Author:
Educurious .
Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson, Lesson Plan, Module, Teaching/Learning Strategy, Unit of Study
Level:
Middle School, High School
Tags:
  • PBL
  • Project Based Learning
  • Social Studies
  • wa-social-studies
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Overview

    This unit begins by asking students to consider life in Africa before colonization and the forced enslavement of Africans. Students read Omar ibn Said’s autobiography to understand the Islamic scholar’s experiences before he was captured in West Africa and after he was enslaved in America. Excerpts from Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography provide a detailed glimpse of his childhood in Africa before he was kidnapped and sold into slavery. Students examine these two stories and others for evidence of resistance, liberation, connection to culture, and shared humanity as they develop a response to the question: How can we better understand America’s past and present by listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave trade? Working in teams, students create a podcast about an unheard story in order to start a conversation about the lasting effects of the Transatlantic slave trade and the importance of Black history in America.

    Educator Welcome

    Dear Educator,

    We understand the joy every teacher experiences when they discover what lights up a student, and how that breakthrough can make way for a powerful shift in student learning. We’re thrilled to partner with you in bringing project-based learning (PBL) to your classroom, and we think you’ll love these lessons, which were created in collaboration with educators, learning scientists, and experts in the field.    

    Whether this is your first voyage into PBL or you’re a seasoned pro, we’re sure you’ll agree that this approach sparks interest, ignites possibility, fuels a love for learning in students, and brings wonder to the classroom.

    We believe Open Educational Resources (OER) promote equitable access to standards-aligned, high-quality instructional materials for all educators to adapt and use. Contact us at info@educurious.org to learn more about how Educurious can support district or school adoption of this curriculum and the development of PBL teaching practices. Explore Educurious.org to discover other PBL courses and order printed materials.

    As you join your students on this learning journey, we’d love to hear from you. We want to experience your students’ curiosity, celebrate their projects, and hear about your successes, as well as what we can do better. Click here to share your thoughts. Thank you for taking us along on your adventure.  

    Onward!

    Your friends at Educurious

    Acknowledgements

    Icon

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

     

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Educurious would like to express sincere gratitude to our partners. A special thank you to Bridget Vannice at Tahoma School District, Fred Rundle at Mercer Island School District, Ray Hain at STRIVE Prep Schools for their leadership and support during the design and implementation of this unit.

    The Educurious Team:

    Unit Development Team:

    • Writer: Chris Carter
    • Educurious Reviewer: Sara Nachtigal
    • External Reviewer: Laura Louis-Jacques
    • Editors: Kristina Hawley

    Production Team:

    • Erik Robinson, Haewon Baik

    Project Manager:

    • Haewon Baik

    Educurious Leadership:

    • Jane Chadsey, CEO

    Unit Poster Image Credits:

    • Poster created by Educurious with Canva
    •  

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Module 1: The Atlantic Slave Trade

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 1: The Atlantic Slave Trade

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave trade?

    Module Driving Question

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

    Module 1 Overview

     

    Module Overview

    For 200 years, enslaved Africans were forcibly removed from their continent and brought to the U.S. to support an economic system built on forced labor. Although slavery ended after the Civil War, the experiences, feelings, and voices of enslaved Africans live on today and challenge us to better understand how America and its history are rooted in a system of slavery.

    In Lesson 1, students are introduced to storytelling by telling a story from their own life. Students then shift to learning about the story of Omar ibn Said, a scholar from Africa enslaved and forcibly brought to the U.S. In Lesson 2, students explore the rich history of Africa to debunk the conventional narrative that Europeans used to justify the enslavement of human beings. In Lesson 3, students learn about Olaudah Equiano’s experience on a slave ship traveling through the Middle Passage. In Lessons 4 and 5, students continue to build their knowledge of the events and storylines of the transatlantic slave trade, and make connections between the past and the present. Students will use the knowledge they gain in this module and the next module to inform and support their podcast conversation.

    Lesson 1.1: Launch Lesson—Educated & Enslaved (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Cite specific textual evidence from Omar ibn Said’s autobiography to support analysis of his story and experience.
    • Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they are seen as historically significant.
    This lesson launches the unit Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Students explore storytelling and build community by retelling an important part of their story. Then students read excerpts from the autobiography of Omar ibn Said to begin to explore four themes consistently found in slave narratives that can help us better understand the history and impacts of the slave trade. Students discuss the importance of understanding and preserving stories. Finally, students reflect on why storytelling is important for our understanding of history.
    Lesson 1.2: Telling the Story of Africa’s Rich History (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify historical evidence of Africa’s rich history (pre-colonization).
    • Come to discussions prepared.
    • Explicitly draw on that preparation.
    • Refer to evidence on the topic to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    This lesson introduces students to the history of Africa before and during the transatlantic slave trade. Students collect evidence and examples from Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s film series Africa’s Great Civilizations to discuss and debunk the conventional narrative of enslaved Africans as uneducated and uncultured. Students reflect on how they can apply Gates’ storytelling approach to their podcast to create a highly engaging story with rich content.
     
    Lesson 1.3: Olaudah Equiano’s Story (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Read Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography for key facts and details about his experiences in the Middle Passage.
    • Integrate images with text to retell Equiano’s story.
    This lesson builds students’ background knowledge of the Atlantic slave trade through maps and a firsthand account. Students curate and integrate images with text excerpts to retell the story of the Middle Passage based on Olaudah Equiano’s point of view. Students will reflect on the importance of hearing and using firsthand accounts, like Olaudah Equiano’s, in their podcast when they are retelling the story of the Atlantic slave trade.
     
    Lesson 1.4: Different Perspectives (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Determine the central ideas in the text.
    • Determine the meanings of words in the text.
    • Use the four disciplinary perspectives to analyze visual information.
    • Ask questions that drive the discussion forward.
    This lesson builds student understanding and command of four social studies disciplinary perspectives (history, geography, economics, and sociology) as they analyze several images that tell the story of the transatlantic slave trade. Students come to understand that different disciplinary perspectives offer unique ways of thinking and organizing knowledge, while still being related to one another. These are the social studies perspectives that students will integrate when telling the story of the transatlantic slave trade in their podcast.
     
    Lesson 1.5: Analyzing Artifacts (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets:

    I can:

    • Ask and answer questions about sets of artifacts from the transatlantic slave trade that draw on all four disciplinary perspectives.
    • Identify events and lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Make connections between the past and the present.
    Now that students have learned about—and had some practice using—the four disciplinary perspectives they will employ to write their podcast scripts, they work to ask and answer questions about sets of artifacts and evidence from the transatlantic slave trade via stations that draw on all four disciplinary lenses. A debrief discussion helps students identify the relationships among the four lenses. This supports their integration of the different social studies disciplines when telling their stories and making connections between the past and the present.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 1.1: Text Analysis and Closing Reflection (i.e., Exit Ticket)
    • Lesson 1.2: Notes Catcher
    • Lesson 1.3: Group Slide Deck: Excerpts from the Autobiography of Olaudah Equiano
    • Lesson 1.4: Practice Four Disciplinary Perspectives Slide Deck
    • Lesson 1.5: Apply What You Learned Responses
    Vocabulary
    • Atlantic slave trade: an economic system based on the forced enslavement of African people who were shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to be sold as slaves in the Americas
    • border: a boundary that separates one area from another
    • capital: money or resources that can be used to create new business opportunities
    • conventional narrative: a story that is typically told and widely understood to be true or acceptable
    • economics: the study of the production and distribution of goods and services
    • economy: the system of how money is made and used within a particular country or region
    • geography: the study of the Earth’s surface and its relationship to people
    • goods: items for trade or purchase
    • history: the study of the past and its relationship to the present
    • humanities: an area of study that focuses on aspects of human society and culture
    • labor: physical work required to complete a job
    • map: a representation of the features of the earth
    • merchant: a person who buys and sells goods for money
    • population: the total number of people in an area
    • primary source: documentation of an historical event by a person who experienced it firsthand
    • secondary source: document about an event that was created by someone who did not participate in the event or experience it firsthand
    • social science: the study of human societies and behavior; the social sciences include psychology (the study of the human mind) and anthropology (the study of human cultures from prehistoric times to today)
    • society: people living together in an organized community
    • sociology: the study of society and communities
    • spatial: having to do with how places or objects are related to each other in space by their size, shape, or position
    • territory: an area of land that belongs to a state or other government
    • trade: the act of buying, selling, or exchanging
    • wealth: a large amount of money or valuable possessions

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.1: Unit Launch—Educated & Enslaved

    Remote Teacher GuideIcon

    Lesson 1.1: Unit Launch—Educated & Enslaved 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the

    slavetrade?

     

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Cite specific textual evidence from Omar ibn Said’s autobiography to support analysis of his story and experience.
    • Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they are seen as historically significant.

    Purpose

    This unit launches with storytelling, beginning with our own stories of historical significance to ground us before turning our attention to the transatlantic slave trade. For 200 years, enslaved Africans were forcibly removed from their continent and brought to the U.S. to support an economic system built on forced labor. Although slavery ended after the Civil War, the experiences, feelings, and voices of enslaved Africans live on today and challenge us to better understand how America and its history are rooted in a system of slavery. In this lesson, you will analyze excerpts from the autobiography of Omar ibn Said (pronounced OH-mahr IH-bin SY-EED) for evidence of resistance, liberation, connection to culture, and shared humanity. Finally, you will synthesize your learning by reflecting on the importance of storytelling.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Share our stories & learn about this unit: This unit is about storytelling, so begin by sharing a story of your own. After your teacher introduces the unit and your final product, complete a Know & Need to Know chart with your class. Next, watch a short video about Omar ibn Said to begin thinking about the experience of enslavement.
    2. Understanding Omar ibn Said’s story: Use the Text Analysis handout to analyze excerpts from Omar ibn Said’s autobiography for four themes we consistently notice in slave narratives, which tell a story of strength and resilience rather than one of victimization and oppression.
    3. Discuss Said’s story: Discuss the emphasis and importance of these four themes when learning about the history of Africa and the transatlantic slave trade.
    4. Apply what you learned: Conclude the lesson by sharing how storytelling is essential for understanding history.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes 

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.His.3.6–8: Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

    D2.His.6.6–8: Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    This lesson launches the unit Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Students explore storytelling and build community by retelling an important part of their story. Then students read excerpts from the autobiography of Omar ibn Said to begin to explore four themes consistently found in slave narratives that can help us better understand the history and impacts of the slave trade. Students discuss the importance of understanding and preserving stories. Finally, students reflect on why storytelling is important for our understanding of history.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Determine how students will share their personal stories: This is a key step of the unit launch and should set the norms for respectful engagement.
      • If you’re fully remote and asynchronous, students should complete this step before you teach the lesson. Consider setting up a Flip-Grid or other classroom page to capture student stories and engage students with this task before teaching this lesson.
      • If you’re teaching in real time, find a way to capture all students’ stories while sharing an appropriate number (all students shares in small groups/breakout rooms or a few students share to the whole class).
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 7) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Preview the Omar ibn Said video: This video presents a little bit of Said’s story along with the historical preservation process and a student group documenting the process in order to inspire younger students to learn more about Black history. To support student comprehension, be sure to pause and discuss the video as needed, or show it twice. Turn on captions to increase support for all learners.
    • Determine in advance what platform students should work on for Step 2: Students can use any available resources for this, such as Google Slides, PowerPoint, or Adobe Spark.

    Practice analyzing Omar ibn Said’s autobiography: Anticipate possible student misconceptions, technical challenges, and questions. Pay particular attention to understanding quotes that might be misunderstood or controversial in your context.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Share our stories & learn about this unit        (20 min)

    Purpose: This step orients students to the key features and expectations of the project-based learning (PBL) unit and engages them in the content covered in this lesson and the unit more broadly.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Invite students to tell a story of historical significance to them about an experience that shaped who they are today. To keep this low-stakes and quick, students should use the following guidelines.

    • Identify an experience that you feel comfortable sharing with the class.
    • Your story arc should include:
      • When did it happen?
      • What happened?
      • How has this shaped who you are today?
    • Draw or write short phrases to indicate what happened.

    [Slide 3] Organize students to share their stories. As noted in the Teacher Prep section, adjust this process as needed to your classroom.

    • Introduce yourself, if you don’t know your classmate.
    • Tell your story.
    • Listen to their story.
    • Thank your classmate for listening and sharing.

    [Slide 4] Debrief the storytelling experience. Questions for reflection include the following:

    • What kinds of things did you learn about your classmates?
    • What themes were similar across stories?
    • What made stories especially interesting or powerful?
    • How did you feel telling a story about yourself?

    [Slides 5–7] Transition to the unit. Introduce the Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade unit and today’s lesson.

    • Slide 5: Introduce the unit Driving Question, the Module Questions, and the culminating product. Talking points:
      • Let students know that they will listen to an example podcast in Module 2 as a way to start to build their schema for what a podcast sounds like and the actions needed to create one.
      • Point out that the term omitted in the Module 3 driving question refers to stories that have been left out, ignored, or overshadowed by other stories.
    • Slide 6: Create a class Know & Need to Know chart to engage students in activating what they already know about the unit topic and the product (podcasts)—as well as raising questions they want to answer.
      • Create the chart using a Think-Pair-Share discussion if meeting synchronously. To offer students additional scaffolding, consider providing the Know & Need to Know chart handout.
      • As needed, explain the key features and expectations of PBL. See the Teacher Tip on the following page for more information about why Know & Need to Know charts are a key tool for developing student motivation and engagement.
    • Slide 7: Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 8–9] Prepare to watch a video about Omar ibn Said. Learn about the discovery and importance of Omar ibn Said’s autobiography.

    • Slide 8: Before playing the video, ask students to think about the following questions as they watch:
      • What can Omar ibn Said's story teach us about Africa and the slave trade?
      • Why do the Richard Wright students think it is important to preserve and share Omar ibn Said’s story?
    • Slide 9: Play the Library of Congress video: Preserving Omar ibn Said’s Words: A Slave Narrative [2:35].
    • As much as is possible in your context, encourage students to discuss their answers to the questions.

    [Slides 10–14] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    For remote implementation:

    • Engagement: Use a Google doc or other online tool for students to record their ideas, which can then be used for formative assessment.
    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.
    Teacher Tip: Tracking and Resolving Questions with a Know & Need to Know Chart A Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website and how to use students’ questions for planning and assessment from PBL Works.
    Step 2: Understanding Omar ibn Said’s story(20 min)

    Purpose: This task is designed to position students to think about history differently by looking for evidence of resistance, liberation, connection to culture, and shared humanity in the stories of enslaved Africans. This shift in thinking provides an initial opportunity for students to analyze a slave narrative for themes that extend beyond oppression and victimization, and that help us recognize and understand the importance of Black history when telling a fuller story of the transatlantic slave trade.

    [Slides 10–11] Introduce the Text Analysis task.

    • Slide 10: Describe the purpose of this task and provide students with the materials and directions they need to be successful.
    • Point out that it is possible some quotes might have multiple meanings and align to multiple themes.
    • Slide 11: Define the four themes:
      • Resistance: The refusal to accept or comply with something; the attempt to prevent something by action or argument.
      • Liberation: The act of setting someone free from imprisonment, slavery, or oppression; release.
      • Connection to culture: The act of maintaining and sustaining one's relationship to their history, family, community, birthplace, and homeland.
      • Shared humanity: Developing supportive, cooperative, and collaborative relationships.
    • Communicate how much time students have to work on this activity and how they should submit their work.

    For remote implementation: Consider how students can share their work and compare their historical narrative with other approaches.

    • Sharing student-created materials: Create a digital folder where students have permissions to submit and view files.
    Step 3: Discuss Said’s story(15 min)

    Purpose: This step provides students the opportunity to discuss and see different interpretations of Omar ibn Said’s story, and helps students understand how diverse storytelling themes can shape our understanding of history.

    [Slides 12–13] Share out and discuss. Invite students to share their analyses and discuss the importance of Said’s story and others as we seek to understand the historical and current impacts of the slave trade.

    • Slide 12: Facilitate a discussion to help students articulate what kinds of variations they saw in the different analyses.
      • How were our analyses of Said’s story similar? Different?
      • How can different storytelling themes shape our understanding of history?
      • Did you notice any other themes?
    • Slide 13: Ask students to revisit the questions they considered before watching the video:
      • What does Omar ibn Said’s story teach us about Africa and the slave trade?
      • What do we gain from preserving slave narratives like Omar ibn Said’s?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing feedback: Use an online poll, survey, or discussion forum for students to offer feedback if this discussion will be held asynchronously.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(5 min)

    Purpose: This step helps students synthesize their learning and make connections between the past and present.

    [Slide 14] Closing reflection. Ask students: Why is storytelling important for understanding our history?

    Talking points:

    • Slave narratives from the transatlantic slave trade are reaching out to us, across 200 years, and speaking to us today.
    • Through slave narratives, we can question the idea of enslaving another human being and continue to work towards a more just future.

    For remote implementation:

    • Managing student submissions: This final prompt should be viewed as an exit ticket and should be part of the existing remote learning tools you’ve established. You can ask students to post their responses on a discussion board or form used earlier in the lesson, or in the chat box before concluding an online class. However you manage it, be sure to integrate this final input in a way that is manageable for you to monitor participation.

    Extending the lesson:

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.2: Telling the Story of Africa’s Rich History

    Remote Teacher Guide Icon

    Lesson 1.2: Telling the Story of Africa’s Rich History 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

     

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify historical evidence of Africa’s rich history (pre-colonization).
    • Come to discussions prepared.
    • Explicitly draw on that preparation.
    • Refer to evidence on the topic to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will Join Henry Louis Gates Jr., the executive producer of the film series Africa’s Great Civilizations to explore Africa’s rich history before the transatlantic slave trade. You will use historical evidence from the series to debunk the conventional narrative of enslaved Africans as uneducated and uncultured. Finally, you will reflect on Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s example of storytelling to inform the approach you might take in your podcast.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about pre-colonial Africa: Your teacher will share some interesting historical and modern facts about Africa, then prepare you to collect evidence and examples of Africa’s history from a video series.
    2. Collect evidence of a rich history: Watch four short segments from the film series Africa’s Great Civilizations and record evidence and examples that describe Africa’s history.
    3. Debunk the conventional narrative of Africa: Draw on evidence and examples in your Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher to write an evidence-based argument that debunks the conventional narrative of enslaved Africans as uneducated and uncultured.
    4. Apply what you learned: How did Henry Louis Gates Jr. tell the story of Africa? How was his approach to storytelling effective? What parts of this approach can you use in your podcast?

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3
    D3.3.6–8: Identify evidence that draws information from multiple sources to support claims noting evidentiary limitations.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6–8.10: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    This lesson introduces students to the history of Africa before and during the transatlantic slave trade. Students collect evidence and examples from Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s film series Africa’s Great Civilizations to discuss and debunk the conventional narrative of enslaved Africans as uneducated and uncultured. Students reflect on how they can apply Gates’ storytelling approach to their podcast to create a highly engaging story with rich content.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Personalize Slide 5: Include a screenshot or directions for students to post their ideas to a preferred discussion board space.
    • Preview the video clips: As you watch, anticipate how you may need to support student comprehension. Turn on captions to increase support for all learners.
    • Decide what digital tools will support student collaboration in Step 3: Synchronous conversations in breakout rooms (using a platform like Zoom or Teams) or shared documents (such as Google Docs) can be used to facilitate group collaboration in discussing and writing evidence-based arguments.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about pre-colonial Africa(10 min)

    Purpose: Orient students to interesting historical and modern facts about Africa that highlight social, cultural, technological, and geographical assets in order to prepare students to debunk the myth of enslaved Africans as uncultured and uneducated.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 3–5] Share facts about Africa’s rich history. Share possibly surprising or unfamiliar facts.

    • Slide 3: Highlight interesting historical facts about Africa:
      • 75,000+ years ago: Humans began to migrate from Africa to other parts of the world.
      • 10,000 years ago: African people developed agricultural practices and domesticated animals.
      • 6,000 years ago: One of the first known civilizations in the world emerged in northern Africa.
      • 4,500 years ago: The Great Pyramids of Giza were built; today they are one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
      • 1,200 years ago: The world’s oldest continuing university was founded in North Africa.
      • 700 years ago: The wealthiest man in modern history, Mansa Musa, reigned in Africa.
    • Slide 4: Highlight other interesting facts about Africa:
      • It is the second largest continent on earth.
      • It is home to over 2,000 different languages.
      • It is the source of the world’s longest river: the Nile.
      • It is home to the largest wildlife migration on Earth: over 750,000 zebras and 1.2 million wildebeest.
    • Slide 5: Ask students what else they would add to the list of facts that they know about Africa.

    [Slide 6] Share the conventional narrative of Africa with students.

    • Talking points:
      • A “conventional narrative” is the story that is typically told and widely understood to be true or acceptable.
      • The conventional narrative is that enslaved Africans were uncultured and uneducated.
      • This narrative has long enabled the exploitation of Africans.
    • Share the impacts of this narrative on Africa.
      • 12 million Africans were forcibly removed from their continent over a period of 300+ years, from the 1500s–1800s.
      • The annihilation of people and stories resulted in a rewriting of history.
      • In many ways, the transatlantic slave trade erased much of the history of Africa.
    • Acknowledge to your students: I am not sharing this narrative because I believe it is true, or that I think you believe it to be true. Rather, I am sharing it because this narrative is what empowered and enabled Europeans to enslave and forcibly remove Africans from their continent for hundreds of years.

    [Slide 7] Prepare students to collect evidence and examples. Highlight key features of the Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher.

    • Use the Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher to review with students how to access the video.
    • Review expectations for note-taking with students.

    [Slides 7–13] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.
    Step 2: Collect evidence of a rich history(15 min)

    Purpose: Have students join Henry Louis Gates Jr. on his journey to learn about the rich history of Africa, and collect evidence and examples they can later use to debunk the conventional narrative of Africa.

    [Slides 7–11] Show videos and facilitate evidence collection. Students can watch these short segments from the series Africa’s Great Civilizations independently and asynchronously to collect evidence and examples.

    • Slide 7: Orient students to the Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher handout they will use to record their responses to the questions for each segment.
    • Slide 8: Identify the first video clip, Interview with Henry Louis Gates Jr. [2:00], then prompt students to record their response to the following questions:
      • According to Henry Louis Gates Jr., what is the “myth of Africa”?
      • What evidence and examples are presented that serve to debunk the conventional narrative of Africa?
    • Slide 9: Identify the second video clip, The City of M’banza-Kongo [2:42], then prompt students to record their response to the following question:
      • What evidence and examples are presented that serve to debunk the conventional narrative of Africa?
    • Slide 10: Identify the third video clip, The City of Great Zimbabwe [2:36], then prompt students to record their response to the following question:
      • What evidence and examples are presented that serve to debunk the conventional narrative of Africa?
    • Slide 11: Identify the fourth and final video clip, The City of Timbuktu [1:40], then prompt students to record their response to the following question:
      • What evidence and examples are presented that serve to debunk the conventional narrative of Africa?

    For remote implementation:

    • Video watching and note-taking: Ensure students can access the videos independently and asynchronously; determine how students should submit their Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher.
    Step 3: Debunk the conventional narrative of Africa(30 min)

    Purpose: Students are organized into groups of four and draw on evidence from their Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher to write an evidence-based argument that debunks the conventional narrative of Africa.

    [Slide 12] Share group assignments and the expectations for writing an evidence-based argument.

    • Highlight the four criteria students must address in their evidence-based argument:
      • A compelling claim that is clearly arguable and takes a position on an issue.
      • Evidence and reasoning to support the claim.
      • An objective or formal tone.
      • No errors in grammar and spelling that distract or disrupt the audience’s attention.
    • Encourage students to spend a few minutes discussing group norms and roles (facilitator, contributor, note-taker, speaker, etc.), so everyone in the group is clear on what they will do and how they will contribute.
    • Invite at least two groups to share their arguments with the class.

    For remote implementation:

    • Collaboration: Direct students toward the online platform, such as Zoom or Teams, that they will be using consistently to support remote group work.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(5 min)

    Purpose: Have students make the connection between this lesson and their podcast.

    [Slide 13] Closing reflection. Prompt students to make a connection to their culminating project.

    • Prompt students to respond to the two final questions in their Lesson 1.2 Notes Catcher:
      • How does Henry Louis Gates Jr. tell a story?
      • What is effective about his approach?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.3: Olaudah Equiano’s Story

    Remote Teacher GuideIcon

    Lesson 1.3: Olaudah Equiano’s Story 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Read Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography for key facts and details about his experiences in the Middle Passage.
    • Integrate images with text to retell Equiano’s story.

    Purpose

    To understand the full impact of the transatlantic slave trade, it’s important to hear firsthand stories of enslaved Africans. This lesson begins with an overview of the slave trade and an orientation to the trade route known as the Middle Passage. Then, you will follow one story—the story of Olaudah Equiano—through the Atlantic slave trade. In your podcast, you will tell stories like the one you’ll hear about Olaudah Equiano.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the Atlantic slave trade: Your teacher presents a series of maps which provide an overview of the transatlantic slave trade and its impact on people and Africa.
    2. Tell the story of Olaudah Equiano: Curate and integrate historical images with text excerpts from Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography to retell his story.
    3. Apply what you learned: Who was Olaudah Equiano? Why is his story important? How will hearing his story help you tell other stories?

    Explore More

    • PBS Online Storybook: “The Amazing Adventures of Equiano: Explore another telling of Equiano’s experience of abduction and enslavement in the format of an illustrated storybook. The story begins in Equiano’s richly detailed Igbo homeland. Available to read online in English or French.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3
    D2.His.6.6–8: Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    This lesson builds students’ background knowledge of the Atlantic slave trade through maps and a firsthand account. Students curate and integrate images with text excerpts to retell the story of the Middle Passage based on Olaudah Equiano’s point of view. Students will reflect on the importance of hearing and using firsthand accounts, like Olaudah Equiano’s, in their podcast when they are retelling the story of the Atlantic slave trade.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Plan for student groups in Step 2:
      • Create an online, shared slide deck for each group, or set it up online so each group is required to make their own copy of your posted slide deck template.
      • There are 12 excerpts from the firsthand account of Olaudah Equiano for students to represent; in a group of four, each student would be responsible for adding one image to each of three slides. Read through the excerpts and decide how you would like to group your students.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the Atlantic slave trade(15 min)

    Purpose: This brief mini-lecture provides students with important context for understanding the global scope of the Atlantic slave trade.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 3–6] Use maps to explain the slave trade and its impacts. Show students a series of images that illustrate the global scope of the Atlantic slave trade and its human impacts.

    • Slide 3: Show the number of Africans that were enslaved and forcibly removed. Talking points:
      • Over the course of more than three and a half centuries, the forcible transportation in bondage of at least twelve million men, women, and children from their African homelands to the Americas changed the face and character of the modern world forever.
      • Ensure students make sense of the boarding and disembarking data about slave ships: they should conclude that 40 enslaved people died each passage; in other words, only 87% of people survived the voyage.
    • Slide 4: Explain the forced migration patterns. Talking points:
      • In the Americas, besides the riches their free labor created for others, the importation and enslavement of the Africans was the biggest factor in the resettlement of the continents following the disastrous decline in their indigenous population.
      • Between 1492–1776, an estimated 6.5 million people migrated or were forcibly moved to the Western hemisphere. More than 80% were Africans.
    • Slide 5: Present the amount of wealth the slave trade generated and discuss how it laid the foundation for modern-day capitalism. Talking points:
      • The transatlantic slave trade laid the foundation for modern capitalism, generating immense wealth for business enterprises in America and Europe.
      • The slave trade contributed to the industrialization of northwestern Europe and created a single Atlantic world that included western Europe, western Africa, the Caribbean islands, and the mainlands of North and South America.
    • Slide 6: Explain how the slave trade and colonization weakened societies and created long-lasting conflict. Talking points:
      • The impact on Africa of its involvement in the creation of the slave trade was overwhelmingly negative.
      • The African continent lost a significant part of its able-bodied population, which played a part in the social and political weakening of its societies. This weakening left them open in the nineteenth century to further colonial domination and exploitation.

    [Slides 7–10] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Tell the story of Olaudah Equiano(40 min)

    Purpose: This activity introduces students to the global scope of the slave trade through the words of an enslaved African who personally experienced it, and who later found freedom. Students take on the work of historians as they link relevant images and artifacts to the narrative in order to better understand the full story. Before introducing this step, make sure each group will have access to their own shared slide deck (see notes in the Teacher Preparation section).

    [Slides 7–9] Orient students to the task of telling the story of Olaudah Equiano. Review directions and demonstrate features of the group slide deck.

    • Slide 7: Introduce the activity. Talking points:
      • To understand the full impact of the transatlantic slave trade, it’s important to read accounts directly from enslaved people—primary accounts.
      • In this activity, the story of Olaudah Equiano is presented through excerpts from his firsthand account of his terrible voyage on a slave ship.
      • Demonstrate how to access the Group Slide Deck with Excerpts from the Autobiography of Olaudah Equiano and review the directions.
    • Slide 8: Frame the task in a disciplinary way: linking historical narratives to artifacts and images is an important part of a historian’s work. Talking points:
      • We will be exploring a set of selected online resources in order to identify images and artifacts that can bring Equiano’s story to life and provide us with visual context for deeper understanding.
      • Review the online resources students can source images from.
      • As needed, demonstrate basic slideshow production skills:
        • How to add an image to a slide and cite sources.
        • How to capture screenshots of images or scenes from a video.
        • How to cite image sources with the relevant URL.
        • Share tips for navigating online resources successfully (see Teacher Tip).
    • Slide 9: Review the directions and form groups.
      • Organize students into groups of four.
      • Distribute the group slide decks.
    • To the extent possible, provide time for students to practice reading the story aloud fluently and with appropriate tone and voice.
    • When students have finished, invite at least two groups to share their illustrated story with the class.

    For remote implementation:

    • Teacher presentation: For synchronous online meetings, have students share their screen while reading out loud. For asynchronous learning, have students record their presentation to share with the class.
    Teacher Tip: Supporting Productive Navigation of Online Resources Although teaching and learning routinely rely on digital resources, students frequently struggle to understand what they read online. Websites are layered and dense resources with lots of links to click—the urge to skim can be overwhelming and deeper learning opportunities are often short-circuited. For this particular assignment, help students slow down and get the most from the suggested online resources with the following strategies:
    • Demonstrate and think aloud as you model navigating the text features of a website students will visit. Be sure to identify tabs, headers, and links that are useful for (or distracting from) your goal.
    • Model how to stay focused on the purpose of the task (finding images to support specific portions of Equiano’s narrative) by re-centering your search when you find yourself off-task.
    • Design a simple organizer that can be used to track images and citations, as well as other information that students find compelling and want to retain for use in the upcoming podcast. For example, create a Google doc with a table designed to capture images, sources, and brief summaries of what students learn.
    Learn more about the challenges of reading deeply with digital texts with this KQED Mindshift article, which presents both challenges and practical solutions.
    Step 3: Apply what you learned(5 min)

    Purpose: Student responses to these questions provide the teacher an opportunity for a content check, and for students to connect their learning with the project.

    [Slide 10] Closing reflection. Prompt students to respond to three questions:

    • Who was Olaudah Equiano?
    • Why is his story important?
    • How will hearing his story help you tell other stories about the transatlantic slave trade

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 1.4: Different Perspectives

    Remote Teacher Guide Icon

    Lesson 1.4: Different Perspectives 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

     

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Determine the central ideas in the text.
    • Determine the meanings of words in the text.
    • Use the four disciplinary perspectives to analyze visual information.
    • Ask questions that drive the discussion forward.

    Purpose

    Different perspectives offer unique ways of telling stories. In this lesson, you will learn about four disciplinary perspectives and how to use them to analyze different pieces of evidence from the Atlantic slave trade, recognizing how each is related to the others. You will use these disciplinary perspectives in upcoming lessons to help you identify and organize evidence that will inform your podcast.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about perspective-taking: Your teacher will introduce four perspectives that social studies experts use when analyzing sources for new information.
    2. Read about the four disciplinary perspectives: Read one of the Disciplinary Perspectives Articles, then learn key information and insights about the other three perspectives from your classmates.
    3. Practice taking perspectives: Use the Student Slide Deck: Practice Four Disciplinary Perspectives to test your skill at using the perspectives social studies experts use. This helps you find new information that will broaden your understanding of the transatlantic slave trade in the next lesson.
    Apply what you learned: Share your thinking about why it’s useful to combine different perspectives when telling a story.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3
    D2.His.3.6–8: Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.C: Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    This lesson builds student understanding and command of four disciplinary perspectives (history, geography, economics, and sociology) used in social studies as they analyze several images that tell the story of the transatlantic slave trade. Students come to understand that different disciplinary perspectives offer unique ways of thinking and organizing knowledge, while still being related to one another. These are the social studies perspectives that students will integrate when telling the story of the transatlantic slave trade in their podcast.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Practice analyzing the images that students will analyze: Anticipate misconceptions, questions, and controversial content.
    • Consider how you will scaffold literacy skills: Decide if you want students to practice any annotation strategies when they are reading one of the four Disciplinary Perspectives Articles. This is a great opportunity to reinforce literacy skills.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about perspective-taking(15 min)

    Purpose: The teacher models analyzing a historical image without using a disciplinary perspective, then models analyzing the same image with disciplinary perspectives. This helps students appreciate and acknowledge the importance of perspective-taking as a way to develop a better understanding of history.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Define four disciplinary perspectives.

    • History: Historians study history through a wide variety of sources, both oral and written, to explain why significant events happened and how they impacted different groups of people.
    • Geography: Geographers study the relationship between people and the physical environment by examining how locations and places impact human cultures and experiences.
    • Economics: Economists look at how people, companies, and governments make choices to get what they need or want.
    • Sociology: Sociologists study how people organize themselves and interact in different situations. They look at how individuals and groups of people are influenced by governments, institutions, and other social structures.

    [Slides 4–5] Analyze an image with NO perspective. Answer the questions below aloud as you analyze the image:

    • When was this image created?
      • 1835
    • What place do you think is represented?
      • Somewhere in the Eastern United States
    • What is worth money in this picture?
      • Slaves, the masters’ clothing
    • What is important to the people in this picture?
      • Slave: the baby; Master: the baby, power, control

    [Slide 6] Analyze an image WITH perspective. Answer the questions below aloud as you analyze the image:

    • Who created this image?
      • The Anti-Slavery Society
    • Why was it created?
      • To show the brutality of the system of slavery
    • Why is it important to look at today?
      • It is a reminder of the past
    • What does this image tell you about where things were located?
      • They were in America
    • What else might be there?
      • The enslaved Africans were walking somewhere; we don’t know where or why
    • What does this image tell you about who was in this society?
      • Enslaved Africans and white masters/owners
    • What was important to these people?
      • White masters wanted obedience, and if they didn’t get it, they would punish or kill

    [Slide 7] Summarize and draw distinctions. Share with students the differences between the two summaries.

    • Talking points:
        • One story is brief and the other is descriptive.
        • Highlight the difference between making an observation and an inference:
          • Identifying the date is an observation. This information is found in the source citation.
          • Identifying “what else might be there” is an inference. This information is not found in the image. Use what limited information you have to make an educated guess.

    [Slides 8–10] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Read about the four disciplinary perspectives(25 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the different skills and practices specific to each of the disciplinary perspectives applied in this unit, and the kinds of questions each asks when analyzing a particular piece of evidence. They will draw on these skills and practices when analyzing evidence in the development of their podcast scripts.

    [Slide 8] Read and discuss articles on the four disciplinary perspectives.

    • Explain the purpose of this step:
        • The four articles explain each perspective.
        • These four perspectives help you surface different kinds of information from the same source in order to tell a more complete story.
    • Orient students to the Disciplinary Perspectives Articles and review the directions:
        • Work together in groups of four to read and discuss four articles.
        • Each team member is responsible for reading one article and taking notes.
        • Highlight or underline key facts and details in the text.
        • After all articles are read, the team convenes, each person shares highlights from their notes, and the team discusses any questions.
    • Inform students that in the next step, they will use their notes on the four disciplinary perspectives to analyze a collection of artifacts and learn even more about the transatlantic slave trade.

    For remote implementation:

    • Shared reading: In a virtual setting where students are learning asynchronously, consider having one copy of the Disciplinary Perspectives Article for each group so students can read and take notes in one place. This will eliminate the sharing of information orally, but still accomplish the same goal of each student acquiring some basic knowledge of all four disciplinary perspectives.
    Step 3: Practice taking perspectives(15 min)

    Purpose: Students begin to think through four different disciplinary perspectives (history, geography, economics, and sociology) to answer questions about two artifacts from the Atlantic slave trade. This introduces them to disciplinary thinking in preparation to use these lenses to tell the story of the Atlantic slave trade.

    [Slide 9] Analyze images using the four perspectives. Share the purpose of this step with students and introduce them to the slide deck they will use: Student Slide Deck: Practice Four Disciplinary Perspectives.

