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Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
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Level:
Middle School
Tags:
  • Iowa K-12-E-Curriculum
  • PBL
  • Project Based Learning
  • Social Studies
  • Washington
  • Washington State History
  • iowa-k-12-e-curriculum
  • pbl
  • project-based-learning
  • social-studies
  • wa-sel
  • wa-social-studies
  • washington
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    Education Standards

    Decisions That Define Us

    Decisions That Define Us

    Overview

    Students learn about the controversial history of a mural in Anacortes, WA, and consider what it would take to create a more inclusive and accurate mural in Anacortes today. Then students learn about the tribes, immigrants, and settlers in the region where they live and how their stories are represented in local murals in public spaces. Students draw on what they have learned to respond to the unit driving question: What decisions and whose stories define Washington state? Then, drawing on local resources such as tribal members, historical societies, and museums, students work in teams to propose a new mural that tells an inclusive story of the people and place where they live.

    Educator Welcome

    Dear Educator,

    We understand the joy every teacher experiences when they discover what lights up a student, and how that breakthrough can make way for a powerful shift in student learning. We’re thrilled to partner with you in bringing project-based learning (PBL) to your classroom, and we think you’ll love these lessons, which were created in collaboration with educators, learning scientists, and experts in the field.   

    Whether this is your first voyage into PBL or you’re a seasoned pro, we’re sure you’ll agree that this approach sparks interest, ignites possibility, fuels a love for learning in students, and brings wonder to the classroom.

    We believe Open Educational Resources (OER) promote equitable access to standards-aligned, high-quality instructional materials for all educators to adapt and use. Contact us at info@educurious.org to learn more about how Educurious can support district or school adoption of this curriculum and the development of PBL teaching practices. Explore Educurious.org to discover other PBL courses and order printed materials.

     

    As you join your students on this learning journey, we’d love to hear from you. We want to experience your students’ curiosity, celebrate their projects, and hear about your successes, as well as what we can do better. Click here to share your thoughts. Thank you for taking us along on your adventure. 

    Onward!

    Your friends at Educurious

    Acknowledgements

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Educurious would like to express sincere gratitude to our partners from the Issaquah School District, Mercer Island School District, Riverview School District, and Tahoma School District for contributing their expertise, insights, and energy. Their collaboration was instrumental in the co-design of this project-based learning Washington State History unit.

    A special thank you to Linda Henderson at Issaquah School District, Mark Klune at Riverview School District, Fred Rundle at Mercer Island School District, and Bridget Vannice at Tahoma School District for their leadership and support throughout this project.

     

    Design Teachers and Districts:

    • Matthew LaBrie, Riverview School District, WA
    • Cynthia Moore, Issaquah School District, WA
    • Melissa Morse, Issaquah School District, WA
    • Kathy Shaner, Mercer Island School District, WA
    • Krystal Shook, Tahoma School District, WA

     

    The Educurious Team:

    Unit Development Team:

    • Writer: Nathanie Lee
    • Educurious Reviewers: Chris Carter, Sara Nachtigal
    • Editor: Kristina Hawley

    Production Team:

    • Erik Robinson, Haewon Baik

    Project Manager:

    • Haewon Baik

    Educurious Leadership:

    • Jane Chadsey, CEO

    Unit Poster Image Credits:

    • Poster created by Educurious with Canva

    License & Attribution

    Except where otherwise noted, Decisions that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. You are free to share this material (by copying and redistributing it in any medium or format) and adapt it (by remixing, transforming, or building upon it). However, you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate whether changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your adaptation. You may not use this material, or any adaptation of it, for commercial purposes. Please take care that adaptations do not introduce cultural bias.

     

    All logos and trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All art, illustrations, and photos in this work are used with permission and are not included in the open license. This resource contains links to websites operated by third parties. These links are provided for your convenience only, and do not constitute or imply any endorsement or monitoring by Educurious. Please confirm the license status of any third-party resources and ensure that you understand their terms before use.

     

    If you adapt this work, please note the substantive changes, retitle the work, and provide the following attribution: “This resource was adapted from Decisions that Define Us, which was produced and published by Educurious in 2022 and is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 1: The People Who Came Before Us

     

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 1: The People Who Came Before Us

    Decisions That Define Us

     

    Module Overview

    In this module, students are introduced to murals as a form of public art that can be used to represent the lived perspectives of people who shaped the region where they live. In Lesson 1, students work together to create a class mural that helps share and represent their collective identity. In Lessons 2–4, students draw on articles and websites of local museums and tribes. Along the way, students work together to read and research, then use what they have learned to identify how they will represent different groups of people in their mural proposal. This ebb and flow of research and application deepens student learning in their local context. Then, in Lesson 5, students create first drafts of their mural designs and share them with their team for feedback. Finally, students reflect on what they have learned and what they still need to know. This reflection and inquiry will serve as a bridge to the next module, in which students continue to explore multiple perspectives in order to advance their research and improve their mural designs.

    Lesson 1.1: Exploring Our Collective Identities (60 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Share my story with my peers to help build a sense of community.
    • Make observations and ask questions when analyzing and interpreting murals in public spaces.
    • Consider other perspectives and practice active listening when working with others.
    In this lesson, students work together to create a class mural that reflects their individual identity and the collective identity of their class. Then they meet their project team for this unit and work together to conduct a primary source analysis of a mural in a post office in Anacortes, WA. By creating a class mural and studying a mural in a public space, they begin to understand how representing a story through art can be insightful, challenging, and even controversial. Finally, they work as a class to create a chart to help them think about what they already know and need to know about the history of Washington and using multiple perspectives to design an original mural.
    Lesson 1.2: Tribes in Washington (95 minutes – 2 days)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify the regions where Indigenous tribes lived and continue to live in Washington.
    • Read and research to build historical context and spark inquiry into the cultures and legacies of tribes in the region where I live.
    • Work collaboratively with my team to represent local and regional tribes in our mural proposal.
    In this lesson, students learn how tribes have shaped the story of Washington. They watch a video to help them develop an empathetic lexicon to use in their research and discussions on tribes in Washington. Students then analyze secondary sources for information on the geography of regions where Indigenous peoples lived and continue to live, and learn about the importance of sense of place in their lives and culture. They then research the tribes in the region where they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and begin adding to their mural proposal.
    Lesson 1.3: Early Settlers in Washington (90 minutes – 2 days)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify early settlers in the state and their motivations for settling in the Pacific Northwest.
    • Read and research to build historical context and spark inquiry into the lives and legacies of early settlers in the region where I live.
    • Work collaboratively with my team to update our mural proposal.
    In this lesson, students learn how the experiences of early settlers shaped Washington. They analyze primary and secondary sources (maps, images, video, and text) for key facts and details about the different people who settled in the state, why they did so, and how they experienced work and life. Then, students research the early settlers who shaped the region in which they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and update their mural proposal.
    Lesson 1.4: Immigrants in Washington (105 minutes – 2 days)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Identify the people who immigrated to Washington and the cultures and traditions they brought with them.
    • Read and research to build historical context to spark inquiry about the culture and legacies of immigrants in the region where I live.
    • Work collaboratively with my team to update our mural proposal.
    In this lesson, students learn about the immigrants who make up 13.7% of the population in Washington, why they immigrated here, and where they settled and established communities. They watch a video and read an article to gather information, then ask questions about the crucial role that immigrants played in Washington’s history and continue to play in its future. Students research immigrants and immigrant communities which shaped the region in which they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and update their mural proposal.
    Lesson 1.5 Designing Your Mural – The First Draft (85 minutes)

    Learning Targets: 

    I can:

    • Explore artifacts to learn about how they are tied to a person’s identity and story.
    • Use my research notes and the project rubric to design a first draft of my team’s mural.
    In this lesson, students connect their Story Squares and their class mural with the work they will do for their final product. Project teams engage in a virtual exploration of artifacts to understand how people use them to tell a story about their identities. Then, they view examples of how public art can be used to share important community issues. Students reflect on how to connect the themes of values and motivations, sense of place, and artifacts to the stories of the people in their community, then design the first draft of their mural to share with your team. Finally, they revisit the Know & Need to Know chart to assess their knowledge and progress toward proposing a mural that tells a more inclusive story of the people and history in the region where they live.
    Module Assessments (C3 Framework dimensions)
    LessonDeveloping Questions and Planning InquiriesApplying Disciplinary Tools and ConceptsEvaluating Sources and Using EvidenceCommunicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action
    1.1Know & Need to Know chartStory Square  
    1.2Know & Need to Know chartTribes in Washington Notes Organizer, Mural Research Notes OrganizerMural Proposal
    1.3Know & Need to Know chartMotivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer,Mural Research Notes OrganizerMural Proposal
    1.4Know & Need to Know chartImmigrants in Washington Notes Organizer, Mural Research Notes OrganizerMural Proposal
    1.5Know & Need to Know chartArtifact Exploration OrganizerMural Proposal
    Vocabulary
    • artifact: anything made, used, or modified by humans
    • cede: to give up or surrender to another 
    • cultural heritage: the legacy of a group, including its language, works of art, traditions, knowledge, buildings, and more
    • curator: a person who takes care of artifacts, art, a museum, or an art gallery
    • homeland: the place where someone is born and raised
    • immemorial: a time before we remember or when records were kept
    • immigration: the act of a person/family relocating to another country with the intention of settling
    • Indigenous people: the first people who lived in a region and did not immigrate
    • industry: a group of businesses that make or sell products (such as the lumber industry)
    • migration: the movement of a group of people or animals from one region to another
    • mural: a large painting, usually done on a wall or ceiling
    • prejudice: a liking or dislike for another person without a good reason
    • sovereignty: power of authority of a tribal nation to govern itself
    • treaty: an agreement that involves a country and Indigenous people

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 1.1: Exploring Our Collective Identities

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    Who influenced the history and development of Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Share my story with my peers to help build a sense of community.
    • Make observations and ask questions when analyzing and interpreting murals in public spaces.
    • Consider other perspectives and practice active listening when working with others.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will work together to create a class mural that reflects your individual identity and the collective identity of your class. You will then meet your project team for this unit and work together to conduct a primary source analysis of a mural in a post office in Anacortes, WA. By creating a class mural and studying a mural in a public space, you will begin to understand how representing a story through art can be insightful, challenging, and even controversial. Finally, you will work as a class to create a chart to help you think about what you already know and need to know about the history of Washington and using multiple perspectives to design an original mural.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your story: Use the Story Square handout to tell your story.
    2. Bring together individual stories to create a class mural: Meet your project team and share your story. Add individual stories together to create a class mural and explore your class’s collective identity.
    3. Learn the story of a controversial mural: In project teams, use the Library of Congress (LOC) Primary Source Analysis Tool to investigate the Callahan mural (page 29) in Anacortes, WA. Consider the perspectives of the mural artist and the postmaster, then discuss the controversy surrounding the mural.
    4. Create a class Know & Need to Know chart: Review the unit poster and identify what you know and still need to know about the content and final project of this unit.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards

    SSS1.6-8.1: Analyze positions and evidence supporting an issue or an event

    SSS1.6-8.2: Evaluate the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.

    SSS2.6.8.1: Create and use research questions to guide inquiry on an issue or event.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, and technology and ideas.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Colored pencils (preferred), markers, or crayons
    • Tape
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students work together to create a class mural that reflects their individual identity and the collective identity of their class. Then they meet their project team for this unit and work together to conduct a primary source analysis of a mural in a post office in Anacortes, WA. By creating a class mural and studying a mural in a public space, they begin to understand how representing a story through art can be insightful, challenging, and even controversial. Finally, they work as a class to create a chart to help them think about what they already know and need to know about the history of Washington and using multiple perspectives to design an original mural.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, create a model of your own Story Square to share with students:
    • Use a combination of visuals and words/phrases to answer each question.
    • Use supplies that your students will have access to in your class, such as colored pencils.
    • For Step 2, identify the project team groupings for this unit and prepare materials and space on the classroom wall for the class mural:
    • Strategically group students in teams of four. Students will work in these teams throughout the unit to conduct research and then design and organize their mural proposal.
    • Prepare tape and colored pencils, markers, or crayons for students to use.
    • You will have one mural for each class, so consider dedicating an entire wall to the murals or putting a mural on each wall in the classroom to spread them out.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with the story about the Anacortes mural:
    • For Step 4, identify a place in your classroom to hang the Know & Need to Know chart if completing it on paper:
    • A digital version of the Know & Need to Know chart is provided in the lesson resources, but creating a class version that can be tracked across the unit is suggested.
    • You will refer back to the Know & Need to Know chart in future lessons, so ensure it is somewhere you and students can easily access it.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your story(10 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on who they are as individuals to prepare themselves to share out about their identities with their project teams and class.

    You might say: Today, we are going to think about our identities as individuals and as a class. This will help us better understand each other and understand the story of our collective identity. Our identities are diverse and distinct. They are shaped by life experiences and events, accomplishments, challenges we’ve overcome, our beliefs and values, where we live and where we were born, and many more things.

    [Slide 2] Students create their Story Squares.

    • Share your Story Square that you prepared for this lesson with the class as an example.
    • Distribute the Story Square handout to each student and review the directions.
    • Provide students time to add words and illustrations to their Story Squares.
    Step 2: Bring together individual stories to create a class mural(20 min)

    Purpose: Students share their Story Squares with their project teams to build community, then project teams add their Story Squares to the class mural in order to create a collective class identity.

    You might say: In this unit, you will work in teams each day to learn about the stories that make up the identities of Washington and your local community. You will use this new learning to collaboratively create a proposal for a mural in our community that tells a fuller story about the people and events that define us. When your mural proposal is complete, you will present it to an outside audience. You will now get to know your project team members for the mural project and share your Story Square as a way to get to know one another.

    [Slide 3] Project teams reflect on and discuss their collective identity.

    • Organize students into their project teams for this unit.
    • Provide enough time for each member to share their Story Square with their team.
    • Invite students to share out similarities and differences they noticed in their stories.
    • Ask: What do you think it means to have a collective identity or to be part of a community?
      • Possible responses: The word collective means a group of people coming together, often with a common goal. Even though each of us has something unique to contribute to the class, our collective identity represents who we are all together and shapes our class community.

    [Slide 4] Create the class mural.

    • Explain to students that they will now put their Story Squares together to create a class mural.
    • Instruct teams to tape together their Story Squares, then have one student from each team add the team’s Story Squares to the class mural.

    [Slide 5] Facilitate a reflection and discussion.

    • Invite students to circle up around the class mural.
    • Ask students to silently observe the mural and reflect on two questions:
      • What are some similarities that bring us together as a class community?
      • What are some differences that make us unique?
    • Invite students to turn and talk with a classmate to share their responses, then prompt them to return to their teams.

    You might say: Each of us has unique stories and experiences that make us who we are. Together, our classroom community is shaped by what we each contribute and who we are together. This mural tells our collective story, rich in similarities and differences. Over the next several days, we will return to the components of our identity that we explored today and use those same components to help us better understand the stories of those who shaped Washington.

    Step 3: Learn the story of a controversial mural (15 min)

    Purpose: Students make the connection between their experience with creating a class mural and the experience of a Washington community that created a mural in a public space to tell its story.

    [Slides 6–7] Introduce Anacortes, Washington.

    • Slide 6. Ask: Where is Anacortes located?
    • Slide 7. Answer: Anacortes is a small city located on Fidalgo Island between Seattle and Vancouver, BC.
    • Ask: Based on its location, what can we infer about life and jobs in Anacortes?
        • Possible answer: life and jobs might revolve around catching fish, processing fish, and canning fish.

    You might say: Creating a mural can be challenging and even controversial. Let’s consider the experience of the people of Anacortes in their efforts to tell their story and illustrate their collective identity.

     [Slide 8] Analyze the Anacortes, WA Post Office mural.

    • Share the January 2015 winter edition of the Anacortes town magazine.
    • Direct students to page 29. Read the first four sentences out loud and have students follow along:
      • “In a day when the U.S. Post Office was a hub of activity in this seaside community, the hanging of a federally funded art piece created a wave of controversy that included harsh criticism from the local Postmaster and commercial fishermen. That was 1940, and today the same mural is coveted not only in the Northwest, but by art aficionados across the country. This painting by renowned “Northwest Mystic” artist Kenneth Callahan is titled “Fishing” – and it has once again drawn the spotlight among interested parties including the Anacortes Arts Commission and the Anacortes Museum. Anacortes Museum Educator Bret Lunsford has published an enlightening article teeming with details about Callahan, this mural and its controversial history. The article includes a debunking of common misconceptions about the art piece.” (2015, A-Town is Our Town, page 29)
    • Share the Library of Congress Primary Source Analysis Tool.
    • Have teams use the tool to analyze the Callahan mural, then use their notes to answer the question:
      • What did you notice that might make this mural controversial?
    • Invite teams to share out their responses.

    [Slide 9] Highlight how art holds meaning for people in different ways.

    • Read out loud the remarks by Kenneth Callahan and Postmaster Dalstead about the mural:
      • Callahan: “Painting, for my point of view, is realizing symbols that are presently created by yourself that will have meanings for other people. That’s the whole thing that is in back of painting: creation of symbols.”
      • Postmaster Dalstead: “The community is very much opposed to some of the types of murals installed in this county.”
    • Ask teams to discuss:
      • What new information did you notice that might add to the reasons why this mural is controversial?
    • Invite teams to share out their responses.
      • Possible responses: The artist and the Postmaster each have their own opinions about the mural and what it means; the artist thinks that the painting will mean different things to different people, while the Postmaster wants a mural that accurately depicts the community.
    • Talking points:
      • The Callahan mural was meant to represent the people and region of Anacortes, known for their fishing industry.
      • The postmaster wanted scenic pictures of a particular kind of boat, known as a purse-seine boat, and waterfront activities. Instead, Callahan painted the wrong kind of boat and the wrong kind of fish. It was important that salmon fishing was highlighted rather than halibut fishing because of the salmon canneries in Anacortes.
      • The postmaster argued that the fishermen would laugh at what was painted and that the fishermen themselves should be asked for their input. Fishermen argued that something didn’t seem right about the painting and it didn’t represent the way they did things.
    Step 4: Create a class Know & Need to Know chart(15 min)

    Purpose: The purpose of this step is to prepare students for the unit by introducing the driving questions and the final product, as well as gathering initial student thinking through a Know & Need to Know chart.

    [Slides 10–11] Introduce the unit and final product.

