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Apoptotic mimicry as a strategy for the establishment of parasitic infections
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Parasitic infections affect nearly 1 in 6 people worldwide. These infections thrive when parasites are able to evade, inhibit, or disrupt host defense mechanisms. One way parasites avoid the immune response is to disguise themselves as dying host cells. Normal host cells undergoing apoptosis expose a molecule called phosphatidylserine (PS) on the plasma membrane as a signal to surrounding cells. This signal is detected by phagocytic immune cells, which engulf the dying cell and reduce inflammation. The system is co-opted by parasites, who use PS as a Trojan horse to enter phagocytic immune cells, infecting the host. This process, known as “apoptotic mimicry, ”takes several forms. Classical apoptotic mimicry - where the PS comes from the challenger - is used by the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis, and toxoplasmosis; while non-classical apoptotic mimicry, which co-opts PS exposed by dying host cells, is used by the parasites that cause malaria and amebiasis..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/29/2020
Biology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
08/22/2012
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Immune System, Adaptive Immune Response
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain adaptive immunityCompare and contrast adaptive and innate immunityDescribe cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune responseDescribe immune tolerance

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
07/10/2017
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Immune System, Innate Immune Response
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe physical and chemical immune barriersExplain immediate and induced innate immune responsesDiscuss natural killer cellsDescribe major histocompatibility class I moleculesSummarize how the proteins in a complement system function to destroy extracellular pathogens

Subject:
Applied Science
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
07/10/2017
Challenges in exploring and manipulating the human skin microbiome
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The skin is the interface between the human body and the environment, and the different features in distinct skin regions, such as different temperatures, humidity levels, gland densities, and pH values, create a variety of niches that can support a diverse skin microbiome. This microbiome includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and even mites. A healthy skin microbiome helps maintain skin homeostasis, protects against pathogens, communicates with and trains the immune system, and affects wound healing. However, the skin microbiome can be influenced by many factors, including intrinsic factors like aging and extrinsic factors like cosmetic. Recent advances in molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing have drastically increased our understanding of the microorganisms that live on our skin, but the microbes are often still difficult to culture and study..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/14/2021
Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health (BE.104J)
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical methods; evaluation of human exposure to chemicals, and their internal distribution, metabolism, reactions with cellular components, and biological effects; and qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment methods used in the U.S. as bases for regulatory decision-making. Throughout the term, students consider case studies of local and national interest.

