will vote to approve or deny your team’s recommendation for your dam project.

     Have students gather in their dam project teams and begin the presentation process.

    • Introduce any outside guests that may have joined the class and, if applicable, share what their role is as it relates to dams. Explain that their role in the present situation is to listen to what the class has learned, give some feedback on what each team shares about the future of its dam project, and decide whether they approve of each team’s recommendation for its dam project.
    • Display the order of team presentations on the board.
    • Distribute copies of the Public Awareness Campaign Feedback Form to each student and clarify how and when they should complete it.
    • Begin the presentation process.
      • Have team members introduce themselves and take ten minutes to present their public awareness campaign.
      • Provide five minutes for questions and comments.
      • Provide five more minutes for students to complete the Public Awareness Campaign Feedback Form.
    • You may want to provide students with a brief break after every second or third presentation.

    Provide time for guests to share feedback and vote after all teams have presented.

    • If you invited guests, have them share some brief reflections and feedback about what the teams shared.
    • Ask each guest to vote for or against each team’s dam project recommendation and to share the reasons for their votes.
    Step 3: Engage in a team reflection(10 min)

    Purpose: Teams take time to reflect on their presentations and what they learned from their classmates.

    [Slide 3] Have students engage in a reflection on their team’s presentation.

    • Explain to students that the reflection process is an important part of learning and growing from different experiences. It is useful to think about what their strengths are and how they can improve their skills or processes.
    • Explain to students that each team completes a Team Reflection document that asks them how they think their presentations went and what they learned from the other teams’ presentations.
    • Distribute the Team Reflection document and go over the directions with the class.
    • Collect the document from each team after they complete it.

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.4: Reflect and Look Ahead

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Reflect on how the perspectives of different stakeholders were engaged throughout the dam project decision-making process.
    • Discuss how dams can serve and harm the common good.

    Purpose

    In this final lesson, you will reflect on how the damming of roaring rivers in Washington has imperiled ecological systems, people, and communities, and what power stakeholders have in bringing the rivers back to life for the common good. You will engage in a discussion with your classmates about the module and unit driving questions. Finally, you will watch a video and reflect on the importance of rivers in connecting people to each other and the land.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Complete a self-reflection about the unit: Use this Unit Self-Reflection to reflect on what you have accomplished and learned about balancing multiple perspectives to make a decision for the common good.
    2. Engage in a Concentric Circles discussion: Engage in a discussion to revisit the unit driving question.
    3. Reflect on how rivers connect us to each other and the land: Read the article "Rivers, Lands and Belonging." Then see what rivers mean to someone from the Shoshone-Bannock tribes in the video "Jessica and Sammy Matsaw of Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Discuss Their Conservation Work." You will learn about the power that rivers have to connect people to their identities and each other, but also the power they have to divide communities.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:65 minutes
    Standards
    C4.6-8.3: Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a state or local issue.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Students reflect on how the damming of roaring rivers in Washington has imperiled ecological systems, people, and communities, and what power stakeholders have in bringing the rivers back to life for the common good. They engage in a discussion with their classmates to answer the module and unit driving questions. Finally, students watch a video and reflect on the importance of rivers in connecting people to each other and the land.
    Teacher Preparation
    • The video is [7:41]. If you need to cut it short, you can stop the video at [6:30].

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Complete a self-reflection about the unit(20 min)

    Purpose: Students individually complete a self-reflection on what they have learned through their group work and through the research done for their public awareness campaigns. The self-reflection provides students with the opportunity to think about areas for growth and their connection to the history and stories of their community.

    You might say: Reflection is an important part of learning and growth. Today, you are going to reflect on the work you and your team did to prepare your public awareness campaign, and what you learned about the multiple stakeholder perspectives that need to be considered when making a decision for the common good. You will each complete a self-reflection form, which will be used to assess your learning and provide important information to help me identify what worked and how we can improve upon this unit for future students.

    [Slide 2] Invite students to reflect on the work and content in the unit.

    • Have students complete the Unit Self-Reflection.
      • Be sure to let students know that their honest reflections should consider what they have learned about the impact of dams on different stakeholders and what they learned about what it means to make a decision for the common good.
    Step 2: Engage in a Concentric Circles discussion(25 min)

    Purpose: Students participate in a Concentric Circles discussion to answer the unit driving question. The discussion protocol used in this step is intended to provide students with a safe and supported way to talk about changes in their understanding of how dams in Washington can serve the common good. For many students, comparing their incoming knowledge to what they understand today will demonstrate significant growth. For this reason, discussion is held between individuals rather than with the whole class.

    You might say: The Concentric Circles discussion protocol will get us talking about what we knew about

    how dams can serve the common good at the beginning of the unit vs. what we know now, as we answer the driving question of the unit: How can dams in Washington serve the common good?

    [Slide 3] Explain the Concentric Circles discussion protocol to the class.

      • Divide your class into two equal groups: A and B.
      • Ask Group A to form a large outer circle and Group B to form an inner circle.
      • The students in Group B face the students in Group A.
      • Once students are in position, explain the Concentric Circles process.
        • The timer is set for 3 minutes.
          • 1 minute: Partner A shares their response
          • 1 minute: Partner B shares their response
          • 1 minute: Partners A and B discuss similarities or differences in their responses
        • After each round, the students in Group A move one space to their right, so they are in front of a new person from Group B. (Group B stays in place.)
      • Cue which group should speak first, and rotate speakers for subsequent rounds, so the same group doesn’t always speak first.
      • Give students an easy, lighthearted practice question (e.g., “What’s your favorite snack?”) to make sure everyone understands the protocol.