    • Slide 10. Talking points:
    • This image is of Keith Haring's mural "We Are The Youth" at 22nd & Ellsworth Streets in Philadelphia. It was completed in 1987 in collaboration with CityKids Foundation, a New York-based youth organization. This is just one example of a mural in a public space.
    • It doesn’t look at all like Callahan’s mural in Anacortes. That’s because murals are a form of creative expression. Artists incorporate perspective—their own and others’—to inform the design of a mural.
    • Throughout the unit, you will learn about the groups of people who shape Washington. Each group has made and continues to make significant contributions to our state, but their perspectives are sometimes missing from the art we see, books we read, stories we hear, events we attend, and movies we watch.
    • Slide 11. Present the arc of learning for the unit:
    • The unit driving question: What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?
    • Module 1: Who influenced the history and development of Washington?
    • Module 2: How can we represent history through multiple perspectives that reflect the experiences of tribes, settlers, and immigrants? 
    • Module 3: How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?
    • For the final product, student teams propose a mural in a local public space that tells a more inclusive story of the people who shaped the history of their region and the state.

    [Slide 12] Create a class Know & Need to Know chart.

    • Create a class Know & Need to Know chart to engage students in activating what they already know about the unit topic and the product (a mural in a public space) as well as raising questions they want to answer.
    • Facilitate a Turn and Talk on these two questions, then a whole-class share-out.
      • What do you know about the tribes, early settlers, and immigrants who influenced the development and history of Washington?
      • What do you need to know about designing a mural that represents Washington’s history through multiple perspectives?
    • Explain to students that as they progress through the unit they will revisit and update the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Teacher Tip: Tracking and resolving questions with a Know & Need to Know chart A Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website and how to use students’ questions for planning and assessment from PBL Works.

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.2: Tribes in Washington

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    Who influenced the history and development of Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the regions where Indigenous tribes lived and continue to live in Washington.
    • Read and research to build historical context and spark inquiry into the cultures and legacies of tribes in my region.
    • Work collaboratively with my team to represent local and regional tribes in our mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn how tribes have shaped the story of Washington. You will watch a video to help you develop an empathetic lexicon to use in your research and discussions on tribes in Washington. You will then analyze secondary sources for information on the geography of regions where Indigenous people lived and continue to live, and learn about the importance of sense of place in their lives and culture. You will then research the tribes in the region where you live. Finally, your team’s Lead Historian will help your project team synthesize your research and begin adding to your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on and share a story of a place that is important to you: Learn about the importance of empathy and geography.
    2. Introduce the local Indigenous tribes: Use a map to learn about the many tribes in Washington, then listen to interviews with Indigenous people to strengthen your empathetic lexicon for storytelling.
    3. Read a section of the Tribes in Washington Article: As a class and in project teams, collaboratively read an informational text using the Tribes Close Reading Questions handout for key facts and details about the diverse identities of the tribes in Washington. Afterwards, record your new understandings in your Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer.
    4. Research the tribes in the region where you live: Use the Student Research Resources document to explore tribal websites for information on each tribe’s history and culture, recording your learnings in your Mural Research Notes Organizer. Use the Mural Proposal Rubric and Mural Proposal Guide (or the Mural Proposal Guide—Extended Version, if provided by your teacher) to develop a deeper understanding of your team’s final product with the criteria that will be addressed through your team’s work. Finally, each team member shares out their research and the Lead Historian synthesizes what the group learned and adds it to their mural proposal.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

     

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:95 minutes (2 days)
    Standards

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    H2.6-8.2: Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped Washington state history since statehood.

    SSS2.6-8.1: Create and use research questions to guide inquiry on an issue or event.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.7.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Folders or another tool for students to keep their notes organized
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn how tribes have shaped the story of Washington. They watch a video to help them develop an empathetic lexicon to use in their research and discussions on tribes in Washington. Students then analyze secondary sources for information on the geography of regions where Indigenous peoples lived and continue to live, and learn about the importance of sense of place in their lives and culture. They then research the tribes in the region where they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and begin adding to their mural proposal.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, read resources to support your teaching about Indigenous peoples:
    • Students only need to watch up to [1:25], but you may choose to show more of the video if time allows.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with the Navigating Text literacy strategies in the front of the teacher binder and the informational texts that students will be reading.
    • The Navigating Text framework and strategies will be introduced in Lesson 1.4 when students are asked to read a complete article.
    • The Tribes in Washington Article has been broken into four brief texts for a more scaffolded approach to introducing the content and reading strategies. In this lesson, students will only read the first section of the article.
    • Teacher scaffolding is provided in the directions and in the slide deck.
    • For Step 4, become familiar with the federally recognized and unrecognized Indigenous tribes in Washington that are nearest your school community.
    • Look at this list from OSPI of school districts and nearest federally recognized tribes.
    • Check to see if there are any unrecognized tribes in your region, since many tribes all over the country are still awaiting federal recognition. There is a table of federally recognized and unrecognized tribes in the Tribes in Washington Article. We believe the history and culture of all tribes are important for students to understand, regardless of their recognition status.
    • Familiarize yourself with the Washington Tribes website and any additional resources and reach out to experts on tribes in the region in order to support students as they conduct region-specific research. You can add additional resources specific to the region where your school is located to the Student Research Resources document.
    • For Step 4, decide which of the two Mural Proposal Guides you want your class to use to guide their work.
    • There are two Mural Proposal Guides provided. You may choose which one to use based on your assessment of your class’s familiarity with group work, research, and organization skills. The Mural Proposal Guide is recommended for teams with stronger skills and that will benefit from a checklist of tasks, while the Mural Proposal Guide—Extended Version provides more scaffolding.
    • For Step 4, provide students with an organizational tool, such as a folder or digital file, to store notes for their team’s mural proposal.
    • Students will need a place to organize their ideas and to begin drafting their mural proposal in this and future lessons.
    • We suggest that each student has a folder to organize and track their notes, whether it is a file folder or digital file. Students will draw on these notes to build their ideas in each lesson.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

     

    Step 1: Reflect on and share a story of a place that is important to you(5 min)

    Purpose: Students build their perspective-taking skills by reflecting on the importance of sense of place in their lives as an entry point to learning about the importance of place to Indigenous identity and culture.

    You might say: Exhibiting empathy means seeking to understand others’ points of view. One way we can practice this is by looking at our own lives in new or different ways. Today, we’re going to learn about the Indigenous tribes in the state and the region where we live, then work to think of ways to include their perspectives in our mural proposals. Many Indigenous tribes believe in a special or sacred relationship between people and the land. Let’s start today by reflecting on our connection to a place that is important to each of us.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a Turn and Talk.

    • Prompt students to silently reflect on three questions:
      • What is one place that you feel connected to?
      • What connects you to that place?
      • Why is that place important to you?
    • Instruct students to share their responses with a classmate, then out to the whole class
    Step 2: Introduce the local Indigenous tribes(10 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to some of the terminology and language used to talk about Indigenous peoples throughout the unit. Because students will hear or see Indigenous people be identified in different ways, this step informs students on how to exhibit empathy and understanding when using culturally significant terminology.

    [Slide 3] Watch the New York Times video "A Conversation with Native Americans on Race" [0:00–1:25].

    • Preview the questions for students to consider as they watch the video:
      • To what do the Native Americans in the video connect their identities?
      • What does this tell you about how the Native Americans from different tribes want to be identified?
    • Play the video until [1:25], then invite students to share out their observations.
      • To what do the Native Americans in the video connect their identities?
        • Possible answers: land, rights, and culture
      • What does this tell you about how the Native Americans from different tribes want to be identified?
        • Possible answer: Identifying Indigenous peoples requires understanding where they are from and knowing which tribe they identify with.

    [Slide 4] Introduce the tribes in Washington using the map on the slide.

    • Ask:
      • What do you notice about where Indigenous land and tribes are located?
      • What are some resources that tribes in Washington had and have access to, based on where they are located?
    • Collect student responses and guide them toward the understanding that Indigenous peoples have a strong connection to the land, as noted in the video, and that their relationship with the land and water have always been important to their livelihood and sustenance.
    • Ask, and elicit responses from students: On some maps, you will see that some tribes are federally recognized, while others are not. What do you think that means?
    • As needed, share more information about federal recognition using these talking points:
      • This status of being federally recognized acknowledges these tribes as sovereign, meaning they have the right to self-govern, but they are also eligible to receive the protections of the United States government and funding from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
      • The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1824 with the role of negotiating the treaty agreements and mediating the relationship between the federally recognized tribes and the United States government. Its objective was to promote tribal sovereignty and self-determination.
      • There are tribes that are not recognized by the federal government but are able to own land that is not protected by the government.
      • Some tribes that are not federally recognized have been petitioning to be recognized or previously lost their federal recognition; in Washington, at least six tribes are not federally recognized. Some petitioned to be recognized in the 70s and 80s, but are still waiting or have been denied recognition. At least 50 tribes in the United States have been waiting for 130 years!
      • It is important to note that whether a tribe is federally recognized or not is very complex. However, their history, rights, and connection to their land, resources, and traditional practices cannot be erased or ignored.
    Teacher Tip: Developing a Word WallConsider beginning a Word Wall for the unit as students develop a culturally responsive lexicon for groups of people in the region and different events throughout history. Students can use these words when telling the stories of the people in their region.As the class builds out vocabulary on the wall, you can give students opportunities to interact with the words by grouping them into categories or placing them in opposition to one another. The following resources may be helpful for developing your Word Wall:
    Step 3: Read a section of the informational article “Tribes in Washington”(30 min)

    Purpose: Students develop foundational knowledge about the diverse identities of the tribes in Washington and to prepare to ask questions and research answers that will inform their mural proposal.

    [Slide 5] Introduce the informational article.

    • Distribute the Tribes in Washington Article and Tribes Close Reading Questions handout to each student. Explain that students will spend time reading about the histories of the tribes, settlers, and immigrants, and that their new learnings will help them make connections to the stories they include in their mural proposals.
    • Explain that students will read the first section of the article today, and the rest later on in the unit.
    • As a pre-reading task, direct students to preview the layout of the article including the titles of the article and the first section, reading purpose, image, and caption. Have students also identify the reading questions that follows the first section in the article.
    • Identify the purpose for reading:
      • Read to learn how the tribes in Washington define themselves, how the decisions of the United States government impacted tribal sovereignty, and how the cultural values of these tribes continue today. This information will help you understand the history and stories of the people in the state so you can tell a more inclusive story in your mural proposal.
    • Model the following pre-reading strategies for the class:
      • Prompt students to scan the text’s structure, images, and captions, noting its length, section headers, and vocab support.
        • Ask students to identify words that look difficult, and address any immediate concerns or questions. For example, students may need help pronouncing “sovereignty.”
      • Explain to students that they will mark up the article to identify evidence that supports the purpose for reading. If students need a system for marking the text, introduce the following symbols:
        • ü = information that supports the purpose for reading (add summarizing notes)
        • ? = anything confusing (words, phrases, sentences)
      • Review (or teach) the following strategies that will help students if they get stuck:
        • Lost or confused? Reread, read on, stop and clarify, ask for help, or review the purpose for reading.
        • Stuck on unfamiliar words or ideas? Break down complex words, phrases, or paragraphs.
        • Need more help or more information? Use all text features, such as graphics, captions, or defined vocabulary words, for support.

    [Slide 6] Read Section 1 (Diverse and Distinctive Identities) aloud to engage students with the text and model expectations.

    • Demonstrate how to read the sections of the articles with the purpose in mind and using the tools discussed.
    • Remind students that informational articles usually provide many details that are helpful for understanding the main idea, but that not all details need to be recorded or memorized. The reading purpose will help students determine what is really important to pay attention to and what is not.
    • Explain that you will model how to read the first section of the article.
    • Have students look at the title of the first section, Diverse and Distinctive Identities. Ask students what they know about the different identities of tribes in Washington, noting on the board what students already know.
    • Guide students to look at the two questions in the Close Reading Questions handout keep the reading purpose in mind.
    • Demonstrate how to link information in the article to the reading purpose by marking it with a checkmark and annotating the text.
      • Example: The main idea of Paragraph 1 directly answers the first part of the reading purpose and can be summarized briefly in an annotation: Indigenous peoples identify themselves based on their tribal membership; historically inaccurate terms like “American” or “Indian” are offensive.
    • Model how to identify a confusing part and use one of the Survival Kit strategies.
      • Example: Students may be unfamiliar with where or what “the Indies” are. A strategic reader would mark this to research (or ask about) later, because they recognize the purpose for reading makes it unnecessary to know exactly what “the Indies” are. The important information is already accessible: Tribes define themselves by their own names, rather than by the name of a country Columbus thought he discovered.
    • Organize students into their project teams from the last lesson and have them work in pairs to respond to the two questions for section 1 in the Close Reading Questions handout. Have students underline or annotate in the text where they found the answers to the questions.
      • How did tribes identify themselves before European contact? Why is it important to understand this in how we refer to tribes today?
      • How would you describe the diversity of tribes in Washington?
    • Use the Tribes Close Reading Questions KEY to support student pairs as they work through the first section of the article.

    [Slide 7] Introduce the Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer and its connection to the unit project.

    • Distribute copies of the Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer to each team. Explain to students that they will use it to make connections between information in the article and their team’s mural proposal. Students will continue to develop their understandings and add to the organizer throughout the unit.
    • Teams will now come together to answer questions on the organizer by drawing on their annotations, what they already know about the Indigenous history of the community where they live, and what they know about the mural project.
    • To support comprehension, encourage teams to discuss together, then write their collective responses.
    • It may be useful to remind students that if the table on Page 1 of the article doesn’t help them identify which tribes historically lived (or currently live) in your area, students should make their best guesses or note it as an area to research next.

    Facilitate a discussion of students’ summaries and connections to the mural proposal.

    • After teams have completed the Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer, ask teams to share their summary statements and what they have learned so far.
    • Facilitate a discussion of the mural connection responses.
      • Rather than providing answers to questions asked by teams, encourage students to identify ways they might research their questions.
      • As needed, consider synthesizing student questions and posting them on the Know & Need to Know chart.
    • If you have established an interactive word wall, propose one new word and definition for the wall, then ask students what other words from today’s lesson should be added. Some suggestions:
      • Indigenous
      • Sovereignty
    Teacher Tip: Differentiation while Navigating TextThe three articles students visit in Modules 1 and 2 (Lessons 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3) follow a similar pattern in structure and in the way students may navigate the text: students read and annotate the article, then teams come together to answer the questions on the organizer, connect to their mural planning, and finally, summarize the article’s main ideas. Students are intentionally asked to revisit the article; this is because reading research shows students deepen their comprehension when they read texts multiple times. However, if you’re working with strong readers, are short on time, or believe your students need a change by the third article, consider the following ways to differentiate.
    • Strong readers: Students read independently, then work with partners or teams to complete the organizer.
    • Shorten time required in class: Provide the Notes Organizer for partners to use during the first pass, or assign it as homework; note that a single reading will reduce comprehension for students who are still developing strong content-reading skills.
    • Self-assess with the Notes Organizer: Rather than asking teams to complete the organizer together after reading, ask partners to quiz each other with the questions (divide the questions equally). It’s an open-book assessment, so partners should revisit the article as needed to prepare their answers. They should answer the mural connection questions in pairs.
    Step 4: Research the tribes in the region where you live(50 min)

    Purpose: Students conduct research on the tribes in their local context. They will later share what they have learned with their project team in order to begin developing their mural proposal.

    [Slides 8–9] Introduce the project teams to the roles that each of them will take on when conducting their group’s research.

    You might say: Planning a mural requires the consideration of many factors. Research is needed to figure out the right place and conditions to install the mural. Muralists must also understand the history of the community and, most importantly, the stories they want to tell about the people who live there. Designing a mural also takes careful planning of the layout of the mural and of what goes where on that mural.

    • Explain that because there is a lot to consider, each team member will play an important role in putting together their team’s mural proposal.
    • Introduce the four roles and what each involves:
      • The Lead Historian will:
        • Clarify and organize their team’s research
        • Track relevant source information
      • The Lead Designer will:
        • Clarify and visualize the team’s mural layout
        • Track the incorporation of perspectives, themes, events, people, and artifacts in their team’s mural
      • The Lead Curator will:
        • Evaluate the team’s ideas for public spaces using criteria and identify the location of the mural
        • Clarify and provide a description of the space and the story behind it
        • Create a plan to address any potential hazards to the mural
      • The Lead Storyteller will:
        • Write an artist statement that conveys their mural’s unique story, meaning, and message to the local community
    • Explain that a successful project team must distribute their responsibilities and contribute to their team’s research.
    • Explain that each person in each role will contribute their research at different times throughout the project work, but each team’s mural proposal will come together using each person’s high-quality contributions.
    • Provide teams some time to identify who will take on each role.

    [Slide 10] Conduct research on the tribes nearest to where you live.

    • Share with students the website "Washington Tribes."
    • Show students how to navigate to the “Tribes Map.”
    • Invite students to locate the tribe nearest to their home.
    • Using this map, have students identify the region where their school (or community) is located and identify the Indigenous land their school and homes are on.
    • Click on the name of the tribe that shares the land their school and homes are located on. Look for the tribe’s mission statement or information about their community or cultural resources and have a student volunteer read it aloud.
    • Distribute the Student Research Resources document, which includes district/region-specific resources for students to access during their research throughout the unit.
    • Distribute the Mural Research Notes Organizer to each student.
    • Explain that students will work with a partner in their project team to complete the organizer for the tribe nearest to where they live. Each student must complete their own organizer and complete the first three rows of the table in the organizer related to the three themes of a sense of place, values, and artifacts.
    • As pairs are working, walk around to help students locate the information on each website. Use slide 11 as an example to guide students’ search for information. Most of the information will be found under the terms, mission statement, community, cultural resources, or history.

    [Slide 11] Facilitate a class discussion about the tribe’s mission statements and communities.

    • Ask students to respond to the following prompts:
      • When looking at the mission statements or information about the community and cultural resources on the tribe’s website, what did you notice about the tribe’s values and commitment to its people and the land?
    • What does the tribe aim to do in order to preserve its land, rights, and culture?

    [Slide 12] Share the four ways that Indigenous peoples connect to a sense of place.

    • Talking points:
      • A sense of place is a powerful anchor and source of identity; we noticed this on the tribes’ websites.
      • Many people have strong connections to a sense of place; you incorporated a sense of place into your story square.
      • There are four ideas that can help us better understand sense of place as we think about the story of the place where we live. A person develops a sense of place based on:
        • Characteristics of the environment
        • Human use of the environment
        • Meaning connected to that place
        • Attachment to and satisfaction with that place

    Explain to the class that throughout the unit, they will revisit and reflect on how they connect people to places in similar ways to how the tribes were connected to their land.

    [Slide 13] Introduce students to the Mural Proposal Rubric.

    • Explain that there are six elements that that their work will be assessed on their: research, selection of a location for their mural, mural design, presentation of their mural proposal, and overall team collaboration.
    • Distribute the Mural Proposal Rubric to each student.
    • Go over the column titled Distinguished Artist with the class.