Subject:
Applied Science
Environmental Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
James Sherley
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Circadian dynamics of the teleost skin immune system–microbiome interface
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The immune systems of fish and other animals follow circadian rhythms related to light/dark cycles. In aquaculture, the light period is commonly lengthened to enhance growth and control reproduction, but the effects on fish immunity are unclear and parasite infestations and infectious diseases remain major challenges to the industry, so a better understanding of fish immunity is needed. Microbial communities living on fish's skin - their microbiome - can help defend against parasites and pathogens, but it is currently unknown if they too have daily rhythms. To learn more, researchers recently characterized the circadian dynamics of clock genes, immune genes, and microbes in the skin of rainbow trout. They found that skin immune gene expression and the skin microbiome exhibited daily rhythms. These rhythms were affected by both a change in photoperiod and infestation with lice (Argulus foliaceus), and fish under constant light were less able to defend themselves against lice infestation..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
03/01/2022
Complement
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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Complement is so called because it complements the function of antibody. It is a triggered enzyme cascade and there are more than 20 different proteins in the complement cascades, with most being enzymes or pro-enzymes. It can be activated by both the innate and adaptive immune systems and is one of the main innate protective mechanisms of invertebrates. Due to its destructive potential the complement system is heavily regulated but when activated it works largely by forming pore complexes as well as triggering acute inflammation and by promoting phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Date Added:
02/11/2015
Covariate-adjusted kernel RV: A new, more powerful GWAS approach for microbiome research
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Genetics can affect many aspects of human health, in part by influencing the composition of the gut microbiome. The associations between genetic variants and individual microbial taxa are often investigated with genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, typical GWASs have low statistical power, because they require extensive multiple testing and can’t account for inherent data structure. To help solve this problem, researchers recently developed a new approach: a covariate-adjusted kernel RV (KRV) framework. This framework compares pairwise similarity in genetic profiles to pairwise similarity in microbial profiles therefore reducing the multiple testing burden without obscuring the data structure. In simulation studies, the KRV framework had greater statistical power than other microbiome GWAS approaches in a range of scenarios..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/24/2023
Digging into the factors that inspire animals to eat soil
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"It might not be your first choice for a meal, but many mammals appear to find earth an appetizing addition to their diet Known as geophagy, scientists still aren’t sure what causes the surprisingly common urge to eat soil or clay To understand soil eating and its causes, researchers reviewed every documented case of soil eating in monkeys and apes They identified cases of soil eating in 136 species – over half of all monkeys and apes found around the globe – suggesting the behavior is more common than previously thought Evidence from the 287 articles reviewed also suggests that geophagy is a form of self-medication Geophagy may provide protection against disease-causing pathogens and supplement essential nutrients Although more research is needed, the work lays a foundation for future investigations into the causes and health impacts of geophagy The findings could also reveal new ways to promote the health of both wild and captive primate populations Pebsworth PA, et al..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Anthropology
Social Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/20/2019
Double Immunity
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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Dr. Stephen O'Brien of the National Cancer Institute discovers a 700-year-old mutation that makes a person resistant to HIV infection. From Evolution: "Evolutionary Arms Race."

Subject:
Anthropology
Life Science
Social Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
PBS LearningMedia
Provider Set:
PBS Learning Media: Multimedia Resources for the Classroom and Professional Development
Author:
Clear Blue Sky Productions
National Science Foundation
WGBH Educational Foundation
Date Added:
09/26/2003
Effects of Kefir on Behavior, Immunity, and the Gut Microbiome in Mice
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"We already know that eating good food makes our bodies feel good, but what we eat can also affect our brains. Microbiota that reside in our guts influence behavior through a mechanism called the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Certain foods – including prebiotic, probiotic, and fermented foods – have received attention for their mood-boosting benefits. Now, a new study adds another food to that list. Kefir, a fermented food produced from a combination of live bacteria and yeasts, is known to affect the gut microbiota, but whether it affects the microbiota-brain axis and behavior is unclear. Researchers fed mice two different types of kefir and examined their behavior and their gut microbes. They found that feeding kefir reduced stress-induced hormone signaling and reward-seeking and repetitive behaviors in the mice. Different kefirs affected different types of behaviors and changed the abundance of specific bacterial species in the gut..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/29/2020
Endosymbionts and the host immune system: how do cereal weevils protect their resident bacteria?
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The symbiotic microbial community that many animals have floating freely in their gut is critical to their health and well-being. But some insects, like cereal weevils, take this a step further and host bacteria inside their own cells. These endosymbiotic bacteria reside in massive, specialized cells organized in an organ called the bacteriome. Previous studies have suggested that the cereal weevil bacteriome participates in immune responses. But how, or if, the bacteriome protects its resident bacteria from that immune activity remains unclear. To answer this, researchers activated the cereal weevil innate immune system with pathogen protein fragments and examined the gene expression changes in the bacteriome and its residents. Rather than differentiate between pathogens and symbionts, the cereal weevils protected their endosymbionts with physical separation..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
04/14/2023
Fighting Back! (Lesson)
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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This lesson describes the major components and functions of the immune system and the role of engineers in keeping the body healthy (e.g., vaccinations and antibiotics, among other things). This lesson also discusses how an astronaut's immune system is suppressed during spaceflight due to stress and other environmental factors.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Applied Science
Engineering
Life Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Denali Lander
Janet Yowell
Malinda Schaefer Zarske
Teresa Ellis
Date Added:
09/18/2014