    [Slides 4–7] Facilitate the Concentric Circles discussion.

    • Post the driving question and pause for students to read it silently.
    • Present the following questions for each round of discussion. You may reduce the number of questions or add more of your own as time and context allow.
        • Slide 4. Round 1: What did you think the answer to this driving question was at the beginning of the unit?
        • Slide 5. Round 2: What do you think the answer to this driving question is now? How can dams in Washington serve the common good? (You may choose to add their responses to the Know & Need to Know chart.)
        • Optional: Repeat Round 2 two or three times, so students can hear and discuss several different responses.
        • Slide 6. Round 3: What new questions are you leaving the unit with? (You may choose to add their responses to the Know & Need to Know chart.)
        • Slide 7. Round 4: How do you think young people like yourself can help ensure that decisions made in your community benefit the common good?
    • Debrief the process. Discuss any next steps or actions students might take to learn about federal, state, and local decisions that impact people in the community where they live.

    Teacher Tip: Concentric Circles in Virtual Learning

    If students are engaging in a virtual learning space, one way to adapt the Concentric Circles discussion is to create breakout rooms with two people in each room. Students follow the same protocol described in the directions above. You can provide students with three minutes per round to answer the questions, and for each round, create new breakout rooms so each student is with a new partner.

    Step 3: Reflect on how rivers connect us to each other and the land(20 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on how rivers connect and divide us, and how decisions around dams and rivers have an impact on many communities.

    You might say: We have been making a lot of connections to the different stakeholder perspectives that impact the future of a dam project. You have also learned about the different roles that rivers play for different communities in different regions. To many, rivers are a source of life to our ecosystem as well as a source of energy, recreation, and sustenance for our ecosystem, but to others they mean so much more.

    A river is a source of life that feeds a body of land. To the tribes, whose perspectives have informed your research, rivers are like a vein that provides nutrients, energy, and identity, and the animals living along the river or in the river are family. So, their connection to the river is vital to their culture.

    [Slide 8] Have students engage with a video to understand the greater impact of rivers on people from the Shoshone-Bannock tribes.

    • Explain to students that the United States has more than 2.9 million miles of rivers that connect many communities. Rivers, and all they provide, are essential to people all over the country.
    • Explain that students are watching a video with two conservationists from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes in Idaho, speaking about what the Snake River, in the Columbia River Basin, means to them.
    • Explain that the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe are comprised of the eastern and western bands of the Northern Shoshone and the Bannock bands of the Paiute Tribe. Their land occupies regions of present-day Idaho and five other states, including regions of Canada. The Tribes subsist as hunters and gatherers, with fishing for salmon being one of their primary sources of food. The Snake River is one of three rivers that borders their reservation.
    • Ask students to recall what they learned about the Shoshone-Bannock tribe’s connection to salmon and why the fish were such an integral part of their livelihood.
    • Ask students why they think the tribes see changes to the land as an injustice.
    • As students watch the video, guide them to consider what the river means to the speakers, how their identities are connected to it, and how they view the salmon as part of their culture.
    • Play the video, "Jessica and Sammy Matsaw of Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Discuss Their Conservation Work" [7:41]. The link has the video beginning 17 seconds in, but you want to start from the beginning.
      • At [2:50], pause the video and ask students what they think the speaker means when she says, “Our relationship with salmon and how our salmon brothers are being treated is very similar to how us as Native people are being treated as well.”
      • Play the rest of the video, then facilitate a discussion using the following prompts.
        • How is the family’s trip on the river similar to their view of the salmon’s journey?
        • How does the trip connect to the family’s identity?
        • Toward the end of the video, Jessica Matsaw mentions that if people were to make space for Native communities to speak, it would be a good way to start moving toward change. Why do you think this is important?

    [Slide 9] Have students read an article about equity in access to rivers and public lands.

    • Explain to students that, as a class, they are reading an article about who often has access to and benefits from rivers, public spaces, and infrastructures such as dams.
    • Talking points:
      • Often, those who benefit from public lands—such as rivers and waterways—are those who live near them, or otherwise have safe and easy access to them. Similarly, access to clean water and areas free of sewage or flood risks is often restricted to those with financial resources.
      • Dams have benefited many, but they have also harmed communities already suffering from inequitable policies and practices.
      • As we read this article together, think about who has access to the beautiful and safe public lands available to us, and who does not.
    • Ask student volunteers to read the first five paragraphs of the American Rivers article, "Rivers, Lands and Belonging," aloud to the class.
    • Have students discuss the following prompts.
      • What does environmental, social, and economic justice look like when it comes to rivers? How can access to rivers exclude communities of color?
      • How can we do our part to make sure rivers continue to connect us and benefit the common good?
    • Invite students to respond.

    [Slide 10] Connect students back to the module driving question and the community they live in.

    • Invite students to revisit the module driving question: How can we balance competing interests to ensure dams serve the common good?
    • Have students discuss the following prompts.
      • What can that balance look like as future decisions are made about dams around the world?
      • What issues do you see in your community that could benefit from balancing the perspectives of multiple stakeholders?
    • Invite students to respond.

    Unless otherwise noted, Roaring Rivers by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.