    [Slide 14] Introduce the Mural Proposal Guide.

    • Explain to the class that they will begin working on their mural proposal today and continue to develop it over the course of the unit.
    • Explain that each team’s mural proposal can be unique and they can decide how they may want to put it together. Provide students with examples of presentation options such as using a slide show, using a tri-fold display, or recording a video.
    • Distribute the Mural Proposal Guide to each student and go over the directions and criteria as a class.
    • Explain that the criteria in the guide are more of a checklist for the mural proposal, whereas the rubric will help them improve the quality of their mural proposal.
    • Explain to the class that it is important that they are making connections between what they learned about the people in the region where they live to their mural proposal.
    • Assure the class that their knowledge and connections will develop as they continue their research, and what they add to their mural proposal will also develop in the same way.

    [Slide 15] Have project teams connect on their learning to develop their mural proposals.

    • During this time, have each pair of students share the notes they have taken in their Mural Research Notes Organizer with the rest of their team to show what they learned through their research about the tribe of their region.
    • Explain that the Lead Historian in each team will facilitate the discussion and record key facts and details from their research to add to their notes for their mural proposal.
    • Some guiding questions for each team to consider are as follows:
      • What is the history of the tribes in the region where we live and what are their cultural values?
      • What is their connection to the resources and land?
      • What is an object or image that comes to mind when you think about their stories and history?
    • Monitor and check in on each team as they are collaborating on their research and the Lead Historian is documenting their learning.

    [Slide 16] Have each team do a quick share of a connection they made to their new learning.

    • Invite Lead Designers and Lead Storytellers from each team respond to the following prompt with a quick share:
      • How can your team include or represent your new understandings in your mural proposal?
    • Collect the notes that the Lead Historians recorded as a formative assessment learning.

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.3: Early Settlers in Washington

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    Who influenced the history and development of Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify early settlers in the state and their motivations for settling in the Pacific Northwest.
    • Read and research to build historical context and spark inquiry into the lives and legacies of early settlers in the region where I live.
    • Work collaboratively with my team to update our mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn how the experiences of early settlers shaped Washington. You will analyze primary and secondary sources (maps, images, video, and text) for key facts and details about the different people who settled in the state, why they did so, and how they experienced work and life. Then, you will research the early settlers who shaped the region in which you live. Finally, your team’s lead historian will help your project team synthesize your research and update your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on and share what motivates you: Early settlers were motivated by different ideas when they came to Washington. Before learning about their stories, reflect on your own. Look back at your class mural. Consider what drives you and your classmates, and how motivations can help tell a more inclusive story of your class community.
    2. Explore and investigate the motivations of early settlers: Use primary and secondary resources to learn about what motivated early settlers to move to Washington and what made them stay, and record your new understandings in your Motivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer.
    3. Read a section of the Early Settlers in Washington Article: Read the informational article to learn about the conditions the causes and effects of settlement, then respond to the questions in the Settlers Close Reading Questions handout.
    4. Research the history of early settlers in the region where you live and synthesize your learning with your team: Explore the resources in the Student Research Resources document for information on the history and legacy of settlers. Share out the research you’ve recorded in your Mural Research Notes Organizer with your team members. Once all members have shared their learnings, the Lead Historian summarizes the group’s ideas in their Mural Proposal Guide.

    Explore More

     

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:110 minutes (2-3 days)
    Standards

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    H2.6-8.2: Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped Washington state history since statehood.

    E2.6-8.3: Analyze the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in societies from the past or in the present.

    SSS2.6-8.1: Create and use research questions to guide inquiry on an issue or event.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.7.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn how the experiences of early settlers shaped Washington. They analyze primary and secondary sources (maps, images, video, and text) for key facts and details about the different people who settled in the state, why they did so, and how they experienced work and life. Then, students research the early settlers who shaped the region in which they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and update their mural proposal.
     
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, become familiar with some of the resources and industries in your school’s community or city.
    • You may want to use this opportunity to highlight the early settlers in the region by visiting the website of your local Washington state history museum or any of the resources listed in the Explore More section of the Teacher Guide.
    • Look through the Student Research Resources document for the resources in the region where your school is located. Add additional resources if needed.
    • For Step 3, be prepared to support students in reading the informational article.
    • In this lesson, students will only read the first two paragraphs of the Settlers in Washington Article.
    • Students will revisit the article in Lesson 2.2.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

     

    Step 1: Reflect on and share what motivates you(10 min)

    Purpose: Students continue to build their storytelling skills by telling a story about a time when something or someone motivated them, in order to prepare for learning about the motivations of early settlers.

    You might say: Our motivations are an important part of each of our stories. They help us and others understand what we did and what we might do. Today we will learn about the early settlers in Washington and the region where we live, then think about ways to include their history and legacy in our murals.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a Turn and Talk on the storytelling theme values and motivations.

    • Invite students to silently reflect on what motivates them and why.
    • Instruct students to share their responses with a classmate, then share out to the whole class.
    • Explain that our motivations might be similar to or different from those of others in the class, and that’s okay. That’s what makes each of our stories distinct.
    Step 2: Explore and investigate the motivations of early settlers(20 min)

    Purpose: Students engage in a visual analysis of primary and secondary resources in order to learn about how people shifted from using natural resources as subsistence to using them as a way to drive the economy.

    You might say: In larger cities in Washington, such as Seattle and its surrounding suburbs, the population has increased due to the presence of large companies like Boeing, Microsoft, and Amazon. The last time this region saw a spike in population was during the Gold Rush. Now, with Boeing as a large producer of aircrafts, and large tech companies like Microsoft and Amazon serving the business and professional needs of the world, a new kind of modern-day “settler” has rushed to Washington.

    [Slide 3] Have students think about what might motivate people to move to Washington today and share their responses with the class.

    • Ask: What do you think are some of the reasons that motivate people to move here today?
    • Ask: What do you think brought or motivated the early settlers to come to the Pacific Northwest, long before large tech and aviation companies existed or before Washington became a state?

    [Slide 4] Discuss the map of the rail lines across the United States.

    • Explain to students that they are looking at a map of rail lines in the United States from the year 1850.
    • Ask: What do you notice about where rail lines were established and where they were not?
      • Possible answer: The rail lines did not reach the northwest part of the country.
    • Ask: If there were no rail lines leading to the Pacific Northwest, why would people choose to settle here?
      • Possible answer: Jobs and land were available there.
    • Elicit student responses.
    • Distribute the Motivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer and explain that for Part 1, students will analyze primary and secondary sources in order to understand why people settled in Washington.
    • Review the questions in the organizer with students.
      • What motivated early settlers to come to Washington?
      • What does this industry provide to other states and/or countries?
      • What region(s) of WA provided most of the products for this industry?

    [Slides 5] Introduce and investigate farming and agriculture.

    [Slide 6] Introduce and investigate logging.

    • Have students work in pairs to answer the questions in their organizers using the image and map.

    [Slide 7] Introduce and investigate mining between 1866–1900.

    • Talking points:
      • Mining is the extraction or removal of valuable minerals or metals from the earth. In some cases, oil, or gas, can also be mined or extracted from deep beneath the earth’s surface.
      • This graph illustrates the revenue from metal production in WA over time.
      • Precious metals are valuable metals—including silver, gold, and platinum—while base metals (such as copper, aluminum, zinc, and nickel) are mostly used in industrial production.
    • Project the web page "Western Mining History: Washington" and zoom in on the map of Washington.
      • Explain that each dot on the map indicates the location of a mine in the state.
      • Ask:
        • Where do you notice clusters of dots around the state?
        • What do you notice about the topography, or features of the land, where those mines are located?
      • Prompt students to click on the dots to reveal what kinds of mines they represent.
    • Have students work in pairs to answer the questions in their organizers using the graph and website.

    [Slide 8] Introduce and investigate fishing.

    • Explain to students they are looking at an image of a salmon caught by fishermen in the Puget Sound in the early 1900s.
    • Have students work in pairs to answer the questions in their organizers using the image.

    [Slides 9–10] Compare and contrast the values and motivations of early settlers with those of Indigenous peoples from the region where you live.

    • Slide 9. Talking point: This map is from 1945. It shows the industries that brought people to Washington and the regions where people settled to work in those industries.
      • Slide 10. Have students work in pairs to summarize their learning by responding to the prompts using the notes in their organizers:
      • What motivated early settlers to move to Washington?
        • Possible answer: The natural resources of the region were used to help build new industries in WA. As demand grew for resources such as lumber, agricultural products, food, and coal (for energy), demand also grew for skilled people to work in those industries.
      • Based on what you read and learned about the tribes in the previous lesson, what do you notice about the contrast between the relationships that the tribes in Washington had with its natural resources and land, compared to the settlers’ relationships with the same?
        • Possible answer: The tribes in Washington had a cultural and spiritual connection with the land and used its natural resources as needed for survival and for sharing within their communities. Settlers saw the resources as a way to build the economy and support their families, so they valued the natural resources based on the amount of money that could be made off of them.
    • Elicit responses from student pairs.
    Step 3: Read the article “Early Settlers in Washington”(30 min)

    Purpose: Students develop foundational knowledge about the settlers in Washington to prepare for asking questions and researching answers that will inform their murals.

    [Slide 11] Introduce the informational article.

    • Distribute an Early Settlers in Washington Article and the Settlers Close Reading Questions handout to each student.
    • Remind students that they will use some of the same reading strategies they learned in the previous lessons.
    • Explain to students that in their teams, they will read the article.
    • As a pre-reading task, have students look at the layout of the article.
      • Have students identify the title of the informational article and the first section.
      • Have students identify that the first page of each section includes the section title, the reading purpose, an image, and caption.
      • Have students identify the texts for each section along with the 1–2 reading questions for each section in the Settlers Close Reading Questions handout.
    • Identify the purpose for reading:
      • Read to learn who settled in Washington, why they did so, and how they experienced work and life. You will use this information to make connections between the history of the settlers in Washington and the stories of the settlers in the community where you live.
    • Remind students of the pre-reading strategies below.
      • Prompt students to scan the article’s structure, noting its length, section headers, and vocab support.
        • Have students identify the title and ask them what they already know about the early settlers in Washington and what questions they might have about them.
        • Ask students to identify anything that looks difficult and address any immediate concerns or questions. For example, students may benefit from a brief explanation of the fur trade and the role of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
      • Explain to students that they should use the same annotation system as they did in the Tribes in Washington Article as they identify evidence that supports the purpose for reading. Remind students of the following symbols:
        • ü = information that supports the purpose for reading (add summarizing notes)
        • ? = anything confusing (words, phrases, sentences)
    • Review the following strategies that will help students if they get stuck:
      • Lost or confused? Reread, read on, stop and clarify, ask for help, or review the purpose for reading.
      • Stuck on unfamiliar words or ideas? Break down complex words, phrases, or paragraphs.
      • Need more help or more information? Use all text features, such as graphics, captions, or defined vocabulary words for support.

    [Slides 12–13] Read the first section aloud to engage students with the text and model expectations.

    • Demonstrate how to read the first section of the article, Settling in Washington, with the purpose in mind and using the tools discussed.
    • Remind students that informational articles usually provide many details that are helpful for understanding the main idea, but that not all details need to be recorded or memorized. The reading purpose will help students determine what is really important to pay attention to and what’s less important.
    • Demonstrate how to link information in the article to the reading purpose by marking it with a checkmark and annotating the text.
      • Example: The main idea of Paragraph 1 provides some information that answers the second part of the reading purpose (why settlers came to WA) and can be summarized briefly in an annotation: The fur trade brought settlers.
    • Model how to identify a confusing part and use one of the Survival Kit strategies.
      • Example: Students may wonder what exactly was traded at Fort Vancouver and what resources attracted settlers. A strategic reader is likely to leave a question mark and then read on to see if the rest of the article explains this (a quick scan of the section headers confirms that it will).
    • Have students work in pairs to address the questions in the Settlers Close Reading Questions handout.
    • Slide 13. Ask:
      • What prompted early settlers to travel to the Washington Territory?
      • Did everyone have the same opportunities to claim land? Why or why not?
    Teacher Tip: Differentiation while Navigating TextThe three articles students visit in Modules 1 and 2 (Lessons 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3) follow a similar pattern in structure and in the way students may navigate the text: students read and annotate the article, then teams come together to answer the questions on the organizer, connect to their mural planning, and finally, summarize the article’s main ideas. Students are intentionally asked to revisit the article; this is because reading research shows students deepen their comprehension when they read texts multiple times. However, if you’re working with strong readers, are short on time, or believe your students need a change by the third article, consider the following ways to differentiate.
    • Strong readers: Students read independently, then work with partners or teams to complete the organizer.
    • Shorten time required in class: Provide the Notes Organizer for partners to use during the first pass, or assign it as homework; note that a single reading will reduce comprehension for students who are still developing strong content-reading skills.
    • Self-assess with the Notes Organizer: Rather than asking teams to complete the organizer together after reading, ask partners to quiz each other with the questions (divide the questions equally). It’s an open-book assessment, so partners should revisit the article as needed to prepare their answers. They should answer the mural connection questions in pairs.
    Step 4: Research the history of early settlers in the region where you live(40 min)

    Purpose: Students conduct research to find out about the early settlers in their region. They use their research to begin to develop a story of the people who have shaped their region’s history in the past and present.

    You might say: In the last lesson, you began to research the history of the tribes nearest to where you live. You gathered information on their sense of place, values, motivations, and artifacts that can help others understand the history and culture of those tribes. Now, you will begin to research the history of early settlers in the area where you live.

    [Slide 14] Conduct research on the people who migrated and settled in the region where you live.

    • Prompt students to return to their Mural Research Notes Organizer and go to the section on early settlers.
    • Remind students that they are researching and gathering information on the first three themes: sense of place, values and motivations, and artifacts.
    • Model for students how to access and use the Washington Museum Association’s interactive map directory.
    • Explain that this type of open-ended research can be exciting but also challenging, and that they should lean on their team members for support when needed.

    [Slide 15] Have student teams work together to connect their research to the mural proposal.

    • Explain that students will get together with their project teams to make connections between their research and their mural proposal. Have them bring their Mural Research Notes Organizer and their notes for their team’s mural proposal (which you may need to return to students, if you previously collected them for assessment).
    • Remind students that they had previously made connections between their new learning about the tribes in Washington and their mural proposal. Today, they will make their connections with their research on the early settlers.
    • Explain that the Lead Historian will continue to synthesize and record their teammates’ ideas. Remind students that as they learn new information, they should continue to refine their mural proposal.
    • Have students focus on the following questions as they synthesize their research:
      • Who were the early settlers in the region where you live?
      • What connected them to and motivated them to settle in the region?
      • What were their lives like as they settled into this new place?
      • What artifacts might represent their stories?

    [Slide 16] Facilitate a brief team share out with the class.

    • Invite Lead Designers and Lead Storytellers from each team to respond to the following prompt with a quick share:
      • How will your team include or represent your new understandings in your mural proposal?
    • Collect the notes that the Lead Historians recorded as a formative assessment of learning.

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.4: Immigrants in Washington

     

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    Who influenced the history and development of Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the people who immigrated to Washington and the cultures and traditions they brought with them.
    • Read and research to build historical context to spark inquiry about the culture and legacies of immigrants in my region.
    • Work collaboratively with my team on our mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about the immigrants who make up 13.7% of the population in Washington, why they immigrated here, and where they settled and established communities. You will watch a video and read an article to gather information, then ask questions about the crucial role that immigrants have played in Washington’s history and continue to play today. You will research immigrants and immigrant communities which shaped the region in which you live. Finally, your team’s lead historian will help your project team synthesize your research and update your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on and share where your family is from: Reflect on how your identity is connected to where your family is from.
    2. Define what an immigrant is: Watch a video about the history of immigration to the United States, then reflect on who the immigrants of the United States are and why they might be in this country.
    3. Learn about the contributions of immigrants in Washington: Use an infographic and website to understand the contributions of immigrants in shaping Washington’s history and economy, and record your new learnings in your Immigrants in Washington Notes Organizer.
    4. Introduce Navigating Text: Use the Navigating Text literacy strategies to support your reading of the informational article and resources throughout the unit.
    5. Read the Immigrants in Washington Article: Read an article in order to understand who came to Washington and why. Use the Immigrants Close Reading Questions handout to help you make sense of the article.
    6. Research the history of immigrants in the region near you: Conduct research on the immigrant communities near you in order to understand the stories of your community, and record what you learn in your Mural Research Notes Organizer. Share your research with your team. Once all members have shared their learnings, the Lead Historian summarizes the group’s ideas in their Mural Proposal Guide.                                                                                                                 

    Explore More

    Nordic Heritage Museum web page: "Nordic Journeys Exhibit" (Stories of immigration from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

    Teacher Preparation Notes

     

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:105 minutes – 2 days
    Standards

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    G2.6-8.4: Explain the role of immigration in shaping societies in the past or present.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.7.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about the immigrants who make up 13.7% of the population in Washington, why they immigrated here, and where they settled and established communities. They watch a video and read an article to gather information, then ask questions about the crucial role that immigrants have played in Washington’s history and continue to play in its future. Students research immigrants and immigrant communities which shaped the region in which they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and update their mural proposal.
     
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 5, become familiar with key immigrant communities in the region of the state where you live.
    • Be prepared to address challenging questions or conflicting opinions that may surface about immigrants and immigrant communities.
    • It is important to be sensitive toward immigrant students or children of immigrants during the class discussions. Draw on their knowledge and experiences without calling them out.
    • If stereotypes or assumptions that students may have about immigrants or immigrant communities come up during class discussions, it will be important to address those. See the Teacher Tip at the end of Step 2 for how to set up a safe classroom environment for discussions about sensitive topics.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on and share where your family is from(5 min)

    Purpose: Students consider their connections with where their family is from in order to prepare for learning about the lives and legacies of the people who immigrated to the U.S. and, more specifically, to Washington.

    You might say: Where our family is from originally is an important part of each of our stories. This background information helps us and others understand our values, beliefs, routines, and even our relationships with family and friends. Today we will learn about people who have immigrated here and think about ways to include their history and legacy in our murals.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a Turn and Talk.

    • Invite students to silently reflect on where their family is from and how that impacts them today.
    • Have students share their responses with a classmate, then invite them to share out to the whole class.

     

    Step 2: Define what an immigrant is(10 min)

    Purpose: Students use content from a video to discuss, explore, and ask questions about the reasons for immigration to the U.S. in order to better understand how each immigrant or person in this country has a distinct story.

    You might say: Indigenous peoples were the first to live on the land we live on now, but over time, settlers from all the over the country have migrated to the Pacific Northwest, and people from all over the world have immigrated to the region as well. It is important to clarify the difference between the words migration and immigration.

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a discussion on reasons for immigration and barriers that prevent immigration.

    • Have students share with a classmate their definition of the word immigration.
    • Elicit responses from the whole class.
      • Possible answer: Immigration describes the act of a person or family relocating to another country with the intention of settling there. For example, a person from China may immigrate to the United States for schooling or for different job opportunities. They have chosen to move here permanently and may go through a particular process in order to be able to stay here.
    • Explain to the class that they may hear the term migration. Clarify that it is the act of moving from one place to another, and the main difference between the two terms is that when people immigrate to a location, there is an intent to settle there. If needed, provide an example of each by using it in a sentence, or encourage students to do so.
    • Explain to the class that they are going to watch a brief video of an animated map that shows the history of immigration to the United States. As they watch the video, have them identify reasons for immigration.
    • Play the Business Insider video "The History of Immigration to the United States" [3:45].
    • Invite students to share out reasons that different groups of people immigrated to the United States.
      • Possible answers: Settlers sought gold; the Irish sought refuge from the famine in their country; people took advantage of the invention of steam-powered ships, which made traveling faster and cheaper; people from various countries fled from war; Europeans were forced out of their home countries by the Displaced Persons Act of 1948.
    • Ask: What prevented people from migrating?
      • Possible answers: The Chinese Exclusion act banned Chinese people from entering the U.S. for 60 years; quotas after WWI reduced the flow of immigrants from regions of the world that were experiencing war and conflict; the Great Depression and other economic downturns decreased the number of jobs and opportunities for citizens and immigrants in the U.S.
    Teacher Tip: Creating a safe space for students to discuss sensitive topics or eventsEntering into conversations that highlight one group's privileges over another is challenging for adults and students of any age. While this lesson is not designed to facilitate conversations about race and racism, it opens the door to topics and conversations that don’t often get air time in schools. For more resources on how to support this conversation, check out Edutopia’s article "Creating a Safe Space for Students to Discuss Sensitive Current Events" and the Learning for Justice lesson "Talking About Race and Racism." 
    Step 3: Learn about the contributions of immigrants in Washington(15 min)

    Purpose: Students read an article to learn about some of the immigrants who came to the state, the communities they formed, and how they experienced work and life. Then students use this information to ask questions and deepen their research into the stories of immigration in the region where they live.

    You might say: Just like the settlers traveled across the country to settle in Washington, so did many immigrants who had similar desires to own land, make a living, or settle in a whole new environment. Many immigrants came to the Pacific Northwest at different times for different reasons.

    Organize students into pairs and have them analyze secondary sources for key facts and details on the contributions of immigrants.

    • After reading the first two paragraphs about the migration history, you will see four options.
    • Click on the option that says “Countries of birth by decade (map).” Names of countries will appear on the right side with the populations of immigrants born in those countries.
    • You will see a bar that you can move to see the population changes as the years pass. You may need to zoom in and out of the map to see country boundaries and to see the whole map.
    • As you move the circle along the bar and change the years, you will see green circles appear on the map and change size according to the population of people who immigrated from those particular countries. For example, if you look at the year 1910, you will see that 1,907 people born in China were living in Washington at that time. After the Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law, the population of Washington residents who were born in China decreased, until after 1970 when the quota system limiting immigrants based on nationality was lifted.
    • Prompt student pairs to work together to complete Part 1 of their organizers.

     [Slide 4] Facilitate a reflection and share out.

    • Have student pairs reflect and share their thoughts on two questions:
      • What information was new to you or surprised you? Why?
      • Why are immigrants such an important part of our state’s history, economy, and livelihood?
    • Invite students to share out their responses.
    Step 4: Introduce Navigating Text (10 min)

    Purpose: Students are oriented to the Navigating Text strategies they will use throughout the course. This prepares students to be active, strategic readers who can effectively navigate complex texts and apply what they learn to their project work.

    Teacher Tip: Supporting disciplinary literacy in PBLWe use the metaphor of wayfinding to show how a reader can learn from text like a voyager finds their way through the world. Wayfinding has its deepest roots in ancient Indigenous navigation techniques, such as the Polynesian practices of open-ocean voyaging portrayed in the Disney film Moana. Today, wayfinding also describes the work of architects who design ways to guide people through complicated urban settings, such as campuses and public transportation systems. Wayfinding represents the creative problem-solving of humans as they journey through the unknown. (Please see the Literacy Framework for full citations.)If students are unfamiliar with wayfinding, consider watching a portion of the PBS documentary Wayfinders: A Pacific Odyssey, or sharing one of the following articles about how the practice is highlighted in Moana to inspire a spirit of wayfinding when students navigate text.

    [Slide 5] Introduce the Navigating Text approach as illustrated on the slide.

    You might say: Throughout this project, one of the important ways we will learn about Washington history is by reading texts. Some are primary sources and others, like sections of articles you have read in previous lessons and the article we’ll read today, are secondary sources. I’d like to introduce you to the way we’ll approach learning from texts, and then we’ll try it out with the article about immigrants in Washington. You will also use similar strategies as you conduct research with for your mural proposal.

    Walk students through the Navigating Text approach: Tell students that we can approach learning from text like a wayfinder approaches going on a journey (see the Teacher Tip for more information). Elicit student ideas for the following questions:

    • What do you think needs to happen before wayfinders begin a journey?
    • What do they do while they are on their journey?
    • What happens when they arrive at their destination?

    Connect to students’ ideas about wayfinders while introducing the three-part approach.

    • Set a navigation plan: Students prepare to read.
    • Stay on course: Students actively make sense of text as they read and take notes with a partner.
    • Arrive, unpack, and share: Students reflect on what they read and apply what they learned to the project.

    You might say: A Navigation Plan helps wayfinders get where they are going. What do you think a Navigation Plan includes? [elicit ideas]

    Wayfinders need navigation skills or they will certainly get lost! We are going to think about reading the same way that wayfinders think about going on a voyage. A good Navigation Plan for reading means we have a clear purpose in mind. We know where we are going and why it matters for our project.

    Then, we need to “map our course,” or figure out how we are going to reach our destination. Just as wayfinders prepare to navigate through unfamiliar places, we’ll take a look at the text to see if anything ahead looks tricky or challenging.

    Wayfinders use their knowledge of the environment (such as stars, waves, and the flight patterns of birds) and special tools like maps and compasses. We’ll also make sure we have the right tools for reading, like graphic organizers or sticky notes.

    We’ll pack what I like to call our “Survival Kit”. A wayfinder’s Survival Kit might contain things like a fire starter, extra food, and other essentials to use in unexpected conditions. In our case, we’ll need a set of strategies for when we get lost in a text or stumble on words or ideas we don’t know.

    Wayfinders often work as a team. We’ll also gather our team, by finding partners to read and talk with.

    While we are reading, just like wayfinders are constantly checking their maps and using their tools to stay on course, we’ll keep our purpose for reading in mind so that we stay focused on the project goals. We’ll work with our teammates to read and make sense of texts, and we’ll use our Survival Kits if we have any trouble.

    At the end of a journey, wayfinders arrive at their destination, unpack their gear, and share their experience. For us, arriving at the end of a text means that we’ll make sense of what we learned and apply it to our project work.

    Let’s try this out together as we read about the immigrants in Washington.

    Step 5: Read the article “Immigrants in Washington”(40 min)

    Purpose: Students develop foundational knowledge about immigrants in Washington to prepare for asking questions and researching answers that will inform their mural.

    [Slides 5–6] Set a Navigation Plan for reading the Immigrants in Washington Article.

    • Distribute the Immigrants in Washington Article and the Immigrants Close Reading Questions handout to each student.
    • Talking points:
      • Just as you read sections of an article on the tribes and early settlers in Washington, you will also do so for the immigrants in Washington. Today, you will read the whole article with a partner from your team, and learn about some reading strategies to support you through the article as well as the research you will conduct throughout the unit.
      • As settlers from all over the country made their way to the region, so did immigrants from different countries. Settlers and immigrants both had the goals of claiming land and earning money through the developing industries.
      • However, immigrants from particular countries faced challenges and inequitable opportunities as they tried to support themselves and their communities.
      • Today, you will read about who the immigrants in Washington were, why they settled in Washington, what their role in the developing industries was, and what challenges they faced.
    • Identify the reading purpose:
      • Read to learn who immigrated to Washington, what communities they formed, and how they experienced work and life.
    • Map our course: Prompt students to scan the article’s structure, noting its length, section headers, and vocab support.
      • Have students identify the title and ask them what they already know about immigrants in Washington and what questions they might have about them.
      • Ask students to identify anything that looks difficult and address any immediate concerns or questions.
    • Identify tools: Explain students should use the same annotation system as in the previous lesson’s article (Early Settlers in Washington) as they identify evidence that supports the purpose for reading. Remind students of the following symbols:
      • ü = information that supports the purpose for reading (add summarizing notes)
      • ? = anything confusing (words, phrases, sentences)
    • Prepare the Survival Kit: Review the following strategies that will help students if they get stuck:
      • Lost or confused? Reread, read on, stop and clarify, ask for help, or review the purpose for reading.
      • Stuck on unfamiliar words or ideas? Break down complex words, phrases, or paragraphs.
      • Need more help or more information? Use all text features, such as graphics, captions, or defined vocabulary words for support.

    [Slide 7] Read the first paragraph aloud to engage students with the text and model expectations.

    • Demonstrate how to read the article with the purpose in mind and using the tools discussed.
    • Remind students that informational articles usually provide many details that are helpful for understanding the main idea, but that not all details need to be recorded or memorized. The reading purpose will help students determine what is really important to pay attention to and what’s less important.
    • Demonstrate how to link information in the article to the reading purpose by marking it with a checkmark and annotating the text.
      • Example: The main idea of Paragraph 1 does not directly address the reading purpose, although it does put the issue in context. Ask students to consider the contrast between the East Coast’s large cities versus the 4,000 immigrants and the Indigenous tribes in Washington.
    • Model how to identify a confusing part and use one of the Survival Kit strategies.
      • Example: Students may find Paragraph 1 chronologically complex. Encourage students to get the gist by slowing down and rereading (Washington was contested territory until it came under U.S. control and became “Washington”). In Paragraph 2, demonstrate how students might mark “anti-Catholic bias” as an unfamiliar phrase; provide a brief explanation.
    • Organize students into pairs with a member from their team. Provide time for student pairs to read the three sections of the article and respond to the questions in the Immigrants Close Reading Questions handout.

    Stay on course.

    • As you circulate, use the Immigrants Close Reading Questions KEY to check student progress through the article.
    • When appropriate, support students in clarifying confusing sections (marked with a question mark).
    • Periodically ask students in each group to explain why and where they used check marks—and how the information they marked relates to the reading purpose.

    [Slide 8] Have students make connections between the article and their mural project.

    • Teams will now come together to answer questions on the organizer by drawing on their annotations, what they know from the previous articles, and what they know about the mural project.
    • For better comprehension, encourage teams to discuss as a team, then write their collective responses.

    Arrive, unpack, and share.

    • After teams have completed the Immigrants in Washington Notes Organizer, ask teams to share their summary statements.
      • Ask teams to identify the most effective summary statements, which should succinctly summarize the main points of each big idea.
      • Invite teams to refine their summary statements if they hear ways to improve their own.
    • Facilitate a discussion of their responses to the mural connection questions.
      • Rather than providing answers to questions asked by teams, encourage students to identify ways they might research their questions.
      • As needed, consider synthesizing student questions and posting them on the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Step 6: Research the history of immigrants in the region near you(20 min)

    Purpose: Project teams conduct research to gather facts and details on the lives and legacies of people who immigrated to and settled in their community. Students synthesize their learning and work with their teams to develop a more inclusive story of the immigrants who have shaped the region where they live.

    Have students conduct their research on the immigrants who have established communities.

    • Talking point: In the last lesson, your teams researched the early settlers of our area. Today, you will research the immigrants who settled in our region and the communities they established.
    • Have students conduct their research using their Mural Research Notes Organizer.
    • Have students connect their research findings with the three themes of values, sense of place, and artifacts, and complete the first three rows of the table in their organizer.

    [Slide 9] Have student teams work together to connect their research to the mural proposal.

    • Explain that students will get together with their project teams to make connections between their research and mural proposal. Have them bring their Mural Research Notes Organizer and their mural proposal (which you may need to return to students, if you previously collected them for assessment).
    • Remind students that they had previously made connections between their new learning about the early settlers in Washington and their mural proposal. Today, they will make their connections with their research on the immigrants.
    • Explain that the Lead Historian will continue to synthesize and record their teammates’ ideas in the Layout section of the mural proposal. Remind students that as they learn new information, they should continue to refine their proposal.
    • Have students focus on the following questions as they synthesize their research:
      • What groups of people immigrated to the region where you live, and where did they come from?
      • What connected them to and motivated them to immigrate to Washington?
      • What were their lives like as they settled into this new place?
      • What artifacts might represent their stories?

    [Slides 10–11] Facilitate a brief discussion with the class.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts:
      • Consider what you learned today. What does this information teach you about the history of the immigrants in this state? What were some of the barriers for some immigrants trying to settle in the United States or in Washington?
      • Consider some of the reasons and motivations for their move. What do you think it felt like for immigrants to pick up their belongings from their home countries and move to a whole new place without knowing what to expect?
    • Invite students to share their responses.
    • Have student volunteers from each team respond to the following prompt:
      • How will your team include or represent your new understandings in your mural proposal?
    • Collect the notes that the Lead Historians recorded as a formative assessment of learning.

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.5: Designing Your Mural – The First Draft

    Module 1

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    Who influenced the history and development of Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Explore artifacts to learn about how they are tied to a person’s identity and story.
    • Use my research notes and the project rubric to design a first draft of my team’s mural.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will connect your Story Squares and the class mural with the work you will do for your final product. Your project team will engage in a virtual exploration of artifacts to understand how people use them to tell a story about their identities. Then you will view examples of how public art can be used to share important community issues. You will reflect on how to connect the themes of values and motivations, a sense of place, and artifacts to the stories of the people in your community, then design the first draft of your mural to share with your team. Finally, you will revisit the Know & Need to Know chart to assess your knowledge and progress toward proposing a mural that tells a more inclusive story of the people and history of the region where you live.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your identity and connection to an artifact: Talk with your classmates about an artifact that is connected to your identity.
    2. Engage in a virtual exploration of artifacts: Explore a crowdsourced collection of artifacts to learn some of the stories behind artifacts tied to immigrants’ identities and histories, and record your findings in your Artifact Exploration Organizer.
    3. View examples of public art and discuss its importance: Gain inspiration and understanding from public art found around the world in order to understand its power and purpose.
    4. Create the first draft of your mural: Use what you have learned about the people and stories that have shaped the region where you live to design a first draft of your mural to share with your team, using the layout criteria provided in the Mural Proposal Rubric and your notes from your Mural Research Notes Organizer.
    5. Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart: Assess your knowledge and progress toward telling the stories of the people who shaped your community.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:85 minutes
    Standards
    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.C4.6-8.3: Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a state or local issue.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.7.3: Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Blank paper, pencils, and erasers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students connect their Story Squares and their class mural with the work they will do for their final product. Project teams engage in a virtual exploration of artifacts to understand how people use them to tell a story about their identities. Then, they view examples of how public art can be used to share important community issues. Students reflect on how to connect the themes of values and motivations, sense of place, and artifacts to the stories of the people in their community, then design the first draft of their mural to share with your team. Finally, they revisit the Know & Need to Know chart to assess their knowledge and progress toward proposing a mural that tells a more inclusive story of the people and history in the region where they live.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, browse through the website "Your Story, Our Story" in order to become familiar with what students will do in this lesson.
      • An example of the Peruvian bracelet along with accompanying framing is provided in the directions below, but you may alternatively choose an artifact that may connect more deeply with the stories of the students in your class. Information about the artifact should have connections to the themes of a sense of place and values.
      • Choose an artifact to model what students will do with their project teams. You may want to choose an artifact that represents the story of an Indigenous person, early settler, or immigrant.
      • Pay special attention to with the types of artifacts that are highlighted, the relationships, and the categories of stories that are represented.
    • For Step 3, consider swapping out the image on Slide 5 with a public mural from the region or community where your school is located.
    • Begin thinking about community members or staff of an arts commission who can be invited to the mural proposal presentations at the end of the unit.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your identity and connection to an artifact (10 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on an artifact that represents part of their identity. This will prepare students to think about the use of artifacts as a way to tell a more authentic story of the groups of people in their mural.

    You might say: In Lesson 1, we created a class mural that helped us represent and tell our collective story. We also learned about the controversy over the painting of the fishermen in Anacortes, Washington. The artist had an idea of what should be in the painting, but ended up painting objects (or artifacts) that were not entirely accurate or representative of what the fishermen did in that area. The boat was all wrong, and so was the type of fish depicted. In the end, the artist said that paintings are subject to interpretation by each individual, but the postmaster of the Post Office where the painting was hung thought it was important for the art to be authentic and to represent the real stories of the people who lived and worked there. Today, your team will create the first draft of your mural. We will focus on including the artifacts that represent the real stories of the groups of people we have researched in our region and state.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a Turn and Talk.

    • Invite students to choose one artifact or object that tells a story of a personal experience, challenge, or achievement.
    • Instruct students to share their responses with a classmate, then share out to the whole class.
    Step 2: Engage in a virtual exploration of artifacts (20 min)

    Purpose: Students explore a virtual collection of artifacts in order to understand how stories tie artifacts to people or events. Students will later use these ideas to help them represent the stories of groups of people using historically significant artifacts in their mural.

    [Slide 3] Use the website "Your Story, Our Story" to model how students will explore the artifact collection.

    • Explain to students that they will engage in an artifact exploration.
    • Each person on the team will choose an artifact to look at from a website and they will read the story that accompanies that artifact.
    • Display the website "Your Story, Our Story" and walk the students through layout of the site.
    • Explain that all of the stories on the website are tied to artifacts connected to immigrants or their families.
    • Show students the different types of artifacts (photos, documents, and audio recordings) that connect different topics and relationships to the stories of those artifacts.
    • Model for students what you want them to do using one of the artifacts.
      • Project the Peruvian Bracelet artifact. Explain that the person telling the story about the bracelet is an immigrant.
      • Have students identify what they are looking at.
      • Remind students of the themes of a sense of place and values and motivations and have them listen for those themes as you read aloud the excerpt that the owner of the bracelet wrote about  it.
      • Ask students which themes are connected to the artifact.
      • Possible answers:
        • The bracelet was a part of her connection to a sense of place (Peru) and her identity (of being Peruvian).
        • The bracelet was also connected to her mother, who was someone she valued and was motivated by.
        • The bracelet symbolized her culture, which was seen as a cultural artifact for her.
    • Explain that each member of their project team will look at an artifact and use the themes of a sense of place and values and motivations to make connections between the artifact and the person telling the story. Have students also consider the person’s perspective and their connection to the artifact.
    • Explain that after they have studied at least one artifact, they will come back together as a team and share its story.
    • Distribute the Artifact Exploration Organizer to each student and have them work individually.
    • When students are finished, prompt them to take turns sharing with their team the artifact they explored and the significance of that artifact to a person or group of people.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate a class discussion on what artifacts can tell us.

    • Ask students to silently reflect, then invite students to share their ideas with the class.
      • What did these artifacts teach you about a person’s identity and connections to different aspects of their life?
      • What connections were you able to make between the story of another person’s artifact and your own artifact story that you shared in the beginning of our lesson?
     Teacher Tip: Using art analysis to address cultural bias in the classroomTeaching about art, history, and storytelling provides opportunities to address cultural biases and stereotypes. Because art, history, and stories can all be interpreted in many different ways, it is important to help students develop the mindset of analyzing the world through a culturally responsive lens and using visual thinking strategies as a tool for change. The article "How Art Analysis Addresses Cultural Bias in the Classroom" by Teach Local, Reach Global provides an example and tools for how to engage your students in rich discussions and strategies to address perspective and bias.
    Step 3: View examples of public art and discuss its importance(15 min)

     Purpose: Students view examples of public art from around the world and discuss their impact and importance.

    You might say: We started this unit by creating a class mural. Murals can be found all over the world and they tell distinct and different stories; they offer unique perspectives and points of views about peoples’  lives and the history and stories of different places.

    [Slides 5–6] Display the image of a mural in a public space and show the video “Public Art” [1:00].

    • Explain to students that they will watch a video about public art. As students watch, have them identify and share out reasons why public art is important.
      • Possible answers: It encourages dialogue on social issues impacting the community; it helps people better understand where they live, work, and visit.
    Step 4: Create the first draft design of your mural(30 min)

    Purpose: Students work individually to create a first draft of their mural using notes from their Mural Research Notes Organizer. Later, students present their first drafts to their teams, and the Lead Designer and Lead Storyteller make updates to the mural proposal.

    You might say: You will now have an opportunity to synthesize the learning you have done so far and to connect the themes we have explored relating to a sense of place, artifacts, and values and motivations. You will design the first draft of your mural that represents the people and stories that influenced the development of Washington and the region where you live. After designing your draft, your project teams will come back together to share your drafts and decide how the individual pieces of your designs can be used together to tell a fuller story.

    [Slide 7] Students, individually, create a draft of their mural design.

    • Distribute pencils and blank paper.
    • Instruct students to divide the paper into three sections (or panels) and explain that each section of the mural should tell the story of one of the three groups: tribes, early settlers, and immigrants.
    • Review the resources that students should draw on to support their visualization:
    • Explain to students that as they draft their design, they should consider the following questions:
      • How will you represent the people who have shaped the region where you live?
      • What artifacts will best represent their stories?
    • Explain to students that when they are done, they will present their draft designs to their team, and then the Lead Designer and Lead Storyteller will synthesize and record design ideas in the mural proposal.

    [Slide 8] Students present their draft designs in their teams.

    You might say: Each of you has been assigned a key role in the design and completion of your mural proposal. The Lead Storyteller is responsible for synthesizing and organizing the team’s ideas into the artist statement. They will later develop those ideas into a formal statement that highlights the purpose of the mural and the stories that are represented in it. The Lead Designer is responsible for visualizing the team’s ideas. They will later develop their initial visualizations into a formal design that tells a more inclusive story of the people in their region using multiple perspectives, images of people, themes, artifacts, and decisions. The Lead Historian is responsible for tracking research and sources that support and corroborate your mural’s design and details. The Lead Curator will later have a role in developing ideas for the location of your mural.

    Remember that for your final presentation to your classmates and members of the community, your team will be able to choose how you want to present your proposal. In the next few lessons, you will have an opportunity to begin thinking about how you will do that.

    • Explain that students should share out their designs one at a time in their teams. When sharing, students should address:
      • What story does your mural tell?
      • What artifacts help tell this story?
    • Once team members have shared their drafts with one another, explain to the class that they will continue to add to their mural proposal and iterate their design and artist statement as they learn more about the stories of the people in their region.
    Step 5: Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart(10 min)

    Purpose: Students revisit the Know & Need to Know chart to assess their own understanding of what they know about the project and what questions still have to be addressed.

    [Slide 9] Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart.

    • Refer to the Know & Need to Know chart that was created in Lesson 1.1.
    • Have students do a Turn and Talk, then share out their answers to the whole class:
      • What do you know about the tribes, early settlers, and immigrants who influenced the development and history of Washington?
      • What do you need to know about designing a mural that represents Washington’s history through multiple perspectives and themes?
    • Record students’ responses from the whole-class share out to update the chart.

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Module 2: The Impact of Decisions on the People in WA

     

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 2: The Impact of Decisions on the People in WA

    Decisions That Define Us

    Module Overview

    In this module, students continue making connections between the stories of the tribes, early settlers, and immigrants in Washington and their team’s mural proposal. Students learn about the federal and local decisions and events that impacted each of these groups of people and their lives as they established their legacies in Washington. Student teams deepen their research on the three groups local to the region they live in and develop the stories they want to represent on their murals using multiple perspectives and the themes of decisions, change, resistance, and interconnectedness.

    Lesson 2.1: The Impact of Decisions on the Tribes in Washington (120 minutes – 2 days)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Identify the impacts of national and local treaties and policies on the tribes in Washington.
    • Analyze primary and secondary resources to learn about how past and present decisions have impacted the local tribes in Washington.
    • Research in collaboration with your team the story of one of the tribes in your region to be used in your mural.
    In this lesson, students are introduced to four themes (decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance) that they can use to better understand the stories of others. Students read an informational article to deepen their knowledge of decisions that impacted tribes in Washington. They listen to a Yakama Elder, Marlene Silma, to learn about the treaties and decisions that destroyed and dismantled the Indigenous way of life. Then they draw on Silma’s perspective and the four themes to deepen their research into the stories of tribes in the region where they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and advance a more inclusive story of tribes in their mural proposal.
    Lesson 2.2: Following the Legacy of the Early Settlers (85 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Identify the decisions and changes that impacted the early settlers in Washington.
    • Analyze and watch videos on labor unions and workers’ rights to connect the stories of the early settlers to the themes of decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance.
    • Conduct research on a story that represents the legacy of early settlers in the region where I live that will be used in my team’s mural proposal.
    In this lesson, students  learn about the decisions and changes that led to struggles and successes for early settlers. They also learn about the role of labor unions and hear two stories that led to improved workers’ rights. Then they work in project teams and draw on this new understanding of workers’ rights to deepen their research into the stories of early settlers in their region. Finally, each team’s Lead Historian helps their project team synthesize its research and advance a more inclusive story of early settlers in its mural proposal.
    Lesson 2.3: Change and Strength in Immigrant Communities (75 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Identify decisions that impacted the lives and legacies of immigrants in Washington.
    • Analyze primary and secondary sources for evidence of immigrants forming communities and resisting in response to decisions that impacted them.
    • Conduct research on a story that represents the legacy of immigrants in the region where I live.
    In this lesson, students learn about government decisions that impacted immigrants, and how immigrants found community and resisted. They also learn about the immediate and enduring impacts of the Chinese Exclusion Act and Japanese internment. Project teams then continue to research the legacy of immigrants who set up communities in the region where they live in order to develop a fuller story of immigrants’ lasting contributions to Washington. Finally, the Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize the research for the teams’ mural proposals.
    Lesson 2.4: Designing Your Mural – The Second Draft (75 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Understand the history and purpose of murals in various communities around the world.
    • Take on one of four career-connected roles to support the creation of my team’s mural proposal.
    In this lesson, students revisit and revise all sections of their mural proposals, with the exception of their mural’s location (they will do that part in the next lesson). First, they watch a video discussion on murals and mural artists from around the world, then in their teams, they draw on what they have learned to update their mural proposals.
    Module Assessments (based on C3 Framework dimensions)
    LessonsDeveloping Questions and Planning InquiriesApplying Disciplinary Tools and ConceptsEvaluating Sources and Using EvidenceCommunicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action
    2.1Team ReflectionMural Research Notes OrganizerMural Proposal
    2.2Team ReflectionWashington’s Economy and Labor Notes Organizer,
    Mural Research Notes Organizer
    Mural Proposal
    2.3Team ReflectionStories from Immigrants in WA Notes Organizer,
    Mural Research Notes Organizer
    Mural Proposal
    2.4Know & Need to Know chart Mural Proposal
        
    Vocabulary
    • expulsion: the process of forcing someone to leave a place
    • incarceration: the state of being imprisoned
    • interconnectedness: the state of being connected to one another
    • internment: the detention of an enemy who was not a citizen of the United States
    • union: an organization of independent individuals for a common purpose

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 2.1: The Impact of Decisions on the Tribes in Washington

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we represent history through multiple perspectives to reflect
    the experiences of tribes, settlers, and immigrants? 

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the impacts of national and local treaties and policies on the tribes in Washington.
    • Analyze primary and secondary resources to learn about how past and present decisions have impacted the local tribes in Washington.
    • Research in collaboration with your team the story of one of the tribes in your region to be used in your mural.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will be introduced to four themes (decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance) that you can use to better understand the stories of others. You will read an informational article to deepen your knowledge of decisions that impacted tribes in Washington. You will listen to a Yakama Elder, Marlene Silma, to learn about the treaties and decisions that destroyed and dismantled the Indigenous way of life. Then you will draw on Silma’s perspective and the four themes to deepen your research into the stories of tribes in the region where you live. Finally, your team’s Lead Historian will help your project team synthesize your research and advance a fuller story of tribes in your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your story and your perspective: Use a Story Wheel handout to consider what events, people, and ideas have impacted you and shaped your perspective.
    2. Read the informational article to learn about decisions impacting tribes: Engage in a jigsaw reading to read the remainder of the sections in the Tribes in Washington Article. Deepen your understanding of decisions impacting tribes in Washington by responding to the Tribes Close Reading Questions. Then reflect on your learnings in your Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer.
    3. Follow the case of the Yakama Tribe: Understand the impact of the treaties and government decisions on the Yakama Tribe and the ways in which their stories live on today.
    4. Research the stories of local tribes and update your mural proposal: Work in your project teams to understand the impact of government decisions on the tribes where you live, using the Student Research Resources to guide you and recording your new learnings in your Mural Research Notes Organizer.
    5. Team Reflection: Your project teams will reflect on your learning about the stories of the local tribes and make connections between your new understandings and your mural proposal.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:120 minutes (two days)
    Standards

    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.

    C3.6-8.4: Explain elements of the agreements contained in one or more treaty agreements between Washington tribes and the United States.

    SSS3.6-8.1: Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple viewpoints on public issues.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students are introduced to four themes (decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance) that they can use to better understand the stories of others. Students read an informational article to deepen their knowledge of decisions that impacted tribes in Washington. They listen to a Yakama Elder, Marlene Silma, to learn about the treaties and decisions that destroyed and dismantled the Indigenous way of life. Then they draw on Silma’s perspective and the four themes to deepen their research into the stories of tribes in the region where they live. Finally, Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize their research and advance a more inclusive story of tribes in their mural proposal.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Students will not watch the complete video. The portion that is skipped over tells the story of how tribe members often traded their land allotment for alcohol. This was a way for white men to establish settlements on the land.
    • If you do choose to show the full video, it is important that you prepare for conversations to address stereotypes about Indigenous peoples.
    • For Step 4, become familiar with the stories of the local tribes within your region.
    • Through your own preparation and knowledge of local resources and experts, provide students with some resources about the local tribes in their region in Step 4. You may add resources to the Student Research Resources document.
    • Research to see if there any local connections you can make with an Elder or member of the tribe to speak to your class or be interviewed by the class.

     

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your story and your perspective(20 min)

    Purpose: Students begin thinking about the purpose of murals as a way to share a community’s identity. They represent their story and perspective visually to connect to the themes that they will investigate in the next few lessons.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on the themes of decisions, change, resistance, and interconnectedness.

    You might say: In the last few lessons, we explored how our identities influence how we develop our perspectives on the world around us and how we understand others’ and our own experiences. We made connections between how our stories and the stories of others are tied to developing a sense of place, understanding the motivations and values that drive us, and identifying the artifacts that are important to us. We will build on these themes in the next set of lessons in order to develop a more inclusive story about the groups of people in the region where we live and the state. Today, you will do some mirror and window reflections, which means seeing your own stories and identity, but also looking at the stories of others to understand another person’s perspective and experiences. You will be introduced to additional themes by completing a Story Wheel about your life. Your goal is to reflect on the following events in your life:

    • The first is a time when you made a decision, or someone made a decision for you, that significantly impacted or changed your life in some way.
    • The second is a moment when you resisted something.
    • The third is a moment of connection with others.
    • In the fourth section of the wheel, identify a theme that represents how you see yourself in your community.
    • Distribute the Story Wheel handout to each student and clarify the directions for them.

    [Slide 3] Have students share their Story Wheel with a classmate.

    • Clarify to students that they may choose what to share with their classmates since their stories may be deeply personal and hold many feelings for them.
    • Ask for student volunteers to share a reflection from their Story Wheel.
    • Ask:
      • What did it feel like to hear another person’s story?
      • How did it help you understand them better or differently than before?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain to students that understanding another person’s story and perspective, whether it is similar to or different from theirs, is useful in acknowledging that there are many ways to look at and seek to understand something.
    • Have students hold on to their Story Wheel to refer to in the next few lessons.
    Step 2: Read the informational article to learn about decisions impacting tribes(40 min)

    Purpose: Students deepen their foundational understandings of key decisions that impacted tribes in Washington. They will make connections between the content to the stories of the tribes in the region where they live.

    [Slides 4–5] Engage students in a jigsaw reading of two sections of the Tribes in Washington Article.

    • Explain to students that they will be reading the remainder of the Tribes in Washington Article and responding to the remaining Tribes Close Reading Questions. Distribute the article and questions, or have students access them from Lesson 1.2.
    • Have students recall and share the main idea from the first section of the article.
    • Explain to students they will read to deepen their understanding of key decisions that impacted tribes in Washington and around the country. They will use this information to make connections to how the tribes in the region where they live were also impacted.
    • Have students identify and remind themselves of the purpose of the article.
    • Have students identify the titles of Sections 2–4 of the article. Ask students what they already know about the impact of colonization and statehood on Indigenous people and about tribal sovereignty. Note students’ responses on the board to make connections to content in the article.
    • Have students identify the questions in the Tribes Close Reading Questions handout for each section of the article.
    • Explain to students that they will be assigned one of two sections of the article to read. After they read the assigned section and have answered the question(s) of their assigned section, they will then get together with a classmate who read the other section of the article. Each partner will share information from their assigned section with the other.
    • Count off students and assign them to read either read Section 2 or 3 from the article. Students can read their assigned section with a partner reading the same section.
    • As you circulate, use the Tribes Close Reading Questions KEY to check and support student progress.
    • When appropriate, support students in clarifying confusing sections (marked with a question mark).

    [Slide 6] Have students share their new understandings with a partner.

    • Have students pair up with another classmate who read the section they were not assigned.
    • Explain to students that they will be sharing their expertise on the section they read. As they share, they will focus on sharing:
      • the impact of decisions or actions on the tribes in Washington
      • their responses to the questions
    • Remind students that they are responsible for understanding the sections they did not read, so they are to also answer the questions in all sections of the article as they learn from their classmates.

    Have students meet with their project team to read Section 4 of the article, “Cultural Values.”

    • Explain to students that they will now gather back with their project teams to read the last section of the article and respond to the question at the end of the section.
    • Explain that many decisions are still being made that continually impact tribes and their sovereignty, and they still practice many traditions to celebrate their rich culture and heritage.
    • Have students read the last section as a team and make connections to the cultural traditions they have already learned about from the tribe in the region where they live.

    [Slide 7] Have students make connections to their mural proposal in their Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer.

    • Have students access the Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer they worked on when they read Section 1 of the article in Lesson 1.2.
    • Have students make connections to their mural proposal and to discuss how the stories of the tribes in the region can be represented in their mural design.

    Facilitate a discussion of students’ summaries and connections to the mural proposal.

    • After teams have completed the Tribes in Washington Notes Organizer, ask teams to share their summary statements from the article.
      • Ask teams to identify the most effective summary statements, which should succinctly summarize the main points of each big idea.
      • Invite teams to refine their summary statements if they hear ways to improve their own.
    • Facilitate a discussion of the mural connection responses.
      • Rather than providing answers to questions asked by teams, encourage students to identify ways they might research their questions.
      • As needed, consider synthesizing student questions and posting them on the Know & Need to Know chart.
    • If you have established an interactive word wall, propose one new word and definition for the wall, then ask students what other words from today’s lesson should be added.
    Step 3: Follow the case of the Yakama Tribe(20 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to some of the impacts that treaties had on Indigenous peoples in Washington by analyzing a map and listening to remarks from a Yakama Elder. Students will then use this new understanding later in the lesson to continue the research that will inform their mural proposal.

    [Slides 8–9] Introduce the story of the Yakama Nation.

    • Project and display the web page "Invasion of America" and search for ‘Washington state.’ The map will zoom in on the Washington Territory. All of the blue land is Indigenous land.
    • Click on a region in the Pacific Northwest. A highlighted area will appear that shows the land that was ceded to the government through a particular treaty that was signed.
    • Ask: When you look at the blue region and see how much land was Indigenous land and then see the highlighted area that was ceded—or surrendered—over to the government, how do you think this impacted the tribes and their connection to the land?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Slide 8. Provide an overview of the Stevens Treaties. Talking points:
      • Between the 1850s and 1900, a series of treaties and decisions were signed that forever changed the Indigenous peoples’ relationship with their land and the government—not just in Washington, but all over the country.
      • As a growing number of settlers were moving west in response to the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, there were also growing tensions and demands from white settlers to push the tribes off their lands to make room for them, even though they recognized that members of the tribes were seen as inexpensive labor. The conflicts with the tribes in the territory often resulted in violent disputes.
      • From 1854–1855, eight treaties were signed between the United States government and the tribes of the Pacific Northwest. During that time, a man named Isaac Stevens was the governor of the Washington Territory. Treaties were often negotiated and signed by government officials and tribal leaders, and had to be approved by Congress.
      • Governor Stevens made his way around the territory to meet with different tribal leaders. As he laid out his treaty plan with the tribal members, his words were translated into the languages used by the various tribes. Dialogues were also translated. Historians believed that it was challenging for the tribes to clearly understand the language and vocabulary of the treaty. The tribal members would convene to discuss what they heard and then everyone would come back together to sign the treaty. There were often negotiations about the size or price of the land, but some historians suggest the commission dictated the terms more than they negotiated.
      • These Stevens Treaties impacted the relationship the tribes had with their land, and that impact has been enduring.
    • Slide 9. Invite students to look at the principles highlighted in red and ask:
      • What do you notice about the wording or the language of these three particular principles?
      • What do you think was the aim of the treaties?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Slide 10. Talking points:
      • The Stevens Treaties played a significant role in the relationship between the United States government and the tribes all over the country, but shortly after the treaties were signed, more decisions were made that impacted the tribes.
      • The Homestead Act of 1862 was a decision to entice people to settle in the West. This act was signed by President Lincoln. It allowed any United States citizen—including formerly enslaved people, women, and immigrants—to claim up to 160 acres of free land. At this time, Indigenous people in the United States were not considered citizens; that remained the case until 1924. Though the Homestead Act was intended to provide opportunity for people, it was a violation of treaty rights and pushed many tribes off of their lands and onto reservations.
      • The Dawes Act of 1887 had a similar effect, in that tribes were only allotted a small fraction of the land they originally and rightfully owned. Due to this, they lost even more of their Indigenous land to settlers and those the government considered citizens. The Dawes Act also isolated tribes from one another.
      • In the 1860s, residential schools were also set up to force Indigenous children to be stripped of their culture and language and to assimilate them to the ways of the dominant culture. These schools were set up around the country (as well as in other countries, such as Canada), and they had and continue to have a tremendous generational impact on the tribes.
      • The Boldt Decision, made in 1974, was considered a win for the tribes because it affirmed their fishing rights after gradually losing more and more of their rights to access a cultural symbol and tradition.
    • Slide 11. Have students answer the two prompts:
      • What do you think was the greatest impact of these decisions on the ways of life of the tribes in Washington?
      • How do you think these decisions impacted their identities, culture, and traditions?
    • Invite students to respond.

    Introduce the Yakama Nation.

    • Now go back to the map on the website "Invasion of America." Click on the area where it says Washington on the map. The area that pops up will be the Yakama Nation.
    • Explain that the Yakama people have been living in the area for so long that it goes beyond living memory, or since time immemorial. The land was a reliable source of fish, berries, and wildlife for the Yakama people, and they had and continue to have traditional practices that make use of the land in sustainable ways.
    • Click on the Treaty Description.

     

    • Show students that a primary source of the treaty will appear in another window they can zoom in on.
    • Slide 12. Show the first paragraph of Article 1 and read out loud to the class:
      • The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied and claimed by them, and bounded and described as follows…
    • Review key vocabulary:
      • cede: to transfer or surrender
      • relinquish: to let go of or give up
      • convey: to transfer something (in this case, property) from one party to another
    • Invite students to do a Turn and Talk: As a result of the Yakama Treaty, who gained something and who lost something?
      • Answer: The United States government gained land rights and the confederated tribes lost their land rights.
    • Invite students to share out their response to the whole class.
    • Slide 13. Show the timeline of the Yakama people. Talking points:
      • After a short period of time, Stevens violated the terms of the treaty by opening up Yakama land to white settlers.
      • As a form of resistance, the Yakama Tribe and neighboring tribes fought back, which started a period of violent conflict known as the Yakama War.
      • By 1887, the Dawes Act broke up more of the land that belonged to the tribes to be sold to white settlers.
      • By the turn of the century, the Yakama and other tribes had lost their rights to live on and use the land, marking a significant decline in tribal sovereignty.

     

    You might say: Marlene Silma’s perspective connects to the tribal land and what was being done to it. She provides a historical and geographical perspective to help us understand the impact of decisions on her tribe. So, what decisions impacted the tribes in Washington and their people? What changes did they have to endure? How did they stay connected as a community? How did they resist these decisions that impacted their land and rights? These are all questions you will explore today.

    [Slide 14] Play a video that highlights the perspective of a Yakama Elder.

    You might say: Think back to your Story Wheel and the themes you explored: decisions, interconnectedness, change, and resistance. These themes help us understand a fuller story of ourselves and others. You will be watching a video of an interview with Marlene Silma, an Elder from the Yakama tribe. Listening to her story helps us understand a firsthand perspective of what the people in her tribe experienced and the ongoing struggle for land rights and resources.

    As students watch the video, have them focus on the four themes by considering two guiding questions:

    • What was Marlene Silma’s perspective on the treaties and their impact on her people?
    • What does Marlene Silma think of the murals?

    Play the video "Interview of a Yakama Elder."

    • Pause the video at [4:45]. Invite students to do a Turn and Talk on the first guiding question:
      • What was Marlene Silma’s perspective on the treaties and their impact on her people?
        • Answer: The white men treated them as uncivilized and in need of education, and hanged anyone who didn’t agree with them. The white men said the Yakama people needed schools and hospitals, and said they were going to build them. They came in and bought up Yakama land.
    • Invite students to share their responses with the whole class.
    • Play the video from [5:55–7:05]. Invite students to do a Turn and Talk on the second guiding question:
      • What does Marlene Silma think of the murals?
        • Answer: She didn’t care for the murals at first because it was white people painting Indians. The white people didn’t respect the Yakama culture. The Yakama people are distinct and one should respect their culture by seeking to understand it.
    • Invite students to share their responses with the whole class.
    Step 4: Research the stories of local tribes and update your mural proposal(35 min)

    Purpose: Project teams get together to research the stories of the tribes in their region. They highlight the story of a tribe or individual who was impacted by federal or state decisions and how they responded.

    You might say: As you continue your research, remember that it is important to highlight the perspectives of those who have not always been heard, like Marlene Silma, the Yakama Elder. Don’t let your mural misrepresent the stories and identities of the people in your community.

    [Slide 15] Display the directions for students to conduct their research.

    • Prompt students return to their Mural Research Notes Organizer, then direct them to the section they will complete.
    • Explain that they will continue the individual research they started in Module 1 using the Student Research Resources document. They will then come together as a team to synthesize their new understanding of tribes and update their mural proposal.

    Have project teams connect and synthesize their research into their mural proposal.

    • Explain to the students that they will now gather with their project teams to connect their ideas to their mural proposals.
    • The Lead Storyteller will facilitate the conversation and take notes that can be used for the artist statement in their group’s mural proposal. At the same time, the Lead Historian will also listen for historical information and take notes that can be used to develop the historical context of the decisions that impacted the tribes.
    • Have the Lead Storyteller facilitate the conversation by asking the following questions:
      • Decisions: What decisions impacted the tribes in the region where we live, and how?
      • Change: What was the impact on the tribes’ relationship with their land?
      • Resistance: Did the tribes in our region resist? If so, how?
      • Interconnectedness: How did the tribes [or tribe members] stay connected to one another?
    Step 5: Team Reflection (5 min)

    Purpose: Project teams reflect on and connect their new learning to their mural proposal and design. This reflection helps students continue to develop their connections between the content and their mural proposal.

    [Slide 16] Have project teams complete a reflection of their new understandings.

    • Distribute the Team Reflection handout and have each project team respond to the following prompts:
      • How does what you learned help you better understand the story of where you live?
      • How will your team represent the lived experiences and perspectives of tribes in your mural?

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.2: Following the Legacy of the Early Settlers

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we represent history through multiple perspectives to reflect

    the experiences of tribes, settlers, and immigrants?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the decisions and changes that impacted the early settlers in Washington.
    • Analyze and watch videos on labor unions and workers’ rights to connect the stories of the early settlers to the themes of decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance.
    • Conduct research on a story that represents the legacy of early settlers in the region where I live that will be used in my team’s mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about the decisions and changes

    that led to struggles and successes for early settlers. You will also learn about the role of labor unions and hear two stories that led to improved workers’ rights. Then you will work in your project teams and draw on this new understanding of workers’ rights to deepen your research into the stories of early settlers in the place where you live. Finally, your team’s Lead Historian will help your project team synthesize your research and advance a fuller story of early settlers in your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Explore the theme of resistance: Using your Story Wheel from Lesson 2.1, share a time in your life when you resisted someone or something and how it made you stronger or benefited you in some way.
    2. Read about shifts in the economy and their impacts on workers in WA: Analyze an article with your project team to learn about the history of Washington’s economy, including how the changes in population impacted working conditions and how labor unions worked to protect workers’ rights, and record your new understandings in your Washington’s Economy and Labor Notes Organizer.
    3. Research the stories of early settlers in your region: Use the Mural Research Notes Organizer (from Lesson 1.2) and the Early Settlers in Washington Article, Settlers Close Reading Questions, Student Research Resources, and the Motivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer (all from Lesson 1.3) to continue to develop your research into the stories of the people in your community and make connections to your mural proposal.
    4. Team Reflection: Reflect with your project team on how to apply your new understandings toward developing the stories of the early settlers in your Mural Proposal Guide.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:85 minutes
    Standards

    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.

    H3.6-8.3: Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how Washington state has been impacted by: Individuals and movements, cultures and cultural groups, technology and ideas.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about the decisions and changes that led to struggles and successes for early settlers. They also learn about the role of labor unions and hear two stories that led to improved workers’ rights. Then they work in project teams and draw on this new understanding of workers’ rights to deepen their research into the stories of early settlers in their region. Finally, each team’s Lead Historian helps their project team synthesize its research and advance a more inclusive story of early settlers in its mural proposal.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, consider preparing a model for students before they do their Turn and Talk.
    • Reflect on an act of resistance that made you stronger or benefited you in some way.
    • For Step 3, students can use the “Early Settlers in Washington” article as a part of their research about the industries that brought settlers into the region.
    • Remind students of the reading strategies they have already learned to support them in their comprehension of the article.
    • Encourage students to read the article in pairs or as a team if needed.
    • For Step 4, become familiar with the stories of the settlers in the region where you live.
    • Here are two resources that may help you locate oral histories from the region where you live:
    • Have students access the website HistoryLink.org and search for early settlers in the region where they live by typing early settlers in (name of county or city) in the search box.
    • Research or contact your local history museum to see if you can connect with any potential guest speakers who could share stories from their own family history. You may add to the Student Research Resources document from Lesson 1.2.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Explore the theme of resistance (5 min)

    Purpose: Students share a time when an act of resistance made them stronger or benefited them in some way. This prepares students to understand how resistance is an important factor when they learn about workers’ rights today.

    You might say: In the last lesson, you completed a Story Wheel that told a fuller story of your life by applying the perspective-taking themes we have been studying and that your project teams are using to design an original mural. Today, we are going to learn about the legacy of the settlers who came to work in Washington and how acts of resistance defined the future of workers’ rights, which helped to create stronger communities across the state.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a Turn and Talk on the perspective-taking theme of resistance.

    • Invite students to look back at their Story Wheel and silently reflect on an act of resistance that made them stronger or benefited them in some way. This can be a tough theme; consider modeling your own example for students.
    • Instruct students to share their responses with a classmate, then share out to the whole class.
    • Explain to resistance looks different for everyone depending on the situation they are experiencing and how they might define resistance. Resistance can be shown in silent ways, such as a boycott against something, or it can be more vocal, like participating in a rally or protest.
    Step 2: Read about shifts in the economy and their impacts on workers in WA(35 min)

    Purpose: Students learn how the economy changed as more settlers arrived and labor unions were formed to advocate for workers’ rights. Later students will draw on this historical context to support their research about settlers and workers in the region where they live.

    You might say: Over time, as more settlers arrived, large industries emerged because of the growing labor force and opportunities to take advantage of the state’s untapped natural resources. The influx of workers led to opportunities for some to hold more power and voice than others, which resulted in unfair treatment of workers across all industries. Today we are going to explore how these changes impacted workers in Washington, and how they have fought for their rights in both the past and the present.

    Have students read an article that highlights how economic changes led some industries to struggle and others to thrive.

    • Explain to the class that their project teams will read an article that describes how Washington’s economy changed over time and how that impacted the people living and working here.
    • As they read, have students look for the themes of settlers being impacted by decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance. Each person on the team will focus on one theme as they read.

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a discussion about the article and what students learned.

    • Have students respond to the following prompts:
      • What key events or decisions impacted the industries and economy of the state?
      • How did people respond to those big changes or events that had profound impacts on their lives?
    • Have students share their responses.

    [Slides 4–5] Introduce students to how unions led to the improvement of working conditions.

    • Have students look at the two slides and share with an elbow partner what they notice and what they wonder.
    • Invite student volunteers to share their responses.
    • Talking points:
      • In the article "A Brief History of Washington's Economy," the author stated that as the population grew, lumber workers struggled to keep up with the demand for lumber. Working in the logging and lumber industries could pose many dangers, with people getting crushed by trees, sawing off fingers, and sustaining numerous other injuries.
      • Injuries in the logging industry—as well as other workplace challenges such as poor wages, poor sanitation, discrimination, and long work days—led to the formation of unions.
      • In each line of work, there were two groups of people: those who operated the farms, mills, mines, and fishing canneries, and those who did the intense labor.
    • Ask: What do you think were some of the things that the workers could do about those problems? In what ways did they try to resist or change their working conditions?
    • Have students share responses.

    [Slide 6] Have students watch two videos with their project teams in order to understand the role of unions in protecting workers’ rights.

    • Explain to the students that they will watch two videos that highlight the ways in which many workers in those industries of farming, logging, fishing, mining as well as many other industries fought to protect themselves and their rights, particularly when they were not treated fairly or working in unsafe conditions.
    • Students will work in their project teams and divide into pairs. Each pair will watch one of the two videos. Each video focuses on the story of an individual or group of individuals who benefitted from unions.
    • Have students answer these four questions in Part Two of their Washington’s Economy and Labor Notes Organizer after they watch the videos and share what they learned with the rest of their team:
      • What was the issue that needed to be addressed?
      • How was it addressed, and by whom?
      • What do you think the purpose of a union is?
      • In what ways can you connect what you saw and/or read with the themes of resistance and interconnectedness?
    • Students will use the links in the organizer to access the articles and videos.

    [Slides 7–8] Facilitate a class discussion on what students learned from their articles and videos.

    • Ask:
      • Based the articles and videos, what do you think were some of the challenges that settlers and workers faced as the population and industries grew?
      • What do you think the purpose of a union is?
    • Invite students to respond.
    • Explain that the union Jessica Ramirez worked with was Familias Unidas por la Justicia, and Daniel Salonka organized with other union workers under the International Woodworkers of America.
    • Slide 7: Ask:
      • Why were the workers in the videos boycotting or striking? What was the outcome of their act of resistance and fight for fair treatment and rights?
      • What did you notice about the stories of strength in those work communities? What artifact do you think could represent those stories?
    • Have students share their responses.
    • Slide 8: Talking points:
      • In the past, not everyone could join a union. Black, Filipino, and Chinese workers were often unable to join unions because of racism. The International Workers of the World (IWW) did not allow them to join unions. So, some workers formed their own unions, such as the Japanese–Mexican Labor Association, formed in 1903, and the United Farm Workers Association in the 1960s, consisting mostly of Mexican immigrants or Mexican Americans.
      • Decisions such as these, though they took a long time to establish throughout history, shaped the industries, labor, and economy of Washington.
      • These historical perspectives of resistance have persisted to today. Through strikes and boycotts, many workers have been able to work in safer conditions, earn better pay, or receive benefits.
      • As your teams work together to research the stories of the settlers in the region where you live, what are the multiple perspectives that you can bring into your mural proposal to tell the stories of the early settlers?
    • Explain that in many communities where the farming, logging, fishing, or mining industries were established, the legacies of those jobs in families are also strong. These types of professions are often passed down through generations, and entire communities can be centered around those jobs.
    Step 3: Research the stories of early settlers in the region where you live(40 min)

    Purpose: Project teams spend this time continuing to research and learn about stories of decisions that were made, changes that took place, instances of resistance, and moments of interconnectedness and community. This helps students develop a fuller story of the settlers in the region where they live as they think about what they want to have represented in their mural proposal.

    [Slide 9] Display the directions for students to conduct their research.

    • Explain to the students that they will use the information they learned from their previous research to connect to the four themes of decisions, change, interconnectedness, and resistance.
    • Explain to the students that they will add to their research in the Mural Research Notes Organizer.
    • Introduce Part 2 of the Motivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer and its connection to the unit project:
      • Remind students of the Early Settlers in Washington Article and the Settlers Close Reading Questions from Lesson 1.3. Have students access the article and questions as a part of their research, as well as the information provided in the Student Research Resources document from Lesson 1.2.
      • Use the Settlers Close Reading Questions KEY to check and support student thinking.
      • In the Motivations and Early Settlers Notes Organizer, students will make connections to their team’s mural proposal.

    [Slide 10] Have project teams connect and synthesize their research into their mural proposal.

    • Explain to the students that they will now gather with their project teams to connect their ideas to their mural proposals.
    • The Lead Storyteller will facilitate the conversation and take notes to be included in the artist statement section of their mural proposal. At the same time, the Lead Historian will listen for and take notes that can be used to develop the historical context of the decisions that impacted the early settlers.
    • Have the Lead Storyteller facilitate the conversation by asking the following questions:
      • How did decisions and changes impact the early settlers and workers in Washington?
      • How did they stay connected as a community?
      • In what ways did they resist change or decisions?
      • What artifact could represent those stories or their legacies?
    Step 4: Team Reflection(5 min)

    Purpose: Project teams reflect on and connect their new learning to their mural proposal. This reflection helps students continue to develop connections between the content and their mural proposals.

    Facilitate a brief discussion about the connection between the industries and tribal sovereignty.

    • Have students respond to the prompt:
      • Now that you have learned about the history of the industries that brought early settlers into the region, how do you think the development of these industries impacted tribal sovereignty and tribes’ access to their land and resources?
    • Invite students to respond.

    [Slide 11] Have project teams complete a reflection of their new understandings.

    • Distribute the Team Reflection handout and have each project team respond to the following prompts:
      • How does what you learned help you better understand the story of where you live?
      • How will your team represent the lived experiences and perspectives of early settlers in your mural?

     

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Decisions That Define Us © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.3: Change and Strength in Immigrant Communities

     

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we represent history through multiple perspectives to reflectthe experiences of tribes, settlers, and immigrants? 

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify decisions that impacted the lives and legacies of immigrants in Washington.
    • Analyze primary and secondary sources for evidence of immigrants forming communities and resisting in response to decisions that impacted them.
    • Conduct research on a story that represents the legacy of immigrants in the region where I live.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about government decisions that impacted immigrants, and how immigrants found community and resisted. You will also learn about the immediate and enduring impacts of the Chinese Exclusion Act and Japanese internment. Your project teams will then continue to research the legacy of immigrants who set up communities in the region where you live in order to develop a fuller story of their lasting contributions to Washington. Finally, your team’s Lead Historian will help your project team synthesize the research for your team’s mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on connections and community in your life: Using your Story Wheel from Lesson 2.1, reflect and share about a time when you have made connections and built community with others.
    2. Learn where people immigrated from and why: Learn about some of the oldest immigrant communities in Washington and what brought them here.
    3. Analyze government decisions and immigrant responses: Work in your project teams to engage with articles and videos, and learn about the experiences of those who were impacted by federal and local decisions. Record your new understandings in your Stories From Immigrants in WA Notes Organizer.
    4. Research stories of immigrants in the region where you live: Work in your project teams to dive more deeply into the stories and contributions of the immigrants in your community, and add to your Mural Research Notes Organizer and Mural Proposal Guide.
    5. Team Reflection: Reflect with your project team on your collective research and connections to their mural proposal.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards
    G2.6-8.4: Explain the role of immigration in shaping societies in the past or present.C3.6-8.2: Analyze how international agreements have affected Washington state.H2.6-8.2: Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped Washington state history since statehood.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about government decisions that impacted immigrants, and how immigrants found community and resisted. They also learn about the immediate and enduring impacts of the Chinese Exclusion Act and Japanese internment. Project teams then continue to research the legacy of immigrants who set up communities in the region where they live in order to develop a fuller story of immigrants’ lasting contributions to Washington. Finally, the Lead Historians help their project teams synthesize the research for the teams’ mural proposals.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, consider the immigration stories and experiences of your students.
      • Your students may have their own immigration stories, some of which they may be open to sharing and some of which they may not. Being mindful of those experiences within your classroom will be important.
      • You might consider inviting a community member or other school staff member who may be open to sharing their immigration story. Immigration stories are diverse and can be filled with trauma and loss, or hope and excitement. It will be important to take careful consideration when approaching others to share their stories.
    • To prepare for Steps 2 and 3, read the article "A History Bursting with Telling: Asian Americans in Washington State" to become more familiar with the background of Asian/Pacific Islander immigration in Washington.
    • Many counties or cities have pockets of immigrant communities. Provide students with some resources about those immigrants’ communities and their contributions to the region where you live.
    • For Step 4, become familiar with the stories of the immigrant communities within your region.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on connection and community in your life(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on how interconnectedness with others is important in their lives and to their story. This helps students transition to learning about interconnectedness as a defining characteristic of immigrant communities throughout Washington’s history.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on their mini murals with a partner.

    You might say: In Module 1, you learned about some of the immigrants who settled in Washington. Each of you and your families may have an immigration story that goes back hundreds of years, or yours may be a recent story. Today, you will learn about major government decisions that impacted immigrant communities in Washington and how the communities found strength and resilience through their challenges. You may also remember learning where many immigrants have built communities within our state. Your project teams will continue your research in learning about their stories and contributions to the region where you live in order to further develop a fuller picture of their lives in your mural.

    • Talking points:
      • Each of us belongs to several communities, whether they are school communities, neighborhood communities, religious communities, or even a community of people who share a similar hobby as you. There is a reason why you have connected with these people.
      • Think back to your Story Wheel. What is one connection that is important to you, and why?
    • Have students their reflections with an elbow partner.
    • Have several student volunteers share examples with the class.
    • Explain to students that the connections they have to people and communities also influence how they look at and interpret the world. When they are around others who are like them, it is easy to take on similar perspectives, but the challenge is understanding perspectives that are not exactly like theirs or from different communities.
    Step 2: Learn where people immigrated from and why(5 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the impact of two significant decisions on some of the early immigrants in Washington. By understanding this content, students are able to see the bigger picture behind why resistance and interconnectedness play a significant role in immigrant communities.

    You might say: You have already learned about what spurred on a migration and immigration to the Washington territory prior to statehood, but before the gold rush and the completion of the railroad, many who came to the territory were from another state or other countries. The first European immigrants were those who came as explorers to the Americas in the 1700s. Between the 1800s and 1900s, the population grew, with settlers arriving to work in the growing industries of mining, farming, fishing, and logging. The experiences of those who immigrated from countries all over the world also make up the identity of Washington. In Module 1, you watched a video about what brought immigrants from all over the world to the United States and when. Some came for opportunity and others for safety, but each immigration story shaped communities and their collective identities.

    [Slides 3–6] Introduce students to the immigration stories of the first immigrants from China, Japan, and the Philippines.

    • Use the slide to point out Asia on the world map.
    • Slide 3. Talking points:
      • Some of the first immigrants to the United States were from Asia—specifically China, Japan, and the Philippines. Immigrants from all over Asia came to the United States at different times throughout history and for different reasons, and the laws around immigration were very different than they are now. It is important to remember that an immigrant coming from a country like Vietnam may have a very different immigration story than one from Korea.
      • Many of the immigrants from many of the countries in Asia intended to come to the United States to earn an income and then return to their home countries, but then ended up staying. This was and continues to be a tension that many immigrants experience even today, as they work to send money back to their families, yet struggle with the push and pull of making money and then leaving it all to go back to a different life.
    • Proceed through Slides 4–6 to discuss the government decisions that impacted immigrant communities.
    Step 3: Analyze government decisions and immigrant responses(30 min)

    Purpose: Students work in their project teams to learn about the different immigrant communities impacted by federal and local decisions. This will give students a fuller picture of what these communities endured, but also how that led to community-building and resilience.

     

    [Slide 7] Have students learn about stories of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino immigrants by engaging with primary and secondary sources.

     

    You might say: Part of the tension of being an immigrant was and continues to be the experience of facing discrimination and racial tension. Today, you and your project teams will be reading or listening to stories from immigrants from China, Japan, and the Philippines. Each story is distinct and fascinating because each group of people was impacted differently by federal and local decisions. As you listen to these stories, you will hear about moments of resistance and how immigrants formed communities and opportunities for themselves.

     

    • Explain to students that they will work in their project teams to learn about the impact that federal and local decisions had on immigrant communities.
    • Distribute the Stories From Immigrants in WA Notes Organizer and go over the directions. Show students where the three resources they will use are linked in the Notes Organizer.
    • Explain that their task will be to analyze the primary and secondary sources for evidence of decisions, change, resistance, and interconnectedness in each of the three immigration stories.

     

    [Slide 8] Facilitate a class discussion on how immigration stories have shaped Washington.

    • Have the students remain in their project teams and respond to the following discussion prompts:
      • What are the legacies of government decisions and how immigrants responded to them?
      • How have these decisions and responses shaped the story of our region?
    • Have student volunteers share responses.
    • Talking points:
      • It is important to understand the language and words used to describe stories from the past, which do not come without bias. For example, one describing Japanese internment who was not of Japanese ancestry might use the word internment. Internment refers to the detention of an enemy who was not a United States citizen. Because over half of those who were put in the camps were citizens, many Japanese Americans believe the word internment is inaccurate and incarceration is a more proper term. This better reflects how poorly they were treated, and how they were forced to leave their belongings and homes for a long period of time.
      • This also applies when speaking of the events surrounding the tribes in Washington and other groups of people who have faced discrimination and trauma throughout history. What might have been considered a battle to European explorers was considered a massacre to the tribes. Similarly, those who were enslaved were not defined by their enslavement; they were humans who had their rights taken away from them and were forced to do others’ hard and brutal work.
      • As you conduct your research and tell your stories, it is important to consider who is telling each story, and how language and words can strengthen or diminish the stories you want to tell.
    • If you have chosen to include a word wall in your classroom, you may want to include the terms discussed above on the wall.
    Step 4: Research stories of immigrants in the region where you live(20 min)

    Purpose: Students work in project teams to research the lives and legacies of immigrants in their region, then use their research notes to tell a fuller story of immigration in their mural proposal.

    Display the directions for students to follow as they conduct their research on the immigrants in the region where they live.

    You might say: Now, you are going to continue to conduct your research about the stories in the region where you live. In doing this, it is important to highlight the perspectives of those who have not always been heard. In this lesson, you heard how several decisions impacted the lives of many of the immigrants who came to settle in our country and state. In your community, you may not necessarily have immigrants from Asian countries, but from other parts of the world.

    You will use the research you did in Module 1 and expand on the stories of those who settled in the region where you live. You will develop a story of the contributions of the immigrants who have shaped the community where you live and will continue to connect those stories that you learn to the four themes of decisions, change, resistance, and interconnectedness.

    • Explain to the students that they will continue to record their research in the Mural Research Notes Organizer.

    [Slide 9] Have project teams connect and synthesize their research into their team’s mural proposal.

    • Explain to the students that they will now gather with their project team to connect their ideas to their mural proposal.
    • The Lead Storyteller will facilitate the conversation and take notes for the artist statement section of their team’s mural proposal. At the same time, the Lead Historian will also listen for and add notes to develop the historical context of the decisions that impacted the immigrant communities.
    • Have the Lead Storyteller facilitate the conversation by asking the following questions:
      • How did change and decisions impact the immigrants in Washington?
      • How did they stay connected as a community?
      • Were there ways in which they resisted change or decisions?
      • What artifact can represent those stories or their legacies?
    Step 5: Team Reflection(15 min)

    Purpose: Project teams reflect on and connect their new learning to their mural proposal. This reflection helps students continue to develop their connections between perspectives of the immigrants in the region where they live and the stories they want to represent through their mural proposal.

    [Slide 10] Have project teams complete a reflection of their new understandings.

    • Distribute the Team Reflection handout and have each project respond to the following prompts:
      • How does what you learned help you better understand the story of where you live?
      • How will your team represent the lived experiences and perspectives of immigrants in your mural?
     ​​​​​Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 2.4: Designing Your Mural – The Second Draft

    Module 2

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we represent history through multiple perspectives to reflectthe experiences of tribes, settlers, and immigrants?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Understand the history and purpose of murals in various communities around the world.
    • Take on one of four career-connected roles to support the creation of my team’s mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will revisit and revise all sections of your mural proposal, with the exception of your mural’s location (you will do that part in the next lesson). First, you will watch a video discussion on murals and mural artists from around the world, then in your teams, you will draw on what you have learned to update your mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the history of murals and the stories they can tell: Watch a video that highlights the history and themes of murals around the world and how communities have come together to tell stories through their murals.
    2. Update your team’s mural proposal: Work in your project teams to update and revise your Mural Proposal Guide. Each of you will take on your role, and you will all work together to create a mural proposal that incorporates the ideas and perspectives of each person on your team using the information you have recorded in your Mural Research Notes Organizer and the criteria in the Mural Proposal Rubric.
    3. Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart: Reflect on and assess your new understandings in order to draft your mural proposal and tell the stories of your community.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards
    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.7.3: Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sticky notes
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students revisit and revise all sections of their mural proposals, with the exception of their mural’s location (they will do that part in the next lesson). First, they watch a video discussion on murals and mural artists from around the world, then in their teams, they draw on what they have learned to update their mural proposals.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, familiarize yourself with any local murals that you may want to highlight for the class. Consider a guest artist who can share their knowledge about the local murals or other art in public spaces in your community.
    • For Step 2, preview the first five minutes of the video "Why Murals?" Students will only watch that section, and this will help you become familiar with the history of murals as a way of storytelling in a community.
    • For Step 3, consider when students might have extra time to complete their work, which includes finishing up their part of the mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the history of murals and the stories they can tell(20 min)

    Purpose: Students watch a video in order to understand the history of murals and the stories of strength in communities that can be represented through murals. Students take this understanding into their design process and think about the message they want to convey through their mural.

    You might say: You have all conducted research and learned about the lives and perspectives of three important groups of people who have shaped and continue to shape Washington. You have also spent time making connections to your mural proposal. Today, you will spend time together as a team and work in your roles to revisit your mural proposal and design.

    You previously watched a video about what people can learn through public art and how it can be used to tell stories about things that are important to a community. Some of those stories or issues mentioned were health, immigration, and racial injustice. You will spend a few minutes watching a video to remind you of the history and role of community murals and the powerful messages they can convey about struggle, change, and hope.

    [Slide 2] Show students the history and stories that murals can tell.

    • Write the seven themes (sense of place, values, artifacts, decisions, change, resistance, and interconnectedness) and the three questions below on the board. Explain to the class that they should pay attention to three things as they watch the video:
      • In what ways did the purpose of murals evolve over time?
    • How and why did murals become important in community spaces?
    • How do murals represent some of the themes that we have discussed throughout this unit?
    • Play the video "Why Murals?" [0:00–5:01].
      • Play the video from [0:00 to 2:50]. Pause and ask: What was the original purpose of murals in the past?
        • Possible answers: The murals were to represent the aspirations of the government and those they served; to tell complex narratives of society and culture.
      • Play the video from [2:50–5:01]. Pause and ask: How did communities use murals to tell a story?
        • Possible answers: To convey struggles; to convey community activism; to highlight the value of community and feeling a sense of belonging.

    Have students watch the video a second time with a focus on mural themes throughout history.

    • Explain that you will play the video a second time and have students take notes on the themes that have emerged in murals throughout history.
    • Distribute a sticky note to each student for them to take notes and explain that as they watch the video again, they will write down other themes that have been represented in murals.
    • After watching the video, ask students to name some of the themes they heard mentioned in the video and add them to a list of the seven that have already been discussed throughout the unit.

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a conversation around the content of the video.

    • Ask students to reflect on the question: Based on what you heard, how do murals represent some of the themes that we have discussed throughout the unit? Refer to the themes listed on the board.
    • Have student volunteers share their responses.
    • Explain that content in murals also represents different perspectives of people and what they value or hope for in their communities.
    • Explain that students will continue to think about connections between what they learned about the tribes, settlers, and immigrants in their communities and those seven themes as they design their mural.
    • Remind students that as they begin to think about the location of their mural, it is important to consider that murals can be located inside or outside. They will have time to brainstorm locations in Module 3.
    Step 2: Update your team’s mural proposal(45 min)

    Purpose: Students work in their project teams to draft their mural proposal and design. This time of collaboration will help them make stronger connections between the content and the story they want to tell.

    You might say: Your teams will now use this time to continue to draft and refine your mural proposal and design. In Module 1, you learned about the people in the region where you live and considered the setting and background of your mural design. You also considered the artifacts that could be included to tell the stories of the people in the region where you live. Now, you will focus more on the stories that go with the people. Consider what the people in your mural are doing, where they are positioned, and how they are portrayed. You will need to refer back to information from your Mural Research Notes Organizer and the Mural Proposal Rubric to help you with your draft.

    Your team will also make a decision for how you will present your mural proposal. There are various options, including putting together a slideshow, creating a display, or recording a video. Today, your team will inform me of your presentation idea by the end of your work time.

    [Slides 4–6] Introduce the task and directions for the project teams’ collaborative work time.

    • Explain to the teams that it will be important that each person has a role as they complete the task.
    • Use Slides 5 and 6 to clarify the roles and tasks of the team members.
      • The Lead Historian will:
        • Clarify and organize their team’s research
        • Track relevant source information
      • The Lead Designer will:
        • Clarify and visualize the team’s mural layout
        • Track the incorporation of perspectives, themes, events, people, and artifacts in their team’s mural
      • The Lead Curator will:
        • Evaluate the team’s ideas for public spaces using criteria and identify the location of the mural
        • Clarify and provide a description of the space and the story behind the space
        • Create plan to address any potential hazards to the mural
      • The Lead Storyteller will:
        • Write an artist statement that conveys their mural’s unique story, meaning, and message to the local community

    Have students in each role complete their sections of the mural proposal.

    • Explain that each student on the project team will take turns to share their notes from their Mural Research Notes Organizer with each person in each role.
    • While each student is sharing, the person in each role will listen and use the collective insights of the team to take notes that will help them complete their section of the mural proposal.
    • Remind students that there may be an overlap in some sections of the mural proposal where the Lead Storyteller and Lead Designer may need to work together or where the Lead Designer and Lead Historian may need to complete a section together. Each person’s contributions are important.
    • During this time, you may want to pull small groups for extra support. For example, you might conduct a mini-workshop for all of the Lead Historians in the group, then all the Storytellers, Designers, and Curators. This time can be used to support them in their role in completing their task.

    Have teams brainstorm how they will present their mural proposal.

    • Distribute a sticky note to each team.
    • Provide students with several options they are familiar with that they may want to use to present their mural proposal, such as a slideshow, visual display, or video.
    • Teams may also choose a creative option that they agree upon.
    • Have them write their names on the sticky note with their idea and collect the sticky note from each team.
    Step 3: Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart(10 min)

    Purpose: The class revisits the Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.5 to reflect on and assess their new understandings in order to develop their mural proposals and design.

    [Slide 7] Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart.

    • Refer to the Know & Need to Know chart that was created in Lesson 1.1 and updated in Lesson 1.5.
    • Have students do a Turn and Talk on the following two questions, then share out to the whole class:
      • What do you know about the tribes, early settlers, and immigrants who influenced the development and history of Washington?
      • What do you need to know about designing a mural that represents Washington’s history through multiple perspectives?
     ​​​​​Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Module 3: Redefining Washington

     

    Module Overviewicon

    Module 3: Redefining Washington

    Decisions That Define Us

    Module Overview

    In this module, project teams continue their work in developing their mural proposals and the stories of the people in the region where they live. They first decide on a location for their proposed mural and draft a land acknowledgement statement to connect their murals to the ancestral land belonging to the tribes in their region. Teams then have an opportunity to engage in a peer feedback process as they learn the value of providing and receiving feedback to strengthen their mural proposals. Teams present their murals to their classmates and an outside audience, then go through a process of reflection to celebrate their new understandings. Lastly, the class comes together to reflect on the impact of decisions on the people who came before them and consider the role they play in impacting the decisions of the future.

