Author:
Mark Freed
Subject:
Mathematics
Material Type:
Student Guide
Level:
Lower Primary
Tags:
License:
Creative Commons Attribution
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Text/HTML

Education Standards

OREGON MATH STANDARDS (2021): [K.OA]

OREGON MATH STANDARDS (2021): [K.OA]

Overview

The intent of clarifying statements is to provide additional guidance for educators to communicate the intent of the standard to support the future development of curricular resources and assessments aligned to the 2021 math standards. 

Clarifying statements can be in the form of succinct sentences or paragraphs that attend to one of four types of clarifications: (1) Student Experiences; (2) Examples; (3) Boundaries; and (4) Connection to Math Practices.

Oregon Math Guidance: K.OA.A.1

ODE and Oregon Math Project Logo

Cluster: K.OA.A - Understand addition and subtraction.

STANDARD: K.OA.A.1

 Standards Statement (2021):

Represent addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from using objects, drawings, physical expressions, numbers or equations.

  Connections:

Preceding Pathway Content (2021)

Subsequent Pathway Content (2021)

Cross Domain Connections (2021)

Common Core (CCSS)

(2010)

 N/A

K.OA.A.2, 1.OA.A.1

K.NCC.A.1

K.OA.A.1

K.OA.A Crosswalk

 Standards Guidance:

Clarifications

  • Practices combining, separating, and naming quantities.
  • Uses simple strategies to solve mathematical problems and communicates how he/she solved it.
  • Students should be able to represent real-life problems involving the addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 10 with objects and drawings.

Terminology

  • Physical expressions can include, but not limited to, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, or other types of physical movement.
  • Pictorial drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem.

Boundaries

  • Exposure to equations is expected but mastery of equations is not required.
  • Drawings do not need to show details but should show the mathematics in the problem.
  • Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required. However, please note that it is not until First Grade when “Understand the meaning of the equal sign” is an expectation.

Teaching Strategies

  • Representations may include objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, expressions, or equations.
  • Student drawings should show the mathematics of the solution from the given context. Equations should be derived from contexts.

Progressions

  • Students may bring from home different ways to show numbers with their fingers and to raise (or lower) them when counting. The three major ways used around the world are starting with the thumb, the little finger, or the pointing finger (ending with the thumb in the latter two cases). Each way has advantages physically or mathematically, so students can use whatever is familiar to them. (Please reference page 8 in the Progression document)

Examples

  • Representation can include objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds, acting out, verbal explanations, expressions or equations.  An example of representational sounds can be clapping.

Illustrative Mathematics:[Ten Frame Addition] [Dice Addition 2]

Oregon Math Guidance: K.OA.A.2

ODE and Oregon Math Project Logo

STANDARD: K.OA.A.2

 Standards Statement (2021):

Represent addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from using objects, drawings, physical expressions, numbers or equations.

  Connections:

 

Preceding Pathway Content (2021)

Subsequent Pathway Content (2021)

Cross Domain Connections (2021)

Common Core (CCSS)

(2010)

K.OA.A.1

K.OA.A.3, 1.OA.A.1, 1.OA.B.3, 1.OA.B.4, 1.OA.C.6

 N/A

K.OA.A.2

K.OA.A Crosswalk

 Standards Guidance:

Clarifications

  • Use addition and subtraction within 10 to solve and represent problems in authentic contexts involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, and taking apart.
  • Practices combining, separating, and naming quantities.
  • Uses simple strategies to solve mathematical problems and communicates how he/she solved it.

Terminology

  • Students should be provided with a variety of problem types including Join: Result Unknown, Separate: Result Unknown, and Part-Part-Whole: Whole Unknown; however, students are not required to know or use this terminology.
    • Join: Result Unknown
      • Example:  3 birds were sitting in a tree and 2 more birds flew onto the tree.  How many birds were in the tree then?
    • Separate: Result Unknown
      • Example:  Toni had 8 guppies.  She gave 3 guppies to Roger.  How many guppies does Toni have now?
    • Part-Part-Whole: Whole Unknown
      • Example:  6 girls and 4 boys were playing soccer. How many children were playing soccer?

Boundaries

  • Exposure to equations is expected but mastery of equations is not required in Kindergarten.