    • Explain that different perspectives can come together to tell a rich story that helps people understand how complex the slave trade was.
    • Review the directions:
      1. Decide whether you want to work independently or with one other person.
      2. Analyze two images, using the four disciplinary perspectives, to see two very different stories of the transatlantic slave trade.
          • The first image portrays a family of enslaved African Americans in a field in Georgia (1850).
          • The second image is an illustration of a successful slave uprising, the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804).
      3. Respond to the questions on the slide.
      4. On the last slide, use evidence from your analysis to describe two very different stories of the transatlantic slave trade and explain why it is important to understand the different experiences of enslaved Africans/African Americans.

    For remote implementation:

    • Collaboration: Organize students to work in pairs synchronously or with a shared document. Alternatively, students can complete this task independently.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(5 min)

    Purpose: Student responses to these questions provide the teacher an opportunity for a content check, and for students to connect their learning with the project.

    [Slide 10] Closing reflection. Prompt students to respond to two questions:

    • What are the four disciplinary perspectives we will use in our project?
    • Why is it useful to combine these different perspectives when telling a story?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.  

    Lesson 1.5: Analyzing Artifacts

    Remote Teacher Guide 

    Lesson 1.5: Analyzing Artifacts 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

     

     

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the story of the Atlantic slave trade?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Ask and answer questions about sets of artifacts from the transatlantic slave trade that draw on all four disciplinary perspectives.
    • Identify events and lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Make connections between the past and the present.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will analyze a collection of artifacts using the four disciplinary perspectives you learned about and practiced in the previous lesson. Asking and answering questions about different artifacts will give you more information about the events and lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade. Make connections between the past and the present to inform the story you will tell in your podcasts.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about a collection of artifacts you will analyze: Your teacher will share a Collection of Artifacts that include: diagrams of slave ships, graphs and maps, paintings, drawings, and a photograph.
    2. Analyze artifacts: Rotate through each station [Station 1, Station 2, Station 3, Station 4] and use your notes from the last lesson to help you ask and answer questions.
    3. Bring it all together: As a class, review the questions and answers from each station and label each question with the perspective it is associated with.
    4. Apply what you learned: Share what you have learned about the Atlantic slave trade and the four perspectives by revisiting the class Know & Need to Know chart.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.Eco.15.6–8: Explain the benefits and the costs of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society.

    D2.His.1.6–8: Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.C: Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Lesson 1.5 Slide Deck
    • Have each class’ Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.1 ready to share for Step 4
    If conducting stations in class:
    • Chart paper
    • Markers
    Lesson Overview
    Now that students have learned about—and had some practice using—the four disciplinary perspectives they will employ to write their podcast scripts, they work to ask and answer questions about sets of artifacts and evidence from the transatlantic slave trade via stations that draw on all four disciplinary lenses. A debrief discussion helps students identify the relationships among the four lenses. This supports their integration of the different social studies disciplines when telling their stories and making connections between the past and the present.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the following slides to reflect your remote learning context:
      • Slide 2 (Agenda): Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
      • Slides 5–7: Show students how to access the stations online (or cut these slides, if stations will be set up within your classroom with chart paper).
      • Slide 9: Insert the class Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.1.
    • Prepare for the station activity in Step 2: For remote learning, consider using online discussion boards or tools like Padlet, where resources can be posted for viewing and students can post and reply to comments.
      • Think about what kinds of questions you can ask students who are stuck. How will you push their thinking through the four disciplinary perspectives?

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about a collection of artifacts you will analyze(20 min)

    Purpose: Introducing students to the artifact collection increases interest and engagement; modeling also sets the stage for successful independent work.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 3–4] Review the Collection of Artifacts Slide Deck. Highlight the significance of artifacts students will analyze at each station and how they can use the sequence of artifacts to start to understand the impact of the transatlantic slave trade on today.

    • Slide 3: Review the task.
      • Purpose: Develop a fuller understanding of the events and lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade through the analysis of artifacts and images.
      • Task: Use the four disciplinary perspectives to analyze sets of artifacts at different stations, which represent various chronological periods from before the slave trade, during the slave trade, and after the slave trade.
    • Slide 4: Use the Collection of Artifacts Slide Deck to review the directions for this activity.
      • Use your notes from the previous lesson at each station.
      • Think about which disciplinary perspective(s) you will use when reviewing the materials at each station.
      • Develop at least two disciplinary questions you can ask about the evidence and write them in the station’s discussion space.
      • If there are already questions in the discussion space, try to answer them.
      • Talking points:
        • The stations represent different periods of time.
        • Using primary and secondary sources can help us better understand the chronology of events that led to lasting racial inequities in America and around the world.

    [Slide 5] Introduce the stations.

    • Station 1: Examine what life was life was like for Africans before the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Station 2: Investigate the experiences and events surrounding the enslavement and captivity of Africans.
    • Station 3: Analyze the scale of the American slave trade and the forced settlement of enslaved Africans in America.
    • Station 4: Consider the implications of the transatlantic slave trade on African American communities and Black people in America today.

    [Slide 6] Orient students to the Collection of Artifacts Slide Deck. Use the first image to model perspective-taking and questioning. Point out areas or details of each image that might be worth exploring more deeply in stations.

      • History: Who created this image and why? What is the author trying to say?
      • Geography: What does this image tell you about how the physical environment influenced people and/or events?
      • Economics: What does this image tell you about who owned or controlled production of resources and/or services?
      • Sociology: What does this image tell you about how social structures and governments influenced people and their experiences?

    [Slides 7–9] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Analyze artifacts(20 min)

    Purpose: Students apply what they know about the four disciplinary perspectives (history, geography, economics, and sociology) to ask and answer questions about pieces of evidence.

    [Slide 7] Get students started. Students visit four different stations to review sets of artifacts within the collection.

    • Organize students into pairs.
    • Monitor the discussion spaces at each station and provide support as needed.

    For remote implementation:

    • Collaboration: Organize students to work in pairs synchronously or with a shared document. Alternatively, students can complete this task independently.
    Step 3: Bring it all together(15 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the ways in which the different disciplinary perspectives are related to one another, sometimes overlapping in the information they gather. They will need to do this kind of integration when writing comprehensive stories for their podcasts.

     

    Debrief the station activity: Bring students together to review what they learned and answer questions.

    • Frame the debrief conversation: As you can see, we can learn a lot from just one map (or other piece of evidence). Let’s read through these questions and try to identify which of the disciplinary perspectives is represented by each. Sometimes, a question or answer can reflect more than one perspective.
      • Present each station document and ask which disciplinary perspectives were identified (history, geography, economics, sociology).
      • Press students to explain how the different perspectives relate to each other and present a fuller historical picture together.

     

    Note: There will likely be multiple letters next to several questions/answers on the chart paper, especially when studying the slave trade during which people were bought and sold. This helps students understand the relationships among the four lenses.

     

    Teacher Tip: Facilitating Deeper Learning Over TimeConsider how you can provide ongoing access to the stations (as you would with chart paper on the walls) for students to reference throughout the remainder of the unit. This activity can help remind students about the kinds of questions they should ask of specific pieces of evidence, and also identify the disciplinary perspectives that the questions represent.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(5 min)

    Purpose: Student responses to these questions can be used as a formative assessment of their content learning and help link their learning to the final project. Revisiting the Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track their learning and maintain a sense of ownership through the questions they want to explore.

    [Slide 8] Closing reflection. Direct students to respond to the following prompts:

    • List three pieces of new information that you learned about the Atlantic slave trade today. Put an H (history), G (geography), E (economics), and/or S (sociology) next to each one to identify which social study/studies would use that information.

    [Slide 9] Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart. Present the original class chart that was created on the first day of the unit.

    • Ask the class to review what they originally listed on the chart. Use the following questions to prompt changes in thinking and track student learning. Annotate the Know & Need to Know chart to reflect changes.
      • For the “Know” column:
        • Has any of your original knowledge changed or deepened? If so, how?
        • What new information do you know now that you didn’t before?
      • For the “Need to Know” column:
        • Which of your questions have been answered, partially or fully?
        • Which questions are still outstanding—and still important?
        • What new questions do you have? What do you need to know now in order to begin developing your podcast?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions, and possibly as an asynchronous way to update the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Teacher Tip: Tracking and Resolving Questions with a Know & Need to Know Chart A Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website and how to use students’ questions for planning and assessment from PBL Works.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 2: Experiences & Stories

    Module Overviewicon

    Module 2: Experiences & Stories

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave trade?

    Module Driving Question

    How did people experience the system of slavery differently?

    Module 2 Overview

     

    Module Overview

    In Lesson 2.1, students listen to a podcast conversation about Olaudah Equiano’s experiences in the system of slavery and begin to think about what an authentic podcast conversation sounds like using content they are familiar with. In Lesson 2.2, students read an account of a white doctor who worked on a slave ship and watch a video portraying the Middle Passage, in order to corroborate the account of Equiano and other enslaved people. In Lesson 2.3, students form project teams and select an obscured historical narrative that tells another story of the transatlantic slave trade.

    Lesson 2.1: Analyze a Podcast (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets:

    I can:

    • Analyze podcast clips with disciplinary perspectives.
    • Make connections between the voices in this unit, the power of my own voice, and how those voices can tell powerful stories via podcasts.
    • Acknowledge new information shared by other perspectives.
    • Explain my ideas in writing.
    In this lesson, students hear from a student-produced podcast group about why they started podcasting, then listen to a podcast about the slave trade and life of Olaudah Equiano. Each student actively listens to the podcast using a different social studies lens, taking notes from that disciplinary perspective. Following the podcast, students write a summary paragraph of their notes. They then gather in groups of four so that each lens is represented in each group to inform their interpretation of the podcast. Finally, students practice using their podcasting tool for the first time by submitting a short audio recording that shares a summary of what they learned today.
      
    Lesson 2.2: The Middle Passage (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Read excerpts from a historical narrative for key facts and details about the Middle Passage.
    • Determine the central ideas in text.
    • Determine the meaning of words in text.
    • Integrate visual information with text. 
    In this lesson, students learn about the part of the slave trade referred to as the Middle Passage. They read excerpts from the book An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa, written by Alexander Falconbridge, a doctor who worked aboard a slave ship. Then they watch a short video that portrays the conditions enslaved Africans might have faced during the Middle Passage. This lesson prepares students for the podcast by providing a firsthand account—from a white man—that corroborates the experiences of slave narratives, like those of Omar ibn Said and Olaudah Equiano.
     
    Lesson 2.3: Lasting Effects of the Slave Trade (90 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Read a historical narrative for evidence of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Categorize evidence by disciplinary significance.
    • Use evidence to inform and select a topic for my podcast.
    • Create a teaser for my podcast and share it with my community.
    In this lesson, students form project teams and discuss the impacts of the transatlantic slave trade on world history in order to identify the topic and historical narrative they will discuss in their podcast conversation. Students create a 30-second teaser for their podcast and share it with the class.
     
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 2.1: Notes Catcher and Apply What You Learned response
    • Lesson 2.2: Listening Guide and Apply What You Learned response
    • Lesson 2.3: Notes Catcher and Apply What You Learned response
    Vocabulary
    • chattel slavery: a system of slavery in which an enslaved person is permanently owned and their children are automatically enslaved; enslaved people are viewed as property to be bought and sold by owners
    • culture: one’s relationship to their history, family, community, birthplace, and homeland
    • disproportionate: too much or too little in comparison with something else
    • humanity: all humans on Earth; also a belief that human nature leads us to support and care for other humans
    • kidnap: take someone away against their will
    • liberate: act of setting someone free from imprisonment, slavery, or oppression; release (other common forms include liberated and liberation)
    • Middle Passage: the section of the Atlantic slave trade route between Africa and the Americas
    • oppression: prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or control
    • plantation: a large property that grows crops which are taken care of by people who live on the property
    • poverty: the condition of lacking money or other resources to provide for basic needs
    • racism: discrimination or unfair treatment of people based on the opinion that one race is better than others
    • resistance: the refusal to accept or comply with something; the attempt to prevent something by action or argument
    • slave fort: large fort on the coast of Africa that served as a prison for enslaved people prior to their sale

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 2.1: Analyze a Podcast

    IconRemote Teacher Guide

    Lesson 2.1: Analyze a Podcast

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the

    slave trade? 

