Author:
David Krakow, Oregon Open Learning
Subject:
Arts and Humanities, Languages, Literature, Language Education (ESL), Reading Informational Text, Social Science
Material Type:
Assessment, Lesson Plan, Teaching/Learning Strategy
Level:
Middle School, High School
Grade:
6, 7, 8, 9
Tags:
  • ELP Level 2
  • ELP Level 3
  • ELP Level 4
  • ELP Level 5
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English, Spanish
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs

    Education Standards

    Text marking for a purpose

    Text marking for a purpose

    Overview

    This lesson can work with any content standards.  It is a lesson for students to learn a text marking procedure.  Teachers and students can apply it to any non-fiction text on any non-fiction topic.  Extensions include academic speaking and writing prompts.  

    Lesson Plan

    LESSON DESCRIPTION

    Text marking for a purpose

    Author of the Lesson: David Krakow and Amanda Graham

    Lesson Summary/Overview:

    Middle SChool Students will practice using a set of methods for pre-reading, reading, text-marking, and reflecting to improve metacognition and reading comprehension.

    LESSON GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    Alignment and Objectives

    Content Standards:        

    This lesson can work with any content standards.  It is a lesson for students to learn a text marking procedure.  Teachers and students can apply it to any non-fiction text on any non-fiction topic.         

    Content Objectives:

    Students can use text marking, a focus question, and a summary to increase reading comprehension.

    ELP Standards:

    Grade 6-8 Standard 1: Construct meaning from oral presentations & literary & informational text through  grade-appropriate  listening, reading, & viewing.  

    Language (ELP) Objectives:

    Students will be able to identify the main idea in a nonfiction text.

    Students will be able to identify supporting details in a nonfiction text.

    Students will be able to summarize a nonfiction text including its main idea and supporting details.  

    Supporting Academic Language

    Language Functions:

            analyze and synthesize information in a non-fiction text.

    Language Modalities:

            reading - text marking to answer a focus question
            writing        - summary of a nonfiction text to identify the main idea and supporting details.  
            speaking - structured interview to review text marking

    Vocabulary:

            Summary, summarize
            focus question
            main idea
            support
            detail

    Syntax or Sentence Structure(s):

    • En el artículo, …. por… yo querría ver si….
    • La idea central del autor es que…
    • También es importante destacar que….
    • Para apoyar su idea central ella incluye el detalle que…
    • Finalmente, él explica que…
    • Entonces, podemos concluir que…
    • In the article, … written by… I wanted to see if…
    • The author's main idea is that…
    • Also, it is important to point out that…
    • In order to support the main idea, the author includes the detail that….
    • Finally, the author explains that…
    • So, we can conclude that….

     

    Discourse:

    This lesson teaches paragraph writing in order to efficiently summarize a nonfiction text.  It relies on a teacher to choose a text that is accessible to students both in terms of language level and content.    

    LESSON PREPARATION

    Considerations

    Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills:

    Students will need to be familiar with

    • nonfiction text structures: titles, subtitles, captions, headlines and the like.  
    • paragraph structures:  topic sentences, supporting details, and transitions.  

    Students do not need any specific content knowledge because a teacher can use this lesson and its procedures regularly to help students read in order to learn.  

    Instructional Materials

    Resources, Materials, and Technology required or recommended for the lesson:

    Teacher must:

    1. Select a nonfiction text that is appropriate for their discipline, and unit objectives.  
    2. Copy and paste the text into the text marking template spanish or text marking template english
    3. Make copies, one for each student.  

    Technology:  

    • printer, copier,
    • overhead document camera or projector

    Learning Supports

    Socio-emotional supports:

    Group students together with reading or language ability peers.  This lesson asks students to read, think, and speak with classmates, so choose some groups that will make the kids more comfortable, not more nervous.

    Cultural & Linguistic Responsiveness:

    The activity in this lesson makes reading a social and academic activity that involves question asking and talking.  It moves reading comprehension out of the completely independent academic test-preparation mode and into the more real life context of reading-thinking-talking together.  

    Obviously, teachers should choose texts that are culturally relevant and linguistically accessible.  

    Accessibility:

    Teaching students a repeatable procedure (the goal of this lesson) to approach a nonfiction text that increases engagement, comprehension, and feelings of academic success increases the accessibility of a text.  

    Instructional Supports

    Differentiation:

    It is important to choose texts that are readable by the members of your class.  If the sentence structures or the vocabulary in an article are much above the independent level of the emergent bilingual students in your class, this lesson will not work well.  Use a formal or informal reading inventory to make sure that the students can actually read the things you ask them to read and think about.  

    Language supports:  

    Reading 

    - Focus question, text marking codes, text marking procedures, give students credit for
                    interacting with text.  
            -Optional supports for decoding challenges:  

    • audio read aloud, teacher read aloud, partner read aloud, small group take turns with chunks, pairs take turns with chunks.  

    Speaking

    - structured interview questions allow all students to participate in oral review of their reading work.  Also allows all students to check their understanding and to compare their understanding with peers.  

    Writing

            -Sentence starters for summary can be optional, mandatory, or paired back at teacher's
            discretion.  

    LESSON PROCEDURES

    This is a 3 day Lesson.  Day 1 is a teacher model and think aloud.  Day 2 is a collaborative effort in small groups.  Day 3 is independent practice or work in pairs.  All three days should follow the same procedure with a different, but connected text and an identical focus question.    

    Anticipatory Set/Motivation/Hook

    Time: 5 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Present the focus question.  Turn and talk
    • 30 seconds each

    Focused Instruction (Teacher-as-Model)

    Time: 10 minutes STEP 1

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Pass out template handoutWrite names and copy the focus questions.
    direct instruction on key vocabulary project example notes with an example of definition, translation and drawing.  Call and response on saying the vocabulary words.  take clarifying questions.  Circulate the room and put check marks on students´papers with complete notes.  Lots of praise with each mark.  Get everyone a check mark.Copy teacher notes on vocabulary.  Call and response.  

     

    Guided Instruction (Teacher-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    Time: 15 minutes STEPS 2,3,4, and 5

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Think aloud with nonfiction text and text marking.  
    • project copy of nonfiction text.  
    • Tell students to write on their paper whatever you write on yours.  
    • Read the text aloud aloud
    • stop to narrate whenever you mark the text.  What did you mark?  Why?
    Check students' text marking.  Lots of praise.    
    mark their own texts following your think aloud.  


    Time: 5 minutes STEP 6

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Model the structured interview.  Use two voices.  Try to be a little silly about this.  ¿Puedes enseñarme el texto que leíste?  Favor de leerme la pregunta de enfoque.  ¿Dónde anotaste el texto?  ¿Por qué anotaste esta oración?  ¿Dónde se puede encontrar una respuesta a la pregunta de enfoque?Do the structured interview following the teacher model. Can you show me the text you read?Please read the focus question to me.Where did you mark the text?Why did you underline this sentence?Where can you find an answer to the focus question?


    Time: 10  minutes STEP 7 - exit ticket

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Pass out copies of a summary of the article that has blanks and uses all of the sentence starters in the handout.  Project your work as you complete each sentence to make a summary paragraph. SPANISHEn el artículo, …. por… yo querría ver si….La idea central del autor es que… Para apoyar su idea central ella incluye el detalle que… Finalmente, él explica que… Entonces, podemos concluir que… ENGLISHIn the article, … written by… I wanted to see if…The author's main idea is that…Also, it is important to point out that…In order to support the main idea, the author includes the detail that….Finally, the author explains that…So, we can conclude that….  Students copy your work from the board.  Students should turn in a complete summary that uses the sentence starters and matches what the teacher wrote as an example.    

    Group Application (Student-to-Student Joint Responsibility)

    DAY 2:  Students should work in small groups to complete the same procedure as day 1.  

    Step 1:  Vocabulary 10 minutes.  

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Step 1:  Vocabulary
    • Present vocabulary list.  
    • Check that students have copied the key words for the article.  
    • Explain, define, draw, or translate the key words for students
    • Copy vocabulary words as an entrance ticket.  
       
    • write down definitions, pictures, or translations of key words.  


    Step 2:  Focus question: 5 minutes  

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • Present the focus question.  Make sure it is the same question from day 1.  
    • Instruct kids to copy the question onto their text or handout.  
    • tell kids to check that an elbow partner has the focus question.  Make sure that every kid has the question copied before you move on.  
    • Write the focus question on the text.  
       
    •  Give a check plus to an elbow partner when they have the focus question.  

    Step 3,4,5:  Read and annotate 15 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • Tell students that they will follow the same procedure from the previous day and that you will give them credit as a group.  Use the handout template so that the instructions are the same and on students´ desks.    
    • They should
    • number the paragraphs.
    • take turns reading aloud
    • stop every chunk to mark the text.  
    • maintain volume 1.  
    • Finished tables should have every paper with annotations that answer the focus question and every student should have read aloud.  
    • bring the class back together.  
    • present, call out, and celebrate every groups´success
    • text marking
    • collaboration
    • focus
    • number the paragraphs.  
    • read aloud paragraph by paragraph.
    • stop to mark the text 2 to 5 times.
    • Raise hands when the whole group is ready.    

    Step 6:  Structured interview 4 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • Assign elbow partners and first person to do questions.  Tell students they should try to talk for 1 minute.  Set timer.      
       
    • Tell partners to switch roles.  Askers answer.  Aswerers ask the same questions.Tell students they should try to talk for 1 minute.  Set timer.      
     ¿Puedes enseñarme el texto que leíste?  Favor de leerme la pregunta de enfoque.  ¿Dónde anotaste el texto?  ¿Por qué anotaste esta oración?  ¿Dónde se puede encontrar una respuesta a la pregunta de enfoque?Can you show me the text you read?Please read the focus question to me.Where did you mark the text?Why did you underline this sentence?Where can you find an answer to the focus question?

    Step 7:  write the summary  10 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • present the summary sentence starters:  
    • Instruct students that their group should  write a summary together:
    • Each student should write the same thing.  
    • They can copy from each other.  
    • They should use at least 4 of the sentence starters.  
     work in small groups to write a summary of the article:  SPANISHEn el artículo, …. por… yo querría ver si….La idea central del autor es que… Para apoyar su idea central ella incluye el detalle que… Finalmente, él explica que… Entonces, podemos concluir que… ENGLISHIn the article, … written by… I wanted to find out…The author's main idea is that…Also, it is important to point out that…In order to support the main idea, the author includes the detail that….Finally, the author explains that…So, we can conclude that….Turn in summary as an exit ticket.

    Individual Learning (Independent Practice and Application)

    DAY 3:  Students should work independently to complete the same procedure as day 1.  

    Step 1:  Vocabulary 5 minutes.  

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Step 1:  Vocabulary
    • Present vocabulary list.  
    • Check that students have copied the key words for the article.  
    • Explain, define, draw, or translate the key words for students
    • Copy vocabulary words as an entrance ticket.  
       
    • write down definitions, pictures, or translations of key words.  

     

    Steps 2-5:  read and annotate 20 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • Instruct students that they will use the same procedure to annotate a text as yesterday, but independently.  
    • Set the timer for 15 minutes and present the list of steps.
    • copy the focus question
    • number the paragraphs
    • read paragraph by paragraph
    • mark the text for answers to the focus question in every chunk.  
    • Tell students there are 4 points they can earn, one for each step. Ask two students to repeat the instructions.
    • Remind students about volume 0 or 1 for quiet reading.  Say go.  
    • Circulate and praise kids for doing the steps.  Give out points on their papers.  
    • Follow the procedure for reading and text marking in the template handout steps 2 - 5
    • copy the focus question
    • number the paragraphs
    • read paragraph by paragraph
    • mark the text for answers to the focus question in every chunk.  

    Steps 6 structured interview 6 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • Assign elbow partners. Have students stand up and face their partners.  
    •  The kids have been sitting quietly for 20 minutes.  Let them move around.  
    •  Assign the first person to do questions.  Tell students they should try to talk for 1 minute.  Set timer.      
    • Tell partners to switch roles.  Askers answer.  Aswerers ask the same questions.Tell students they should try to talk for 1 minute.  Set timer.  
    • Tell students to say thank you to your partner.  Return to original seats.    
     ¿Puedes enseñarme el texto que leíste?  Favor de leerme la pregunta de enfoque.  ¿Dónde anotaste el texto?  ¿Por qué anotaste esta oración?  ¿Dónde se puede encontrar una respuesta a la pregunta de enfoque?Can you show me the text you read?Please read the focus question to me.Where did you mark the text?Why did you underline this sentence?Where can you find an answer to the focus question?

    Step 7:  write the summary  10 minutes

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    • present the summary sentence starters:  
    • Instruct students that they should should  write a summary independently:
    • They should use at least 4 of the sentence starters.
    •  
     Students write quietly for 10 minutes using sentence starters as needed. SPANISHEn el artículo, …. por… yo querría ver si….La idea central del autor es que… Para apoyar su idea central ella incluye el detalle que… Finalmente, él explica que… Entonces, podemos concluir que… ENGLISHIn the article, … written by… I wanted to find out…The author's main idea is that…Also, it is important to point out that…In order to support the main idea, the author includes the detail that….Finally, the author explains that…So, we can conclude that….Turn in summary as an exit ticket.

    Closure

    Time: 5 minutes

     

    Teacher DoesStudents Do:
    Ask class to recall the steps for reading and text marking.  Chart student answers in the correct order.  Put the chart on the wall as an anchor chart.    Raise hands and call out the 7 steps
    1. Preview vocabulary
    2. Essential question
    3. Number paragraphs
    4. Read in chunks
    5. Mark the text
    6. Talk about what you marked
    7. Write a summary

     

    ASSESSMENTS

    Formative Assessment

    Language:

    Students will produce different iterations that serve as formative assessments:  teacher led, group led, independent.  Teachers should look for evidence of student comprehension in the

    • text marking,
    • by listening in on the structured interviews,
    • and in the written summaries.  

    Plans for Summative Assessments

    Language:

    Once students have mastered the procedure for text marking, teachers should be able to use it as a summative assessment with a new text and new focus question.  

    EXTENSIONS

     Ideas for Key Assignments, Extensions

    1. Change the level, length, and complexity of the text for more proficient students.  
    2. Students record their structured interviews.  
    3. Students do a  less structured interview that focuses on interpersonal communication goals.  
    4. Change the complexity of the focus question.  
    5. Give high level readers a job to monitor or check other students´ text marking.  
    6. Change the writing task along with the focus question to meet other language functions:  compare contrast, classify or sequence, rather than summarize