Teaching Strategies

  • Use objects and drawings to represent the word problem.  In order to solve word problems within 10, use numbers 0-9
  • Students should be able to solve real-life problems involving the addition and subtraction of single-digit whole numbers, using a variety of strategies such as:
    • counting on
    • counting backward
    • making 10

Examples

Oregon Math Guidance: K.OA.A.3

 ODE and Oregon Math Project Logo

STANDARD: K.OA.A.3

 Standards Statement (2021):

Using objects or drawings, and equations, decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way.

  Connections:

Preceding Pathway Content (2021)

Subsequent Pathway Content (2021)

Cross Domain Connections (2021)

Common Core (CCSS)

(2010)

K.OA.A.2

K.OA.A.4, K.OA.A.5,  1.OA.C.6

K.NBT.A.1, K.NCC.A.1

K.OA.A.3

K.OA.A Crosswalk

 Standards Guidance:

Clarifications

  • Students practice combining, separating, and naming quantities.

Terminology

  • Decomposition is the process of breaking apart a number into a variety of parts that all equal the same whole. Example 9 = 6 +3; 9 = 5 + 4 both equations equal 9.
  • The terms below are used to clarify expectations for the teaching professional.  Students are not required to use this terminology when engaging with the learning objective.
    • Compose – put together numbers
    • Decompose – break apart numbers

Teaching Strategies

  • Use objects or drawings to decompose numbers in at least two different ways. Record each decomposition with a drawing, number bond, or equation.
  • Teachers should use dot card images for students to explain how they see different number combinations.

Examples

 

Oregon Math Guidance: K.OA.A.4

ODE and Oregon Math Project Logo

STANDARD: K.OA.A.4

 Standards Statement (2021):

By using objects, drawings, or equations, find the unknown number that makes 10 when added to a given number from 1 - 9.

  Connections:

Preceding Pathway Content (2021)

Subsequent Pathway Content (2021)

Cross Domain Connections (2021)

Common Core (CCSS)

(2010)

K.OA.A.3

1.OA.C.6

 N/A

K.OA.A.4

K.OA.A Crosswalk

 Standards Guidance:

Clarifications

  • This standard builds upon the understanding that a number can be decomposed into parts. (K.OA.A.3).
  • Once students have had experiences breaking apart ten into various combinations, this asks students to find a missing part of 10.

Examples

  • A full case of juice boxes has 10 boxes. There are only 6 boxes in this case. How many juice boxes are missing?
  • Student Achievement Partners:

 

 

Oregon Math Guidance: K.OA.A.5

ODE and Oregon Math Project Logo

STANDARD: K.OA.A.5

 SStandards Statement (2021):

Fluently add and subtract within 5 with accurate, efficient, and flexible strategies.

  Connections:

Preceding Pathway Content (2021)

Subsequent Pathway Content (2021)

Cross Domain Connections (2021)

Common Core (CCSS)

(2010)

K.OA.A.3

1.OA.C.6

 N/A

K.OA.A.5

K.OA.A Crosswalk

 Standards Guidance:

Clarifications

  • Uses simple strategies to solve mathematical problems and communicates how he/she solved it.
  • Students should be able to solve real-life problems involving the addition and subtraction of numbers within five.

Terminology

  • The terms below are used to clarify expectations for the teaching professional.  Students are not required to use this terminology when engaging with the learning objective.
    • Fluently/Fluency -- To achieve fluency, students should be able to choose flexibly among methods and strategies to solve mathematical problems accurately and efficiently.

Boundaries

  • Fluency does not lend itself to timed tests or speed.
  • Exposure to equations is expected but mastery of equations is not required.

Progressions

  • Experience with decompositions of numbers and with Add To and Take From situations enables students to begin to fluently add and subtract within 5. (Please reference page 11 in the Progression document)

Examples

  • Record the sum or difference with a drawing oral response, visual cue or equation. Can use an oral response to a verbal or visual cue to demonstrate fluency.
  • When making toothpick designs to represent the various combinations of the number “5”, the student writes the numerals for the various parts (such as “4” and “1”) or selects a number sentence that represents that particular situation (such as 5 = 4 + 1).
  • Illustrative Mathematics:
  • Student Achievement Partners: