A collage of three color photographs is shown. From left to right appear a person in front of a laptop computer sitting outdoors, a person sitting on the floor with a laptop, and a person sitting on the couch with a small child and a laptop.
What does an office look like? For people who telecommute, their workspace may be adapted to fit their lifestyle. (credit: “left”: modification of work by Cory Zanker; credit “center”: modification of work by “@Saigon”/Flickr; credit “right”: modification of work by Daniel Lobo)

In July 2012, Yahoo!, one of the largest and oldest web companies, announced the appointment of Marissa Mayer as CEO. Yahoo! had struggled to define itself and excel in the industry for several years, and the appointment of Mayer, a top Google executive, made big news. Among her many decisions, in February 2013, Mayer announced that employees would no longer be allowed to telecommute. Telecommuting is representative of many management innovations that have been made in recent years, largely by tech companies. Telecommuting reflects a belief on the part of companies that employees are responsible, self-motivating, and perhaps work best when they are left alone. It also has an impact on work–family balance, though which way is yet unclear. And telecommuting reflects the more general trend of increasing overlap between workers’ time spent on the job and time spent off the job.

The reversal of this policy at Yahoo! brought controversy and a lot of questions about what it meant. Mayer has stayed largely quiet on her reasoning behind the decision, except to say that it was meant to better the company. She finally addressed her decision briefly at the 2013 Great Place to Work conference (Tkaczyk, 2013) by saying, among other things, that while “people are more productive when they're alone, they're more collaborative and innovative when they're together.” Interestingly, shortly after the Yahoo! change, consumer electronics retailer Best Buy also eliminated telecommuting as an option for their employees. Will the change make Yahoo! more innovative or more productive? How has the change affected employees at the company, particularly working parents and those taking care of elderly relatives? Was the change introduced in the most effective way? These are questions that are commonly studied by a branch of psychology called industrial and organizational psychology.


ABC News. (2000, September 8). Court OKs barring high IQs for Cops. Retreived from

Agerström, J., & Rooth, D.-O. (2011). The role of automatic obesity stereotypes in real hiring discrimination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 790–805.

Allen, T. D., Eby, L. T., Poteet, M. L., Lentz, E., & Lima, L. (2004). Career benefits associated with mentoring for protégés: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 127–136.

Allen, T. D., Lentz, E., & Day, R. (2006). Career success outcomes associated with mentoring others: A comparison of mentors and nonmentors. Journal of Career Development, 32, 272–285.

American Civil Liberties Union. (n.d.). Non-Discrimination Laws: State by State Information—Map. Retrieved from

American National Standards Institute. (2000). Control center ergonomic standards. Retrieved from

Amiot, C. E., Terry, D. J., Jimmieson, N. L., & Callan, V. J. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of coping processes during a merger: Implications for job satisfaction and organizational identification. Journal of Management, 32, 552–574.

Arthur, W., Bennett, W., Edens, P. S., & Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 234–245.

Arthur, W., Woehr, D. J., & Graziano, W. G. (2001). Personality testing in employment settings: Problems and issues in the application of typical selection practices. Personnel Review, 30, 657–676.

Atkins, P. W. B., & Wood, R. E. (2002). Self-versus others’ ratings as predictors of assessment center ratings: Validation evidence for 360-degree feedback programs. Personnel Psychology, 55, 871–904.

Badgett, M. V. L., Sears, B., Lau, H., & Ho, D. (2009). Bias in the workplace: Consistent evidence of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination 1998–2008. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 84, 559–595.

Barrick, M. R., Swider, B. W., & Stewart, G. L. (2010). Initial evaluations in the interview: Relationships with subsequent interviewer evaluations and employment offers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 1163–1172.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., & Atwater, L. (1996). The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45, 5–34.

Bruno, T., & Abrahão, J. (2012). False alarms and incorrect rejections in an information security center: Correlation with the frequency of incidents. Work, 41, 2902–2907.

Buckingham, M., & Clifton, D. O. (2001). Now, discover your strengths. New York, NY: Free Press.

Bureau of Labor Statistics—U.S. Department of Labor. (2013). American Time Use Survey—2013 Results [Press release: USDL-14-1137]. Available at

Bye, H. H., Horverak, J. G., Sandal, G. M., Sam, D. L., & Vijver, F. J. R. van de (2014). Cultural fit and ethnic background in the job interview. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14, 7–26.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Williams, L. J. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work–family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 249–276.

Colligan, T. W., & Higgins, E. M. (2005). Workplace stress: Etiology and consequences. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 21, 89–97.

Corbett, C., & Hill, C. (2012) Graduating to a pay gap: The earnings of women and men one year after college graduation. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.

DeGroot, T., & Gooty, J. (2009). Can nonverbal cues be used to make meaningful personality attributions in employment interviews? Journal of Business Psychology, 24, 179–192.

DeNisi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. (2000). Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, 14, 129–139.

Dierdorff, E. C., & Wilson, M. A. (2003). A meta-analysis of job analysis reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 635–646.

Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 569–591.

Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233–256.

Eby, L. T., Allen, T. D., Evans, S. C., Ng, T., & DuBois, D. (2008). Does mentoring matter? A multidisciplinary meta-analysis comparing mentored and non-mentored individuals. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 254–267.

Eby, L. T., Durley, J. R., Evans, S. C., & Ragins, B. R. (2006). The relationship between short-term mentoring benefits and long-term mentor outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 424–444.

Elmore, L. (2010, June). The workplace generation gaps. Women in Business, 62(2), 8–11.

Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 473–487.

Gentry, W. A., Weber, T. J., & Sadri, G. (2008). Examining career-related mentoring and managerial performance across cultures: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 241–253.

Gibson, J. W., Greenwood, R. A., & Murphy, E. F. (2009). Generational differences in the workplace: Personal values, behaviors, and popular beliefs. Journal of Diversity Management, 4, 1–7.

Gilbreth, L. M. (1914). The psychology of management: The function of the mind in determining, teaching, and installing methods of least waste. New York, NY: Sturgis and Walton.

Gilbreth, L. M. (1998). As I remember: An autobiography of Lillian Gilbreth. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Gilmore, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (1989). The effects of applicant impression management tactics on interviewer judgments. Journal of Management,15, 557–564.

Greenberg, J. (1993). Stealing in the name of justice: Informational and interpersonal moderators of theft reactions to underpayment inequity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 54, 81–103.

Greenberg, L., & Barling, J. (1999). Predicting employee agression against coworkers, subordinates and supervisors: The roles of person behaviors and perceived workplace factors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 897–913.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76–88.

Gyllensten, K., & Palmer, S. (2005). The role of gender in workplace stress: A critical literature review. Health Education Journal, 64, 271–288.

Hoogendoorn, S., Oosterbeek, H., & van Praag, M. (2013). The impact of gender diversity on the performance of business teams: Evidence from a field experiment. Management Science, 59, 1514–1528.

Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E., & Coats, G. (2003). The effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology, 56, 431–462.

Howard, J. L., & Ferris, G. R. (1996). The employment interview context: Social and situational influences on interviewer decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 112–136.

Howell, W. C. (2003). Human factors and ergonomics. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, R. J. Limoski, & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 12: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 565–593). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Human Rights Campaign. (2013a). Cities and counties with non-discrimination ordinances that include gender identity. Retrieved from

Human Rights Campaign. (2013b). Corporate equality index 2014: Rating American workplaces on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality. Retrieved from

Jordan v. New London, No. 99-9188, 2000 U.S. App. LEXIS 22195 (2d Cir. 2000) (unpublished). Retrieved from

Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012). Job attitudes. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 63, 341–367.

Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., Podsakoff, N. P., Shaw, J. C., & Rich, B. (2010). The relationship between pay and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 157–167.

Judge, T. A., & Watanabe, S. (1993). Another look at the job satisfaction–life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 939–948.

Kaiser, R. B., & Overfield, D. V. (2011). Strengths, strengths overused, and lopsided leadership. Consulting Psychology, 63, 89–109.

Katzell, R. A., & Austin, J. T. (1992). From then to now: The development of industrial–organizational psychology in the United States. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 803–835.

Khanna, C., Medsker, G. J., & Ginter, R. (2012). 2012 income and employment survey results for the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Retrieved from

Koppes, L. L. (1997). American female pioneers of industrial and organizational psychology during the early years. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 500–515.

Lancaster, J. (2004). Making time: Lillian Moller Gilbreth—A life beyond “Cheaper by the Dozen.” Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

Lapierre, L. M., & Allen, T. D. (2006). Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: Implications for work–family conflict and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 169–181.

Larson, C., & LaFasto, F. (1989). Teamwork: What must go right / What can go wrong. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Levine, S. P., & Feldman, R. S. (2002). Women and men’s nonverbal behavior and self-monitoring in a job interview setting. Applied Human Resources Management Research, 7, 1–14.

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created “social climates.” Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271–301.

Liden, R. C., Martin, C. L., & Parsons, C. K. (1993). Interviewer and applicant behaviors in employment interviews. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 373–386.

Lips, H. (2013). The gender pay gap: Challenging the rationalizations. Perceived equity, discrimination, and the limits of human capital models. Sex Roles, 68, 169–185.

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Manley, K. (2009). The BFOQ defense: Title VII’s concession to gender discrimination. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 16, 169–210.

McCarney, R., Warner, J., Iliffe, S., van Haselen, R., Griffin, M., & Fisher, P. (2007). The Hawthorne effect: A randomised, controlled trial. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 7, 30.

McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Maurer, S. D. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 599–616.

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

McKeen, C., & Bujaki, M. (2007). Gender and mentoring. In B. R. Ragins & K. E. Kram (Eds.), The handbook of mentoring at work: Theory, research and practice (pp. 197–222). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McMillan, S. K., Stevens, S., & Kelloway, E. K. (2009). History and development of industrial/organizational psychology in the Canadian forces personnel selection branch: 1938–2009. Canadian Psychology, 50, 283–291.

Meister, J. C., & Willyerd, K. (2010, May). Mentoring millennials. Harvard Business Review, 1–4.

Münsterberg, H. (1913). Psychology and industrial efficiency. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Myers, K. K., & Sadaghiani, K. (2010). Millennials in the workplace: A communication pespective on millennials organizational relationships and performance. Journal of Business Psychology, 25, 225–238.

Naquin, C., & Tynan, R. (2003). The team halo effect: Why teams are not blamed for their failures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 332–340.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2014). Workplace violence. Retrieved from United States Department of Labor website:

O'Keefe, J., & Bruyere, S. (1994). Implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act for psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Tamkins, M. M. (2003). Organizational culture and climate. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, R. J. Klimoski, & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 12: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 145–158). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751–783.

Posig, M., & Kickul, J. (2004). Work-role expectation and work family conflict: Gender differences in emotional exhaustion. Women in Management Review, 19, 373–386.

Powell, A., Piccoli, G., & Ives, B. (2004). Virtual teams: A review of current literature and directions for future research. The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, 35, 6–36.

Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L. (1999). Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 529–550.

Rakić, T., Steffens, M. C., & Mummendey, A. (2011). When it matters how you pronounce it: The influence of regional accents on job interview outcome. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 868–883.

Riley, M., Elgin, B., Lawrence, D., & Matlack, C. (2014, March 13). Missed alarms and 40 million stolen credit card numbers: How Target blew it. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from

Roethlisberg, F., & Dickson, W. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Saad, L. (2012). U.S. workers least happy with their work stress and pay: Satisfaction is highest for safety conditions and relations with coworkers. Retrieved from Gallup Economy website:

Saari, L. M., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resouce Management, 43, 395–407.

Schraeder, M., Becton, J. B., & Portis, R. (2007). A critical examination of performance appraisals: An organization’s friend or foe? The Journal for Quality and Participation, 30, 20–25.

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). (2014). What value does SIOP membership provide? Retrieved from

Taylor, F. W. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.

Tkaczyk, C. (2013, April 19). Marissa Mayer breaks her silence on Yahoo's telecommuting policy. Fortune. Retrieved from

The New York Times. (1999, Sept. 9). Metro news briefs: Connecticut—Judge rules that police can bar high IQ scores. Retrieved from

Tornow, W. W. (1993a). Editor’s note: Introduction to special issue on 360-degree feedback. Human Resource Management, 32, 211–219.

Tornow, W. W. (1993b). Perceptions or reality: Is multi-perspective measurement a means or an end? Human Resource Management, 32, 221–229.

Toyota Motor Manufacturing. (2013). Toyota production system terms. Retrieved from

Ugboro, I. O. (2006). Organizational commitment, job redesign, employee empowerment and intent to quit among survivors of restructuring and downsizing. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 7, 232–257.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2013). Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island accident. Retrieved from

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2014). EEOC charge receipts by state (includes U.S. territories) and basis for 2013. Retrieved from

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Facts about sexual harassment. Retrieved from

Van De Water, T. (1997). Psychology's entrepreneurs and the marketing of industrial psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 486–499.

van Knippenberg, D., van Knippenberg, B., Monden, L., & de Lima, F. (2002). Organizational identification after a merger: A social identity perspective. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 233–252.

Vinchur, A. J., & Koppes, L. L. (2014). Early contributors to the science and practice of industrial psychology. In L. L. Koppes, (Ed.), Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 37–58). Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resouces Management Review, 12, 173–194.