    Module Driving Question:

     How did people experience the system of slavery differently?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze podcast clips with disciplinary perspectives.
    • Make connections between the voices in this unit, the power of my own voice, and how those voices can tell powerful stories via podcasts.
    • Acknowledge new information shared by other perspectives.
    • Explain my ideas in writing.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will listen to a podcast that discusses life aboard a slave ship using the story of Olaudah Equiano, who you were introduced to in a previous lesson. You will listen with the four disciplinary perspectives that you have been using (history, geography, economics, and sociology) for specific kinds of information in this podcast. This podcast is a great example to reference when you begin developing your own podcast to tell another story of the transatlantic slave trade.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn why students podcast & how to podcast: Listen to a student podcast group on why they started podcasting, then define podcasts and learn how to create one.
    2. Listen to a podcast: Use the Listening Guide and one of the four disciplinary perspectives to identify and collect key information about Olaudah Equiano’s story, as told through the Slate Podcast “Inside the Slave Ship.”
    3. Regroup & share: In groups, use your notes to discuss complex and rich stories that the four disciplinary perspectives can tell together about Olaudah Equiano, and discuss the ways in which pieces of information can overlap across perspectives.
    4. Apply what you learned: Create your first audio recording using your podcasting tool and share it with your teacher.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3
    D2.His.6.6–8: Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.A: Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.D: Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students hear from a student-produced podcast group about why they started podcasting, then listen to a podcast about the slave trade and life of Olaudah Equiano. Each student actively listens to the podcast using a different social studies lens, taking notes from that disciplinary perspective. Following the podcast, students write a summary paragraph of their notes. They then gather in groups of four so that each lens is represented in each group to inform their interpretation of the podcast. Finally, students practice using their podcasting tool for the first time by submitting a short audio recording that shares a summary of what they learned today.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt Slide 2 (the Agenda) and Slide 6 (Podcasting Tools) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Listen to the podcast: Listen to the podcast in advance and note where the stop/start places are for the students. The entire podcast is long, but you will only be listening to a few segments of it.
    • Support comprehension: It might be useful for students to listen to the podcast on their phones or another device and follow along with the transcript on their computer. Note that you will need to subscribe to Slate in order to download the transcript.
    • Consider swapping out podcasts. Rather than learning about Olaudah Equiano, students could learn about an often-omitted story, that of Queen Nzinga. If you do this, you will need to update the Listening Guide.
    • Choose your podcasting tool: This lesson is the first time that students use the podcasting tool. Work with your school or district technology specialist to identify the right podcasting tool for your context and your students—one that aligns to your school or district's technology policy.
    • Practice recording an audio clip: In order to support students using the podcasting tool for the first time in this lesson, it will be helpful for you to practice with the tool first and anticipate any challenges or misconceptions.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn why students podcast & how to podcast(10 min)

    Purpose: Students make the connection between voices they’ve heard in this unit, the power of their own voice, and how they can put those voices together to tell a powerful story via a podcast.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Why podcast? Share with students an example of other students podcasting:

    • Play the 9NEWS segment Denver students create podcast to discuss racial justice issues [1:43].
    • Invite students to discuss: Why is adding the voice of youth to local and national conversations on race important right now?
    • Explain to students that while podcasting is exciting, it can also be a lot of work; in the unit, students will create podcasts in teams to leverage one another’s strengths and perspectives.

    [Slides 4–6] How to podcast. Present the steps students will take and the tools they will use to create their podcast.

    • Slide 4: Define what a podcast is.
    • Slide 5: Share with students the tasks associated with producing a podcast.
    • Slide 6: Share your previously selected tools for creating and sharing student podcasts.
    • Explain that students will experiment with different features while podcasting in upcoming lessons to help get them comfortable with the podcasting tool they will use.
    • Announce student groups for the lesson. Students will be in groups of four and each person will adopt one of the four disciplinary perspectives: history, geography, economics, sociology.

    [Slides 7–11] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.
    Step 2: Listen to a podcast(20 min)

    Purpose: Students listen to podcast clips with a focus on one of the disciplinary perspectives they will use to analyze evidence for their podcast; this provides an opportunity to simultaneously build knowledge of the final project and relevant content.

    [Slide 7] Introduce students to the Slate podcast “Inside the Slave Ship.” Encourage students to follow along with the transcript to support comprehension, but note that it contains errors due to the transcription process.

    • Talking points:
      • In this activity, you will listen to a podcast that discusses the life of Olaudah Equiano, an African who was enslaved and later liberated.
      • This is an opportunity for you to see how several people engage in a conversation that explores one story of the transatlantic slave trade.
      • As you listen, think about what techniques and styles you might like to include in your podcast.
    • Preview the task students will complete at the end of the lesson: a test podcast recording. Provide students with the following directions:
    • Write a short summary (one paragraph) describing what you learned about Olaudah Equiano.
    • Use the podcasting tool to record your summary to turn in.
    • Recording your summary at the end of the lesson will provide an opportunity to explore the podcasting tool’s features and practice using it to submit work.

    [Slides 8–9] Introduce and orient students to the Listening Guide.

    • Slide 8: Review the directions:
      • Choose one of the four disciplinary perspectives you have been learning about (history, geography, economics, or sociology) to use while listening.
      • Listen to the Slate podcast “Inside the Slave Ship” through the lens of your chosen disciplinary perspective.
    • Slide 9: Review additional directions:
      • Take notes in the spaces below the time frames for each of the three segments listed on the Guide. Focus on information that is important to your disciplinary perspective.
      • The three segments add up to a total of 14 minutes, but if you wish to listen to the podcast in its entirety, the total run time is 48 minutes.
    • Use the Listening Guide to demonstrate how to listen to the podcast segments.
      • Click on the first link and go to the webpage.
      • Click play.
      • Navigate your cursor to the timestamp for the first segment and click.
      • Remind students that to control the volume, they must use their computer’s audio features.

    [Slide 10] Students listen to the podcast and take notes after each segment.

    • Play [09:15 – 17:14] of the podcast, then pause to take notes.
    • Play [18:00 – 23:50] of the podcast, then pause to take notes.
    • Play [41:40 – 43:35] of the podcast, then pause to take notes.
    Step 3: Regroup & share(10 min)

    Purpose: Students share their notes about the podcast to understand the complex and rich story that their social studies lenses can tell together about Olaudah Equiano, and identify how some pieces of information overlap across lenses. They will need all four perspectives represented in their podcasts.

    [Slide 11] Introduce and orient students to the group norms for sharing.

    • Share the purpose of this step: for group members to share what they learned from all four perspectives about Olaudah Equiano and the transatlantic slave trade, as well as about good storytelling.
    • Review the group protocol for sharing:
      • Each student shares the perspective they listened for and the notes they took in the Listening Guide.
      • As each student shares, the other three should note on their own listening guides where they have the same information.
      • Indicate when the other perspectives are shared with an H (history), G (geography), E (economics), and/or S (sociology).
      • After all students have shared, the group should discuss the similarities and differences of what they learned and their observations about the quality of storytelling in the podcast.

    For remote implementation:

    • Project team meetings: Decide which platform you want students to use for group work. This could be Google Hangouts, Zoom, conference call, etc. Ideally, you will use the same platform for all group work, so students can develop proficiency and efficiency early on in the project.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(20 min)

    Purpose: Students use their podcasting tool to record and share a summary of what they learned through the lens of their assigned social studies perspective. This is a formative assessment opportunity for teachers to check students' understanding of both content and social studies disciplinary thinking. It is an opportunity for students to practice the kind of writing and recording they will do for their podcast scripts.

    [Slide 12] Create a recording.

    • Review the directions:
      • Students should write a short paragraph that includes:
        • An introductory sentence that states their disciplinary lens.
        • At least two pieces of information learned from the podcast.
        • A conclusion sentence.
    • Explain and demonstrate how to use the selected podcasting tool to support student access and command of technology features.
    • Students then use the podcasting tool to record their summary and turn it in.
      • Let students know that since this is the first time they are creating an audio recording using the selected podcasting tool, it might take longer than anticipated.
      • Encourage students to explore the features of the podcasting tool, remember to have fun, and use their project team as a resource to solve any challenges.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 2.2: The Middle Passage

    IconRemote Teacher Guide

    Lesson 2.2: The Middle Passage

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

    Module Driving Question:

    How did people experience the system of slavery differently?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Read excerpts from a historical narrative for key facts and details about the Middle Passage.
    • Determine the central ideas in text.
    • Determine the meaning of words in text.
    • Integrate visual information with text.

    Purpose

    One of the most important parts of the Atlantic slave trade was called the Middle Passage. You will use a primary source document and a video to learn about this section of the trade route. This will give you important content and also help you see some of the similarities and differences across stories that are told about the same historical event.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the Middle Passage: Your teacher will present background information on the Middle Passage, one of the most impactful and horrific parts of the transatlantic slave trade.
    2. Read excerpts from An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa: Use the four disciplinary perspectives as you take notes in your Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher and answer several close reading questions.
    3. Watch Roots: “The Middle Passage: Take notes in your Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher about the conditions and circumstances of the Middle Passage.
    4. Apply what you learned: Identify two ways in which the text and the video portrayed the Middle Passage similarly and differently. Record your response using the podcasting tool.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes 

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.His.4.6–8: Analyze multiple factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras.

    D2.His.17.6–8: Compare the central arguments in secondary works of history on related topics in multiple media.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about the part of the slave trade referred to as the Middle Passage. They read excerpts from the book An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa, written by Alexander Falconbridge, a doctor who worked aboard a slave ship. Then they watch a short video that portrays the conditions enslaved Africans might have faced during the Middle Passage. This lesson prepares students for the podcast by providing a firsthand account—from a white man—that corroborates the experiences of slave narratives, like those of Omar ibn Said and Olaudah Equiano.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Preview the video: Watch the video Roots: “The Middle Passage to determine if it is appropriate for your students. This short video presents scholars describing the historical basis for how the Middle Passage is portrayed in the Roots series. Some excerpts from the show include graphic and upsetting content. If you decide not to use the video, you can modify the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher and give students more time in Step 2 for reading the Dr. Falconbridge primary source document.
    • Plan to support students with the podcasting technology (as needed): Depending on your students’ comfort level and success with recording audio, you may want to provide additional supports and scaffolds to students who are struggling with the technology.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the Middle Passage(10 min)

    Purpose: Students receive background information on the Middle Passage and Dr. Alexander Falconbridge to prepare them to engage with primary and secondary sources about the transatlantic slave trade.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slides 3–5] Present information about the Middle Passage.

    • Slide 3: Define the Middle Passage. Talking points:
      • Orient students to the geography presented in the slide by identifying the continents pictured.
      • The Middle Passage was the leg of the slave trade route that connected Africa and the Americas.
    • Slide 4: Highlight how we know about the Middle Passage. Talking points:
      • Introduce the importance of the primary source documents.
      • Draw a connection between Omar ibn Said and Olaudah Equiano, who both created firsthand accounts of their experiences.
      • While it is important to consider the entire system of the slave trade, we don’t want to lose the experiences of the individuals involved in the Middle Passage.
    • Slide 5: Present background information on Dr. Alexander Falconbridge. Talking points:
      • Remind students that this is another voice that they can incorporate into their podcast.
      • In addition to Dr. Alexander Falconbridge’s detailed account of the horrors of a slave ship, students will also watch a short video that brings to life what historians imagine are common experiences and conditions found on slave ships.
      • Looking at two different accounts of the Middle Passage provides more information and detail that students can use in their podcasts to tell the story of the transatlantic slave trade.
    Step 2: Read excerpts from An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa(20 min)

    Purpose: This reading activity provides another opportunity for students to use the four disciplinary perspectives as they closely examine Dr. Falconbridge’s narrative to learn about the Middle Passage. Their Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher will be a useful resource for their final podcast, as it corroborates the experiences and horrors detailed in slave narratives.

    [Slide 6–7] Introduce students to the excerpts provided from Dr. Alexander Falconbridge’s narrative.

    • Slide 6: Orient students to the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher and the reading. Talking points:
      • The purpose for reading Dr. Falconbridge’s narrative is to understand the Middle Passage experience for newly enslaved Africans and people like Dr. Falconbridge.
      • Reading with the four perspectives allows students to practice thinking like historians.
      • After reading, students respond to the questions in the “Source #1: Dr. Falconbridge” section in the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher.
    • Slide 7: Facilitate a discussion about Dr. Falconbridge’s narrative. These questions are part of the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher.
      • How is this narrative similar to and different from the slave narratives you have read?
      • Which disciplinary perspectives are most useful in understanding this source? Why?
      • How might this narrative be useful or challenging to incorporate into your podcasts?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.
    Step 3: Watch Roots: “The Middle Passage”(10 min)

    Purpose: After students view a modern reenactment of the Middle Passage, they have an opportunity to compare how the two resources present corroborating or conflicting information.

    [Slides 8–9] Students are introduced to the Roots: “The Middle Passage video to prepare them for analysis.

    • Slide 8: Orient students to the video: Roots: “The Middle Passage.
      • Talking points:
        • This video was made about the 2016 remake of a miniseries called Roots, which portrays the experience of a man abducted from his African village and sold into slavery.
        • In this video you’ll hear historical experts discussing the Middle Passage and see excerpts from Roots that reenacted this horrific experience to bring it to life for viewers.
        • As you watch, think about the differences between firsthand (primary) accounts and secondary sources like this video.
      • Play the video: After watching, students respond to questions in the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher.
    • Slide 9: Facilitate a discussion about the video and to compare the two sources. These questions are part of the Lesson 2.2 Notes Catcher.
      • Which disciplinary perspectives are most useful in understanding this source? Why?
      • How were these two accounts of the Middle Passage similar and different?
      • How might this narrative be useful or challenging to incorporate into your podcasts?

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(20 min)

    Purpose: Students use their podcasting tool to record and share the similarities and differences between two historical accounts. This is a formative assessment opportunity for teachers to check students' understanding of both content and disciplinary thinking. It is an opportunity for students to practice the kind of writing and recording they will do for their podcasts.

    [Slide 10] Prepare students to synthesize their learning today.

    • Share the prompt: Identify two ways in which the text and the video portrayed the Middle Passage similarly and differently. Record your response using the podcasting tool.
    • Review the directions:
      • Write a short paragraph that includes the following:
        • An introductory sentence.
        • At least two pieces of information that you learned from the two new sources today.
        • A conclusion sentence.
    • Talking point: Writing a script is the first part of developing a podcast. Use this prompt to both synthesize your learning today and to get a feel for preparing to share your thinking aloud.

    [Slide 11] Prepare students to create their recording.

    • Review the directions:
      • Use your podcasting tool to record your summary and share it with your teacher.
      • Continue to explore the features of the podcasting tool.
      • Ask classmates or your teacher for help in solving any technical challenges that come up.
      • Have fun!
    • Talking point: This will help you continue to gain experience and command of the podcasting tool you will be using for your final project.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.  

    Lesson 2.3: Lasting Effects of the Slave Trade

    IconRemote Teacher Guide

    Lesson 2.3: Lasting Effects of the Slave Trade

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade?

    Module Driving Question:

    How did people experience the system of slavery differently?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Read a historical narrative for evidence of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Categorize evidence by disciplinary significance.
    • Use evidence to inform and select a topic for my podcast.
    • Create a teaser for my podcast and share it with my community.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn more about the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade in order to begin making connections to our lives today and the importance of Black history in America. Project teams will be formed and once you have identified your focal historical narrative, your team will begin developing content for your podcast.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the effects of the transatlantic slave trade: Watch the TED-Ed video The Atlantic Slave Trade: What Too Few Textbooks Told You [5:38] to better understand the impacts of the slave trade on the economies and histories of large parts of the world. Meet your podcast team and get ready to collaborate by reviewing a set of team norms.
    2. Select a focal historical narrative for your podcast: Review the Bio Cards and select the historical narrative that you will use to support and advance your podcast conversation. Find and read your focal narrative in the collection of narratives (there is one for each Bio Card). Record at least three pieces of text evidence in your Lesson 2.3 Notes Catcher, then categorize the disciplinary significance of each.
    3. Discuss and select podcast topics: Discuss the lasting effects of transatlantic slave trade. Use the Topic Selection Form to zero in on a topic you want to explore further in a podcast conversation.
    4. Apply what you learned: Create a teaser for your podcast and record it to share.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes
    Standards
    • C3
    D4.3.6–8: Present adaptations of arguments and explanations on topics of interest to others to reach audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6–8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students form project teams and discuss the impacts of the transatlantic slave trade on world history in order to identify the topic and historical narrative they will discuss in their podcast conversation. Students create a 30-second teaser for their podcast and share it with the class.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Preview the TED-Ed Atlantic Slave Trade video: This video provides a review of some background information students are familiar with and introduces the idea that racism is a legacy of the slave trade. Students will and should zero in on this truth, as discussing race and its history is a challenging topic to broach and embrace. Consider finding a thought partner at your school, such as another teacher or administrator, to think through this lesson in your context.
    • Adapt Slide 4 for team formation: Up until this lesson, students have gained experience working in groups or with another classmate. In this lesson, project teams form to discuss and decide on the topic of their podcast. You will need to identify teams and a set of basic norms teams will adopt.
    • Review student work during this lesson: Plan to check in with groups and provide feedback, guidance, and approval of podcast topics and scripts of teasers. This will ensure that students are set up for success in creating a podcast that is focused, authentic, and sits within the context of the school community. This means that this lesson could take more than 60 minutes, depending on the level of support students need.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the effects of the transatlantic slave trade(20 min)

    Purpose: This step builds students’ background knowledge on the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade by naming racism as an enduring, systemic issue, and helps them understand the importance of grounding this issue in historical narratives.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off the lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Prepare students to watch a video on the effects of the transatlantic slave trade.

    • Before playing the video, ask students to think about the following questions as they watch:
      • How do you think the transatlantic slave trade contributed to racism that is still present today?
      • Why has the impact of the transatlantic slave trade continued long after its abolition?
    • Play The Atlantic Slave Trade: What Too Few Textbooks Told You [5:38].
    • After the video, make connections back to Omar ibn Said’s narrative account to highlight how we have the opportunity to tell a fuller story, a more truthful story, of history when we rely on narrative accounts.
    • Talking points:
      • Remember that enslaved Africans and African Americans experienced this time period in many different ways.
      • Although suffering and oppression were constant themes, it’s important to understand that enslaved Africans and African Americans regularly resisted and found liberation in different ways, as we learned about from Omar ibn Said’s story and the story of the Haitian Revolution.
      • White abolitionists also fought to protect humanity and end the slave trade.
      • It was not uncommon for previously enslaved Africans, who had either escaped or been freed, to create African communities in the Caribbean.
    • Encourage students to discuss their answers to the video questions, if possible.

    [Slide 4] Organize podcast teams. Announce teams and establish a set of common team norms.

    • Frame the process used for forming groups. Be transparent and use as much student voice as you feel comfortable.
    • Announce the groups and have them gather.
    • Remind students of common team norms for remote learning- take care of yourself, take care of each other, and take care of your space.
    • Have teams discuss that this looks like, sounds like, and feels like.
    Teacher Tip: Using Listening Circles to Help to Establish NormsStudents will be working together on their first project. For some teams, norms will be sufficient. For other teams, it might be helpful to do a more in-depth reflection and conversation on what people need. To help students get to know one another better, start with a Listening Circle.
    Step 2: Select a focal historical narrative for your podcast(30 min)

    Purpose: Students select and read one person’s experience of the transatlantic slave trade, pull out text evidence, and categorize that text evidence for its disciplinary significance. This information helps students identify a topic for their podcast and script their podcast conversation.

    [Slide 5] Identify a focal historical narrative to bring into your podcast conversation.

    • Invite project teams to review the Bio Cards of people who experienced the transatlantic slave trade and select the narrative that they want to bring into their conversation.

    [Slide 6] Read excerpts from the narrative to identify content for your podcast.

    • Students locate their person’s narrative within the collection of narratives (there is one for each Bio Card), then read the narrative for key facts and details about their person’s experiences or observations during the transatlantic slave trade.
      • Review the list of common themes in slave narratives that students first came across in the launch lesson, when reading Omar ibn Said’s autobiography:
        • Resistance: The refusal to accept or comply with something; the attempt to prevent something by action or argument.
        • Liberation: The act of setting someone free from imprisonment, slavery, or oppression; release.
        • Connection to culture: The act of maintaining and sustaining one’s relationship to their history, family, community, birthplace, and homeland.
        • Shared humanity: Developing supportive, cooperative, and collaborative relationships.
      • Students record at least three pieces of text evidence in their Lesson 2.3 Notes Catcher and categorize the disciplinary significance of the evidence.
    Step 3: Discuss and select podcast topics(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step, project teams select the topic of their podcast conversation that addresses a lasting effect of the transatlantic slave trade. This conversation is personal. Students make connections from the past to the present and think about how race affects their identity and their community. This might be where some students begin to see their privilege, or lack thereof.

    [Slides 7–8] Review the culminating project.

    • Slide 7: Review the culminating project: creating a podcast.
    • Slide 8: Share an example of the script behind the Slate podcast.
    • Talking Point: Ask students to recall the Slate podcast and how it shared Equiano’s experience on the slave ship to talk about and tell the story of the Middle Passage. Note that they will tell that kind of story in their podcast.

    [Slides 9–11]: Review the images of the artifacts from Lesson 1.5 and point out two lasting effects.

    • Slide 9: Review population data. Talking points:
      • We know that enslaved Africans were largely settled in the southeastern U.S.
      • We also know that today, the largest concentrations of African American communities are still in the southeastern U.S., with the exception of some major cities in the north.
      • From a geographical perspective, not much has changed in terms of population distribution since the end of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Slide 10: Review economic data. Talking points:
      • When we look at economic data, we see extreme wealth gaps between white and Black people in this country.
      • From an economic perspective, not much has changed in terms of wealth distribution since the end of the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Slide 11: Review COVID-19 data. Talking points:
      • When we look at health data, we see that a disproportionate number of Black people are being impacted by COVID-19.
      • From a health perspective, not much has changed in terms of who has access to healthcare—or better healthcare—since the end of the transatlantic slave trade.

    [Slide 12] Share Examples of Podcast Topics.

    • Talking points:
      • The first example focuses on the Middle Passage and explores the entire life of Equiano before enslavement, during captivity, and after liberation.
      • The second example focuses on the importance of reading slave narratives as part of learning about history.
      • The third example focuses on the enduring issues that live on today, more than a century after the slave trade ended, and challenges people to think about what we should do about it.
      • You won’t have enough time in your podcast to discuss everything you have learned about the transatlantic slave trade and its lasting effects today. Your group will need to hone in on one story and one lasting effect.

    [Slide 13] Brainstorm topics for a podcast. Invite project teams to use the Topic Selection Form to help them brainstorm and select a topic for their podcast conversation, then write 2–3 sentences that describe what the conversation will be about.

    For remote implementation:

    • Student collaboration: Choose a platform that project teams can use consistently to support their collaboration. Examples of this include: Google Meet, Zoom, or a conference call line. Whichever platform you use, ensure that you have the capability to supervise and join student collaboration as needed.
    Teacher Tip: Having Conversations About Race and RacismEntering into conversations that highlight one group's privileges over another is challenging for adults and students of any age. While this lesson is not designed to facilitate conversations about race and racism, it opens the door to topics and conversations that don’t typically get air time in schools. For more resources on how to support this conversation, check out the Teaching Tolerance lesson on Talking About Race and Racism. And remember, this unit is designed for students to lead podcast conversations that will likely address race and systemic racism, among other topics. Consider how much of this work you want to facilitate and how much of this work students can facilitate.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned(20 min)

    Purpose: This step helps students synthesize their learning and communicate the focus of their podcast with their community, friends, and family.

    [Slide 14] Create a teaser for your podcast.

    • Talking points:
      • Write a short description of your podcast that includes the title of your podcast, the names of the people/students in your podcast, a short description of what you’ll be talking about, and why people should listen in.
      • Record your teaser using your podcasting tool.
      • Share it with your class.

    For remote implementation:

    • Managing the submission of student recordings: This final prompt should be viewed as an exit ticket, and students should post their recording in a public forum that has teacher supervision. It could be as simple as posting the recording to a public Google folder, an online discussion board, or FlipGrid. Whichever platform you use, it will be helpful to be consistent with that platform across the lessons which ask students to submit audio recordings.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.  

    Module 3: Telling the Story

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 3: Telling the Story

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave trade?

    Module Driving Question

    How can we understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade on America today?

     

    Module 3 Overview

    Module Overview

    Students begin by examining how the transatlantic slave trade established racial inequities that continue to impact America today. Project teams review the Podcast Rubric and assign roles for script development and production. Team members engage in additional research to guide their portions of the script, attend role-specific mini-lessons with the teacher to guide their script development, work with their teams to develop responses to the concluding questions, and collectively draft their scripts. Students use the Podcast Rubric to engage in the peer review and revision process and prepare their scripts for production. Once their scripts are in great shape, students record their podcasts. At the conclusion of this unit, students listen to each other’s podcasts and reflect on what they learned.

    Lesson 3.1: Connecting Past & Present (120 minutes)

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Outline a podcast conversation that makes connections to Black history today.
    • Write a well-organized script with smooth transitions that includes a clear introduction and conclusion.
    • Support my responses to questions with evidence from this unit, my research, and/or my lived experiences.
    • Write clearly and appropriately for an audience.
    • Discuss ideas in a collaborative group.
    Over the course of this two-day lesson, project teams organize information and evidence they will use to help them develop an authentic and relevant podcast conversation on the importance of understanding Black history. Project teams begin by examining how the transatlantic slave trade established racial inequities that led to structural and systemic racism in America today. Next, teams assign roles for script development and production, and organize information and evidence they will use to help them develop their podcast.
      
    Lesson 3.2: Review & Revision (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Improve my writing through editing and revision.
    • Discuss ideas in a collaborative group.
    • Follow discussion rules and work together with my group.
    Students review each other’s scripts and offer constructive feedback. Based on this feedback, students revise their scripts prior to creating their final podcasts.
     
    Lesson 3.3: Record Your Podcast (90 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Come prepared to participate in a podcast conversation.
    • Present my ideas completely, using an appropriate tone of voice, volume, and clear speech.
    • Use technology tools to present my ideas and writing effectively.
    • Adapt the way I speak for a particular audience.
    Students record their podcasts. This is the creation of their final product that they can share with the world!
      
    Lesson 3.4: Listening & Responding (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Listen to a peer’s podcast for information that will help me answer the module driving questions.
    • Acknowledge new information and, when appropriate, change my views.
    • Reflect on what I have learned in this unit.
    This lesson creates a public audience for student podcasts in which students listen to, celebrate, and discuss what they learned from their podcast conversations.
     
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 3.1: Podcast Script - Draft
    • Lesson 3.2: Podcast Script - Revised
    • Lesson 3.3: Podcast Recording
    • Lesson 3.4: Podcast Listening Guide
    Vocabulary
    • clarify: to help with understanding, make less confused
    • host: the person who gives the commentary for a podcast
    • inequality: situations in which people are provided with unequal resources or opportunities
    • inequity: differences between groups of people that are unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust
    • Ladder of Feedback: a system of peer feedback that is constructive and respectful

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 3.1: Connecting Past & Present

    Remote Teacher GuideIcon

    Lesson 3.1: Podcast Resource Guide

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade 

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade on America today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Outline a podcast conversation that makes connections to Black history today.
    • Write a well-organized script with smooth transitions that includes a clear introduction and conclusion.
    • Support my responses to questions with evidence from this unit, my research, and/or my lived experiences.
    • Write clearly and appropriately for an audience.
    • Discuss ideas in a collaborative group.

    Purpose

    In this two-day lesson, teams will collaboratively create the script for your podcast conversation on Black history and why it is important to understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the root causes of systemic racism: Watch the Equal Justice Institute video Slavery to Mass Incarceration to help trace examples of systemic racism today back to the legacy of racism that the transatlantic slave trade established.
    2. Assign roles and plan: In your project teams, review the Podcast Rubric and the Podcast Preparation Guide, then discuss and decide podcasting roles.
    3. Research & write your script (with mini-lessons): Use the resources in the Podcast Preparation Guide to support research and scripting.
    4. Apply what you learned: Reflect on the challenges of writing a script and the strategies you might use to resolve those challenges.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:120 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.His.3.6–8: Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

    D1.5.6–8: Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of views represented in the sources.
    D4.3.6–8: Present adaptations of arguments and explanations on topics of interest to others to reach audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).

    D4.6.6–8: Draw on multiple disciplinary lenses to analyze how a specific problem can manifest itself at local, regional, and global levels over time, identifying its characteristics and causes, and the challenges and opportunities faced by those trying to address the problem.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6–8.2 (A–F): Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6–8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Over the course of this two-day lesson, project teams organize information and evidence they will use to help them develop an authentic and relevant podcast conversation on the importance of understanding Black history. Project teams begin by examining how the transatlantic slave trade established racial inequities that led to structural and systemic racism in America today. Next, teams assign roles for script development and production, and organize information and evidence they will use to help them develop their podcast.
     
    Teacher Preparation
    • Prepare for this lesson to span at least two class days (possibly more depending on your teaching context): Determine in advance how you will present this lesson and provide support for students as they work in groups and for the mini-lessons described in Step 3. Additionally, if teams need to work outside of class, provide time for them to plan how they will do this.
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Options for recording a podcast: Work with your school technology coordinator and your school leaders to determine the best way to facilitate student recording and publishing of podcasts in your teaching and learning context. Some options include students recording podcasts on their phones and uploading audio files to a secure site, or downloading specific software onto their computers, recording, and then emailing audio files to teachers.
    • Consider applying the rubric to an example podcast: Think about how you might model using the Podcast Rubric with the Slate podcast. Demonstrate this if you think it would be helpful.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the root causes of systemic racism(30 min)

    Purpose: This step supports students in making the connection between the transatlantic slave trade and racial differences in a variety of systems and structures in society today. This is not an easy connection for students or adults to make. The idea is that if students can learn more about Black history, they will be more informed and able to see the lasting effects of the slave trade on life today in America.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Play the video Slavery to Mass Incarceration [5:50].

    • Preview two guiding questions for students to consider as they watch the video:
      • How did the system of slavery create a myth of racial difference?
      • In what ways are racial inequities present in society today?
    • After students watch, facilitate discussion of the two questions between partners or small groups and then as a whole class.
    • Help students make connections between the “conventional narrative” that they learned about in Lesson 1.2 and the “myth of racial difference.”

    [Slide 4] Read and discuss examples of systemic racism.

    • Review with students Examples of Systemic Racism in America.
    • In project teams, each member reviews one of the four resources, then responds to the following questions:
      • In what ways are racial inequities present in society today?
      • What can we do about them?
    • Students share their responses with the team and ask clarifying questions if they feel like they do not clearly see the connection between the identified issues and the transatlantic slave trade.
    • Remind students that they will use this information to support and inform their podcast conversation.

    [Slide 5] Consider qualities of engaging podcasts & review the Podcast Rubric.

    • Before reviewing the rubric, ask students to describe the final product they’ve been working toward.
    • Ask students to think back on the stories and podcasts they’ve listened to (from Denver students and Slate) and share qualities of an engaging and professional podcast. Record student ideas in a visible place.
    •  Orient students to the rubric categories and levels of proficiency—be sure to locate the qualities they identified. 
    • Revise the rubric as needed to incorporate any additional qualities students suggested.

    [Slides 6–9] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    For remote implementation:

    • Engagement: Use a Google Doc or other online tool for students to record their ideas, which can then be used for formative assessment.
    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion and/or self-reflection questions.
    Step 2: Assign roles and plan(15 min)

    Purpose: This step provides students with voice and choice. Project teams discuss and decide who is assigned to which role in the podcast conversation. This is also when the teacher conferences with each project team to review role assignments and promote a conversation in the project team in which students can acknowledge where they might need help and support from their team members.

    [Slide 6] Review Podcast Outline (note: students can adapt this outline). Talking points:

    1. The Podcast Host introduces the podcast and team members.
    2. The Historian presents biographical information about your team’s focal person.
    3. The Sociologist presents the experience of the transatlantic slave trade from the perspective of your focal person.
    4. The Disciplinary Expert presents how the narrative is similar to and different from Equiano or Said’s story by considering all four disciplinary perspectives.
    5. The whole team shares their reflections on the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade.

    [Slides 7-8] Review roles and responsibilities. Share and talk through the Podcast Development Guide. Answer any questions. Talking points:

    • The Podcast Host is responsible for preparing and scripting personal introductions AND introducing your team’s focal person.
    • The Historian is responsible for preparing and scripting biographical background information for your team’s focal person.
    • The Sociologist is responsible for preparing and scripting the experience of the transatlantic slave trade from the perspective of your focal person.
    • The Disciplinary Expert is responsible for preparing and scripting how their narrative is similar to and different from Equiano OR Said’s story (consider all four disciplinary perspectives)
    • The whole team is responsible for preparing a response to these two questions:
      • How does your focal person’s story help us understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade?
      • Why do you think it is important for students and teachers to have conversations about Black history in America today?

    [Slide 9] Developing content for podcasts. Share with students the Podcast Development Guide and let them know that this document identifies resources they should use for content as they develop their portions of the script.

    [Slide 10] Self-reflection on team roles. Invite students to think about the following questions.

    • Which tasks and roles are most interesting to you?
    • Which tasks and roles are least interesting to you?
    • What will be challenging about scripting the podcast?
    • What will your team need to meet those challenges?

    [Slide 11] Assign roles and clarify responsibilities.

    • Talking points:
      • You have done a lot of work preparing for the production of your podcast. The next step is to write the script!
      • Podcast scripts include all the words people will hear in the podcast. Just like the historian and the editor in the Slate podcast, team members will take on different roles.
    • Review the directions:
      • Decide who will be responsible for each role and assign names to each task and role on the Podcast Development Guide.
      • Make a copy of the Podcast Outline.
      • Go through the script and write in names next to roles.
      • Review the assignments, questions, and expectations.
    •  Conference with each group about their assignments and answer any lingering questions.

    For remote implementation:

    • 1:1/small-group conferencing: Consider scheduling 5- to 10-minute meeting time slots in advance of this lesson with each project team. These can be in the form of calendar invites. You can also use scheduling features in Google Calendar or Microsoft Outlook for students to sign up for open times on your office calendar.
    Step 3: Research & write your script (with mini-lessons)(70 min)

    Purpose: This step is when students draw upon information and evidence from the unit to help them script their responses to prompts. This is also an important opportunity for the teacher to continue small-group conferencing, through role-group meetings so students can build skills and ask questions specific to their role.

    [Slide 12] Developing content and creating your script with teacher-led mini-lessons.

    • Students conduct additional research using the Podcast Development Guide and draw upon their research to script the sections of the podcast they are responsible for preparing.
    • While students are scripting their assigned sections, schedule small-group check-ins with students based on their role.
      • Podcast Host: Lead mini-lesson on personalizing scripts.
      • Historian: Lead mini-lesson on what information to include in a biography using the Biographical Resources.
      • Sociologists & Disciplinary Experts: Lead a mini-lesson on making evidence-based claims. (Note: This is a great opportunity to partner with your eighth-grade ELA teacher to reinforce this skill.)
    Step 4: Apply what you learned (day 1)(5 min)

    Purpose: The purpose of this step is to gain insight into how the project groups are working in order to support both team progress and individuals as they work toward completing their podcast scripts on the second day of this lesson.

    [Slide 13] Closing reflection.

    • Talking points:
      • Group writing can be challenging, even with good friends. Many scholars have different ideas or writing styles. Sometimes it feels like the work isn’t evenly distributed.
      • Reflect and respond to the following questions:
        • What is one challenge you have had in writing your script with your group?
        • What strategies can you use to resolve this challenge?
    • Given your current classroom context, determine how you can support individual students and teams as needed to develop the interpersonal skills and personal accountability necessary for productive collaboration. As much as possible, encourage students to resolve issues within their groups and to lean on their peers for support.
    Teacher Tip: Approaches and Tools for Group WritingCollaborative writing can be fun and challenging. Consider sharing different tools and approaches to collaborative writing that give students concrete ways to facilitate collaborative writing. Check out the following resources to help you and your students engage in productive collaborative writing.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 3.2: Review & Revision

    Remote Teacher Guide icon

    Lesson 3.2: Review & Revision 

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by

    listening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade on America today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Improve my writing through editing and revision.
    • Discuss ideas in a collaborative group.
    • Follow discussion rules and work together with my group.

    Purpose

    There is a lot of content in these podcasts. A fresh set of eyes can tell you if your podcast script makes sense and includes all of the essential elements. You will review another group’s podcast script and give that group feedback on how they can improve their podcast. Another group will do the same for you.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about peer review and revision: The teacher presents the important role of constructive feedback in improving work. Explore the Ladder of Feedback and the tools you will use to receive feedback from your peers on your team’s podcast script.
    2. Peer review: Use the Podcast Rubric and Peer Review Form to review a project team’s script and provide constructive feedback.
    3. Revise your script: Review the completed Peer Review Form as a project team and integrate feedback to improve your podcast script.
    4. Apply what you learned: Reflect on the process of receiving feedback and how it helped your team improve your podcast script.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D4.4.6–8: Critique arguments for credibility.

    D4.5.6–8: Critique the structure of explanations.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6–8.5: With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.B: Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    Project teams review each other’s scripts and offer constructive feedback. Based on this feedback, teams revise their scripts prior to creating their final podcasts.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
    • Determine a peer review structure and adapt Slide 4 to present groups: Decide in advance how to structure the peer review script exchange and whether you will assign groups to review a specific group.
    • Prepare for peer review: All group members should have blank Peer Review Forms to complete as they review the scripts. Student groups should ideally provide a shared online copy of their script to ensure the original is not compromised.  

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about peer review and revision(15 min)

    Purpose: This step helps students think about what kinds of feedback are helpful and constructive, and introduces students to how they will give feedback to support their peers.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda,

    and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Review Ladder of Feedback, Peer Review Form, and the Podcast Rubric.

    • Read through the Ladder of Feedback as a whole class. Answer any clarifying questions.
    • Read through the Peer Review Form as a whole class. Answer any clarifying questions.
    • Review the Podcast Rubric as a whole class. Answer any clarifying questions.
    • Explain to students that they will use the rubric to review scripts from other podcasting groups to complete the Peer Review Form.
    • If possible, model using the rubric with a portion of either the Slate or the Denver students’ Know Justice, Know Peace podcast.

    [Slides 4–6] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Peer review(20 min)

    Purpose: Students review each other’s scripts and write constructive feedback on the Peer Review Form. This gives students an opportunity to practice the reviewing and revising processes, and to understand how their projects will be assessed.

    [Slide 4] Pair students up for their peer reviews.

    • Explain that each project team is paired with another project team, and share these pairings.
    • Explain to teams that they will work together to provide feedback on one Peer Review Form.
    • Provide guidance for how teams exchange and access each other’s scripts.
    • Provide guidance for how to return the Peer Review Form to the appropriate team.
    Step 3: Revise your script(20 min)

    Purpose: Students have the opportunity to use their peers’ feedback to revise and improve their podcast scripts.

    [Slide 5] Build your team’s script.

    • One student in each group reads the feedback form aloud to the rest of the team.
    • Students discuss how to incorporate the feedback, if they found it helpful.
    • Students mark up their script to include the feedback.
    • As a group, students complete the two-item checklist at the bottom of the Peer Review Form.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned (5 min)

    Purpose: The purpose of this step is for students to reflect on the feedback and revision process.

    [Slide 6] Closing reflection. Reflect on and respond to the following questions:

    • What was one piece of feedback that was useful for revising your podcast script?
    • From the Ladder of Feedback, what kind of feedback do you find most helpful for people to provide on your writing? Why?

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.  

    Lesson 3.3: Record Your Podcast

    Remote Teacher Guide 

    Lesson 3.3: Record Your Podcast

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

     

     

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by l

    istening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade on America today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Come prepared to participate in a podcast conversation.
    • Present my ideas completely, using an appropriate tone of voice, volume, and clear speech.
    • Use technology tools to present my ideas and writing effectively.
    • Adapt the way I speak for a particular audience.

    Purpose

    Today’s the day—you get to put your podcast into production! Review the rubric to make sure you are ready to go. Then, record your podcast!

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn how to sign up for a recording time: After your teacher presents on how to sign up for your podcast recording time, project teams sign up on a first-come-first-serve basis.
    2. Practice your podcast conversation: Do a dry run of your podcast conversation once, twice, three times—until you feel comfortable—and you’re ready to go.
    3. Record your podcast conversation: Arrive for your recording time early and record your podcast conversation!
    4. Apply what you learned: Reflect on your experience recording today.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes (two days)
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.His.3.6–8: Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

    D4.3.6–8: Present adaptations of arguments and explanations on topics of interest to others to reach audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.4: Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.5: Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sign-Up Form (teacher-created)
    • Podcast Outline (student-created)
    • Podcast Rubric (from Lesson 3.1)
    • Technology, including recording software
    Lesson Overview
    Students record their podcasts. This is the creation of their final product that they can share with the world!
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the slide deck to support this lesson:
      • Slide 2: Update the Agenda to reflect your remote learning context.
      • Slide 3: Instruct teams how to sign up for recording time slots and provide a sign-up form.
      • Slide 4: Instruct teams how to rehearse their podcasts. If you can provide online meeting times, another sign-up process may be necessary.
      • Slide 5: Instruct teams on how to record their podcasts using the appropriate tools for your context.
    • Determine how to supervise podcast production: Podcast conversations should be supervised, facilitated, and recorded by the teacher in order to ensure a level of student safety and support. Create a way for project teams to choose from a list of recording dates and times. Each time slot should be for 30 minutes. If students think will they need more time than that, they should sign up for two time slots.
    • Determine how to record the podcasts: A best practice here is using the student responses from the sign-up form to create calendar invites for Zoom meetings or Google Hangouts. Once all students for the podcast conversation are in the meeting, the teacher can record the conversation using their preferred audio recording software. Once the meeting has concluded, the teacher will upload the audio recording and share it with the podcast team to review.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn how to sign up for a recording time(10 min)

    Purpose: This step helps prepare teams for the production process by orienting them to the tools and structures that are in place while also highlighting expectations.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda, and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    [Slide 3] Review the process to sign up. Demonstrate how project teams sign up for a recording time slot. Each recording slot is 30 minutes. Encourage teams that might need more than 30 minutes to sign up for two slots.

    [Slide 4] Discuss expectations for team rehearsals. If you are able to provide online meeting space for groups, provide another sign-up form.

    [Slide 5] Instruct teams how they will record their podcasts using the appropriate tools for your context.

    Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Practice your podcast conversation(40 min)

    Purpose: Students practice their podcast conversations to check timing as well as become familiar and comfortable with the flow of the conversation.

    Post calendar invites: Use responses from your sign-up form to send calendar invites to students. Consider posting or emailing a master calendar of when project teams are recording.

    Podcast practice conversations: Instruct students to use any class time they have before their recording time slot to practice their podcast conversation. It might be helpful for students to practice their podcast conversations with a friend or family member and have that person give them feedback using the Podcast Rubric.

    Step 3: Record your podcast conversation(35 min)

    Purpose: Students record their scripts with their project team and teacher.

    Review the Podcast Rubric: Begin with a final review of the Podcast Rubric and ask students to indicate their strengths and what they would like feedback on.

    Record the podcast conversation: Most conversations will last 15–20 minutes. Encourage students to use their scripts as a resource or guide, but not to read directly from them. The point is to have a real conversation that they are prepared to enter into and participate in.

    Sharing the podcast audio file: Let students know that you will upload the recording of their conversation and share it with them.

    Teacher Tip: Sharing PodcastsConsider ahead of time how you want to share the podcasts at the end of the unit. Work with your building administrator and technology coordinator to determine the best way to publish and share students’ podcasts. It might be as simple as emailing students an audio file to listen to, or as powerful as adding the podcasts to the school’s website so that people outside of the school community can also learn from the students’ work.Two good options for sharing within a class include uploading podcast recordings to a Google Classroom Assignment or posting them on FlipGrid.To share more broadly, podcasts can also be shared on more open platforms. From the New York Times’ “Project Audio” lesson plan, here’s an example of how one teacher shares her class podcasts on SoundCloud.
    Step 4: Apply what you learned (5 min)

    Purpose: The purpose of this step is for students to reflect on the feedback and revision process.

    [Slide 6] Closing reflection. Reflect on and respond to the following questions:

    • What surprised you about making this podcast?
    • What did you enjoy?
    • What would you do differently next time?

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. 

    Lesson 3.4: Listening & Responding

    Remote Teacher GuideIcon

    Lesson 3.4: Listening & Responding

    Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can we better understand America’s past and present by l

    istening to often omitted and unheard voices from the slave

    trade? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we understand the lasting effects of the transatlantic slave trade on America today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Listen to a peer’s podcast for information that will help me answer the module driving questions.
    • Acknowledge new information and, when appropriate, change my views.
    • Reflect on what I have learned in this unit.

    Purpose

    Listen to student-created podcasts that share and discuss stories from Black history that have been obscured, then reflect on what you know now that you didn’t at the beginning of this unit.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn how to access peer podcasts: Your teacher will demonstrate how you can access peer podcasts.
    2. Listen to peer podcasts: Use the Podcast Listening Guide to analyze a peer’s podcast for information that will help you respond to the driving questions for Modules 2 and 3.
    3. Share out what you have learned: Reflect on what you learned in this unit.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    • C3

    D2.His.3.6–8: Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

    D4.3.6–8: Present adaptations of arguments and explanations on topics of interest to others to reach audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1.D: Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    This lesson creates a public audience for student podcasts in which students listen to, celebrate, and discuss what they learned from their podcast conversations.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Adapt the Agenda (Slide 2) to reflect your remote learning context: Include any specific details about how students will access resources or submit work.
      • See notes in Step 1 about creating a sense of celebration and consider adding an additional slide if necessary.
    • Personalize Slide 3: Insert guidance on where students can locate and access peer podcasts.
    • Personalize Slide 6: Update with your class’ Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.5.
    • Publish student podcasts: You will need to make students’ podcasts available to the other students in their class. There are two good options for this: you can upload the podcast recordings to a Google Classroom Assignment, or post them on FlipGrid.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn how to access peer podcasts(10 min)

    Purpose: Orient students to the process for sharing podcasts and establish a sense of celebration that students have succeeded in producing a final product that showcases their work and thinking throughout the unit.

    Adapt the Lesson Slide Deck to present the following content to students either remotely or in person.

    [Slide 2] Kick off today’s lesson. Share key features of today’s lesson, including the purpose statement, agenda,

    and what students will submit at the end of the lesson.

    Talking points:

    • Acknowledge students’ hard work and successes.
    • Celebrate the conclusion of an important unit of study.
    • Highlight how the final podcasts showcase all the learning and thinking from the entire unit.

    [Slide 3] Share guidance on how students will access peer podcasts. Personalize this slide based on your instructional choices.

    [Slides 4–5] Introduce and orient students to the activities and expectations for Steps 2–4. See steps below for details.

    Step 2: Listen to peer podcasts(30 min)

    Purpose: In this step, project teams share their podcasts with a public audience—their peers and community—in order to educate others about obscured voices and stories which give us a fuller understanding of the transatlantic slave trade and its lasting effects today.

    [Slide 4] Listen to a peer podcast. Direct students to listen to another project team’s podcast and respond to the guiding questions in their Podcast Listening Guide:

    • Whose story does the podcast share?
    • Why is this person’s story important?
    • Describe how this story is similar to and different from the one presented in your team’s podcast.
    • What lasting effect of the transatlantic slave trade is discussed in the podcast?
    Step 3: Share out what you have learned(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students have an opportunity to celebrate their peers and reflect on what they learned in this unit.

    Round Robin/popcorn share out:

    • Give students 60 seconds to write down what they want to share.
    • Each student shares one thing they learned from a peer’s podcast.
    • Record student ideas so they are visible to the entire class.

    [Slide 5] Final Share Out. Invite students to respond to one of the three reflection questions:

    • How has your understanding of Black history evolved during this unit?
    • How does storytelling impact others?
    • If given another chance, what would you do differently when creating your podcast?

     

    [Slide 6] Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart. Present the original class chart that was created on the first day of the unit.

    • Ask the class to review what they previously listed on the chart. Use the following questions to prompt changes in thinking and track student learning. Annotate the Know & Need to Know chart to reflect changes.
      • For the “Know” column:
        • Has any of your original knowledge changed or deepened? If so, how?
        • What new information do you know now that you didn’t before?
      • For the “Need to Know” column:
        • Which of your questions have been answered, partially or fully?
        • Which questions are still outstanding—and still important?
        • What new questions do you have at the end of the unit?
    Teacher Tip: Tracking and Resolving Questions with a Know & Need to Know Chart A Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website and how to use students’ questions for planning and assessment from PBL Works.

    If you will be sharing podcasts with an audience outside the classroom community, discuss your approach and the platform with students (see Teacher Tip in Lesson 3.3).

    Congratulate students on concluding the final project of the Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade unit. Note that the next unit will pick up on many of the issues they explored—and possibly some of the outstanding questions raised by the Voices unit.

    For remote implementation:

    • Sharing ideas: Use a quick poll or discussion forum for students to respond to the discussion questions, and possibly as an asynchronous way to update the Know & Need to Know chart.

    Unless otherwise noted, Voices of the Transatlantic Slave Trade © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.