    Lesson 3.1: A Sense of Place for Your Community Mural (90 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Use a set of criteria to determine a location for our mural that connects to our community’s identity and sense of place.
    • Collaborate with my team to write a land acknowledgement statement to be displayed with our mural.
    • Use my team’s individual and collective research to refine our mural proposal.
    In this lesson, project teams consider how their mural connects to their community’s identity and sense of place by determining where the mural should be displayed. Project teams draft a land acknowledgement statement to connect their mural and stories to the ancestral lands belonging to the tribes in their region. Teams also consider how the location of their mural has meaning to those whose stories are represented in the mural. Lastly, students continue working in their individual roles to apply what they have learned to completing their final mural proposal.
    Lesson 3.2: Review and Revise! (60 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Use a feedback protocol to give peer feedback to my classmates.
    • Use the feedback from my classmates to strengthen my team’s mural proposal.
    • Collaborate with my team to finalize our mural proposal for our presentation.
    In this lesson, students have the opportunity to provide feedback to their classmates on their mural design and proposal, and receive feedback from them on their own team’s work. Using the Mural Proposal Rubric form, they work with a feedback protocol that allows them to give specific, kind, and actionable feedback to help their team and others strengthen and refine their mural proposals for the final presentation.
    Lesson 3.3: Present Mural Proposals (60 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Work with my team to clearly present our mural proposal to members of the community.
    • Engage with an outside audience to consider different perspectives and answer a range of questions.
    • Reflect on my team’s collective work and presentation.
    In this lesson, project teams present their mural proposal to an audience of classmates and community members. They share their knowledge and understanding of the rich history of the people in the region where they live by sharing their stories through their team’s mural proposal. After all of the teams have presented their proposals, students have an opportunity to engage in a team reflection.
    Lesson 3.4: Reflect and Look Ahead (75 minutes)
    Learning Targets: I can:
    • Self-reflect on what I have learned about the stories of the people who have shaped my community.
    • Engage with my classmates in a discussion to answer the module and unit driving questions.
    • Reflect on the impact of past decisions and how they might shape and define the future.
    In this lesson, students celebrate their achievements and hard work by reflecting on all they have learned from their work together, and from the stories of those who have shaped their communities. Students take some time to self-reflect on their work in the unit, and what they have learned about themselves and the stories from their community. Finally, they engage in a discussion with their classmates to answer the unit driving question, What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?
    Module Assessments (C3 Framework dimensions)
    LessonsDeveloping Questions and Planning InquiriesApplying Disciplinary Tools and ConceptsEvaluating Sources and Using EvidenceCommunicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action
    3.1ReflectionLand Acknowledgement Template, Mural Location CriteriaMural Proposal
    3.2Team Exit Ticket  Mural Proposal
    3.3Team Reflection Mural Proposal RubricMural Proposal
    3.4Unit Self-Reflection   
         

     

    Vocabulary
    • land acknowledgement: a formal statement that recognizes and respects Indigenous peoples as traditional stewards of their land, as well as the relationship that exists between Indigenous peoples and their traditional territories

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 3.1: A Sense of Place for Your Community Mural

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have
    defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Use a set of criteria to determine a location for our mural that connects to our community’s identity and sense of place.
    • Collaborate with my team to write a land acknowledgement statement to be displayed with our mural.
    • Use my team’s individual and collective research to refine our mural proposal.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, your project teams will consider how their mural connects to your community’s identity and sense of place by determining where the mural should be displayed. Your teams will draft a land acknowledgement statement to connect your mural and stories to the ancestral lands belonging to the tribes where you live. Your teams will also consider how the location of your mural has meaning to those whose stories are represented in the mural. Lastly, each of you will continue working in your individual roles to apply what you have learned to completing your final mural proposal.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Connect your mural to a sense of place: Read the article "What is Sense of Place?" and consider stories connected to places in your community that convey a sense of identity and belonging.
    2. Write a land acknowledgement connecting your mural to the land: Watch a video that highlights the importance of acknowledging the land that once belonged to the tribes that have shaped your community, then use the Land Acknowledgement Template to help you write a statement to be included in your mural proposal.
    3. Decide on a location for your mural: Brainstorm ideas for where your mural could be displayed in your community and determine which location best fits the Mural Location Criteria.
    4. Refine your proposal: Put together what you have learned from your individual and collective research to refine your mural proposal, continuing to use your Mural Proposal Guide and Mural Research Notes Organizer from Lesson 1.2.
    5. Reflection: Consider your individual and team work so far, and record what you feel you are doing well and where you need extra support.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes – 2 days
    Standards
    G2.6-8.3: Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in Washington state in the past or present.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1.B: Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sticky notes
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, project teams consider how their mural connects to their community’s identity and sense of place by determining where the mural should be displayed. Project teams draft a land acknowledgement statement to connect their mural and stories to the ancestral lands belonging to the tribes in their region. Teams also consider how the location of their mural has meaning to those whose stories are represented in the mural. Lastly, students continue working in their individual roles to apply what they have learned to completing their final mural proposal.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, take some time to look at some of these resources about Indigenous land acknowledgements.
    • For Step 3, familiarize yourself with local places students could propose for their mural’s location.
      • Students can be creative with where they imagine their murals could go. Their ideas may be based on their own experiences and places they have visited. Have some additional ideas ready in case students are challenged in coming up with their own.
    • After Step 4, determine what extra timing is necessary for students to complete their mural proposals.
      • After checking in with each team member or team, you may find that students will need to complete their work outside of class time. Determine how you and the students will organize time for this.
    • Invite city council members, community members, or staff of an arts commission to listen to students’ proposals for their murals.
      • Have students prepare invitations, calls, or emails to members of the community to request an audience for their mural proposal presentations.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Connect your mural to a sense of place(15 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect back on what it means to have a connection to a place. They recall what a sense of place is to Indigenous peoples and make similar connections to places in their community. This prepares students to think about the placement of their mural.

    You might say: Earlier in the unit, you had a chance to think of where you are from and where you live now. You also had a chance to reflect on a place that may have meaning to you and your connection to that place. We discussed what it means to have a sense of place in in relation to how the tribes had a connection to their land and their use of the rich resources. Having land rights and a sense of place has always been an important part of their history and remains an important part of their traditions today.

    [Slide 2] Have students reflect on what it means to develop a sense of place.

    • Go over each of the four factors that influence how a person might develop a sense of place. Invite student volunteers to provide an example of what the factors mean in their own words.
    • Discuss with an elbow partner: How do these four factors influence the way you might think about a particular place in your community?

    [Slide 3] Have students connect the idea of a sense of place with public art.

    • Have students read the article "What is Sense of Place?" with a partner from their project team and consider the following question:
      • What is a place near where you live that gives you a sense of positivity, safety, and belonging?
    • Distribute two sticky notes to each student and have them write down the names of at least two places in their community that they have a connection to.
    • Students will revisit their sticky notes in Step 3.
    Step 2: Write a land acknowledgement connecting your mural to the land(20 min)

    Purpose: Project teams connect what they have learned about the Indigenous tribes in the region where they live and write a land acknowledgement statement that will be used in the display of their mural.

    You might say: You have all learned that Indigenous tribes in Washington and all over the world lost a lot of their ancestral land when European explorers and white settlers began to use the land for their own gains. The signing of the Stevens Treaties also impacted land rights. Over hundreds of years, tribes ended up ceding much of their land. To this day, many tribes are still fighting for the land that is rightfully theirs. Because of this, it is important to acknowledge the land that does not belong to us, but to the tribes whose ancestral land we reside on.

    [Slide 4] Have students watch a video to understand the history and importance of a land acknowledgement.

    • Explain to the class that they are going to watch a video that discusses the importance of land acknowledgements, and how institutions and organizations are starting their meetings with land acknowledgements to honor the land they are on.
    • Ask students to listen for what it means to Indigenous peoples to hear a land acknowledgement or to be recognized in this way.
    • Play the video "Honor Native Land" from [0:00–3:49].
    • Ask: To an Indigenous person, what does it mean to hear a land acknowledgement?
      • Possible answer: It is powerful to feel like their experience and history are being acknowledged; it means a lot to hear people acknowledge that the land was taken from them.
    • Invite students to share out their responses.

     Have project teams compose a land acknowledgement for their artist statement.

    Step 3: Decide on a location for your mural(30 min)

    Purpose: Students collaborate with their teams to decide on a location for their community mural. They connect their ideas about having a sense of place with the preservation requirements in order to determine a location.

    You might say: Earlier, each of you wrote down the names of at least two places in our community that you have a positive connection to. During your work time, your teams will consider all of your contributions, and then it will be the role of the Lead Curator to help your team determine which of the ideas could work for your mural.

    [Slide 5] Introduce the task and directions for the project teams’ collaborative work time. Talking points:

    • Distribute the Mural Location Criteria document to each team and go over the criteria with the class. Explain that the Lead Curator will hold the role of facilitating the conversation and decision-making process.
    • Explain that once the location has been decided and approved, the Lead Curator will complete the portion about location and access in their team’s mural proposal.
    Step 4: Refine your proposal (20 min)

    Purpose: Project teams continue to refine their proposal in order to prepare for peer feedback and editing. Each person on each team contributes to completing their team’s mural proposal.

     [Slide 6] Meet with students in each role to assess their progress on the proposal and mural design.

    • Have project teams continue their work in refining their mural proposal using the Mural Proposal Guide  and Mural Research Notes Organizer.
    • Explain to the class that while their teams are working, you will continue checking in with each group. You will use this time to make sure each group is progressing in their work and clarify any ideas or questions students may have.
    Teacher Tip: Supporting students in their roles
    • Support each role by making sure students are progressing with their proposals and design work. Meet with a group of students holding the same role on each team and support them in their roles. This is also a good time to have students in the same role share some of their ideas with one another. You may also choose to just meet with each team to provide extra support and scaffolds for their work.
    • With the Lead Curators, check that their decision for a location aligns with the Mural Location Criteria and includes equitable public access.
    • With the Lead Storytellers, check to make sure that the perspectives and stories of each group of people are represented by the themes and artifacts.
    • With the Lead Designers, check in to make sure the stories connect to the layout and design of the illustration.
    • With the Lead Historians, check in to make sure that the history of the region and the people are represented. Make sure historians are also tracking the sources their information came from.
    Step 5: Reflection(5 min)

    Purpose: Students reflect on their individual and team work so far and record what they feel they are doing well and what they feel like they need extra support in. This will be a formative assessment for themselves and will provide guidance for further support.

    [Slide 7] Have students complete the Reflection document to assess their individual and team progress.

    • Talking points:
      • As you get closer to completing your proposals, it is important to take some time to assess where you are in your work in order to determine what you need to do next.
      • You will take some time to reflect on your individual and group work together and note what is working well and what you still need some support with.
    • Distribute the Reflection document to each student and have them answer the following questions:
      • What are two ways in which you have contributed to your team’s tasks so far?
      • What are you feeling great about with your team’s mural proposal?
      • What is your next goal for your team’s work time and how will you achieve it?
      • What is a question or concern that you still have about your team’s mural proposal?

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 3.2: Review and Revise!

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have
    defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Use a feedback protocol to give peer feedback to my classmates.
    • Use the feedback from my classmates to strengthen my team’s mural proposal.
    • Collaborate with my team to finalize our mural proposal for our presentation.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, each of you will have the opportunity to provide feedback to your classmates on their mural design and proposal, and receive feedback from them on yours. On your Mural Proposal Rubric form, you will use a feedback protocol that allows you to give specific, kind, and actionable feedback to help your team and others strengthen and refine their mural proposals for the final presentation.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on your goals and action steps for the day: Reflect on your individual and group goals for the day as you prepare the final touches on your mural proposal.
    2. Give and receive peer feedback on a mural proposal: Use a feedback protocol with your classmates and the Mural Proposal Rubric to give and receive feedback on your draft proposal.
    3. Strengthen your mural proposal: Collaborate and work with your team to use the peer feedback you received and your Mural Proposal Guide to finalize your proposals.
    4. Complete a Team Exit Ticket: Look ahead with your team to complete a checklist for your final presentation.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    H2.6-8.2: Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped Washington state history since statehood.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Sticky notes
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students have the opportunity to provide feedback to their classmates on their mural design and proposal, and receive feedback from them on their own team’s work. Using the Mural Proposal Rubric form, they work with a feedback protocol that allows them to give specific, kind, and actionable feedback to help their team and others strengthen and refine their mural proposals for the final presentation.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, familiarize yourself with the SPARK feedback protocol.
      • Read the Edutopia article "Teaching Students to Give Peer Feedback," which describes the SPARK protocol for student feedback.
      • Decide if you will have time for students to go through more than one round of feedback. If so, student pairs will need extra copies of the Mural Proposal Rubric.
    • Follow up with any community members or guests who will be present for the presentations.
    • You may want to send the Mural Proposal Rubric to guests prior to the presentations to familiarize them with the elements of the project and rubric.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on your goals and action steps for the day(5 min)

    Purpose: Project teams review and reflect on their individual and group goals and action steps for the day. This will guide their work together as they prepare for their final proposal and design presentations.

    You might say: Today, you will have a chance to share your mural proposals with your classmates, with the goal of strengthening your work for the final presentation that you will give to community members and guests. To make sure your work time is productive today, your team will start by setting some goals.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate team reflections on the status of, and next steps for, their mural proposal.

    • Have students gather in their project teams.
    • Distribute one sticky note to each student and one for the whole group.
    • Ask students to write down a goal for themselves as they complete their work and then set the sticky note on the corner of their desk.
    • Have the team discuss what their collective goal will be for the day and remind them to note a specific task, rather than stating that their goal will be to finish their proposal. Have them write their names on the sticky note along with their collective goal. You will collect their sticky notes.
    • As students work today, check in with each group on how they are progressing with their goals.
    Step 2: Give and receive peer feedback on a mural proposal(20 min)

    Purpose: Students understand the importance of feedback when growing as a learner. They use a feedback protocol to provide feedback to their peers in order to help them improve their final mural proposals.

    You might say: You have all had some time to draft your mural proposal. An important part of learning is getting feedback from others as a way of improving your work. Today, you will have an opportunity to give and receive feedback on what you have drafted, and use that feedback to refine your final proposal.

    [Slide 3] Introduce students to the peer feedback protocol.

    • Ask student volunteers to share about a time when feedback from a teacher, parent, friend, or coach helped them improve a skill they were working on. You may choose to share a personal example to encourage students to share their own.
    • Explain to the class that the most successful products that we use each day have gone through many tests and rounds of feedback that have informed their creators when they needed some additional improvements. Today, they will use a protocol that will guide them through the feedback process in order to improve their final proposal.
    • Introduce the SPARK protocol. Explain to the class that this protocol will guide how they provide feedback to each other. The feedback should be:
      • Specific: The feedback is connected to something that was shared.
      • Prescriptive: The feedback offers a solution or strategy to improve the work, including possible resources.
      • Actionable: The feedback leaves the other person knowing what steps they need to take for improvement.
      • Referenced: The feedback relates to or references the rubric or elements of the proposal organizer.
      • Kind: The feedback is framed in a kind and supportive way.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate the peer review and feedback process.

    • Arrange students in pairs with another person from their project team, then partner two pairs together from different project teams.
    • Distribute a copy of the Mural Proposal Rubric for each pair to write their feedback on. Students should write their feedback in the Feedback column of the Rubric, and include evidence with explanations of how they scored the presenting pair. For example, if the presenting pair was scored as novice muralists in one row of the rubric, the pair giving feedback must include examples of what was presented that warranted that score.
    • Student pairs use the SPARK protocol to provide verbal feedback and the Mural Proposal Rubric to record feedback using the rubric criteria.
    • As pairs are providing and receiving feedback, monitor the groups to support them in sticking to the protocol and providing kind and actionable feedback.

    [Slide 5] When students have completed the activity, ask them to share their reflections with the class.

    • Ask students to discuss the following in their project teams:
      • What was the most helpful part of receiving feedback from your peers?
      • What will your group’s next steps be in implementing the feedback you received?
    • Invite volunteers from different groups to share their responses.
    Step 3: Strengthen your mural proposal and design(30 min)

    Purpose: Students implement the feedback they received from their peers to improve and finalize their mural proposals and design.

    You might say: Your teams will now use this time to consider which feedback is most useful and relevant to your mural proposal. Place yourself in the role assigned to you. If the feedback aligns with your role, you will be responsible for implementing it in your mural proposal. Use this time to work together and make any final touches to your proposal.

    [Slides 6–7] Introduce the directions for the project teams’ collaborative work time.

    • Have team members sit together to consider and implement the feedback they received from their peers. Team members will implement the feedback that most aligns with their role.
    • Use this time to monitor each team’s final preparations. If any teams are struggling, guide them toward deciding if the feedback is feasible to implement.
    • Explain that this is a good time for students in each role to evaluate their proposal using the lens they each bring to the project.
    • The Lead Storyteller and Lead Designer can work together to make sure all story elements and artifacts are included in the layout of each panel of the mural.
    • The Lead Curator and Lead Historian will make sure they have included a photo of the proposed location as well as a map of where the location is in the community. They will work together to include a historical connection to the location of the mural.
    • The Lead Historian will work with the Lead Designer to make sure the artifacts represent the history of the people in the region.
    • Remind students to consult with the Mural Proposal Rubric and the Mural Proposal Guide to use as a checklist for their work.
    Step 4: Complete a Team Exit Ticket(5 min)

    Purpose: Project teams complete a Team Exit Ticket to reflect on their preparations for their final presentation. This will be used as a formative assessment for further support.

     [Slide 8] Have project teams complete a Team Exit Ticket.

    • Distribute a Team Exit Ticket document to each team and have them respond to the following questions:
      • What did your team accomplish today that you feel great about?
      • What was one piece of feedback that you implemented in your final proposal?
      • What questions do you still have about your presentation?
    • Collect the Team Exit Tickets to assess each team’s status.

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 3.3: Present Mural Proposals

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have
    defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Work with my team to clearly present our mural proposal to members of the community.
    • Engage with an outside audience to consider different perspectives and answer a range of questions.
    • Reflect on my team’s collective work and presentation.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, your team will present your mural proposal to an audience of classmates and community members. You will share your knowledge and understanding of the rich history of the people in the region where you live by sharing their stories through your team’s mural proposal. After all of the teams have presented their proposals, you will have an opportunity to engage in a team reflection.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Understand the presentation process: Learn about the presentation process and format for the day.
    2. Present your team’s mural proposal and design: Showcase your team’s hard work and present how you will tell the rich history and stories of the people in your community through a mural. Your audience will provide feedback using the Mural Proposal Rubric.
    3. Engage in a reflection of your team’s work: Take time to reflect on your team’s collective work and presentation using the Team Reflection handout.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards
    H2.6-8.2: Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped Washington state history since statehood.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.4: Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Projector
    • Computers for student presentations
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, project teams present their mural proposal to an audience of classmates and community members. They share their knowledge and understanding of the rich history of the people in the region where they live by sharing their stories through their team’s mural proposal. After all of the teams have presented their proposals, students have an opportunity to engage in a team reflection.
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 2, set up the room for group presentations to happen throughout the room, or in several rooms if available to you.
      • If you do not have guests, then each team will present to the whole class. The number of teams presenting to each guest will depend on the number of guests you have. Your role will be to monitor the presentation groups and tend to the time and flow of the presentations.
    • Be sure that project teams presenting with slides have access to a computer for their presentations.
    • For Step 2, prepare enough copies of the Mural Proposal Rubric to give each student and guest.
      • If you have 7–8 teams in your class, prepare for each student and guest to have 7–8 copies of the form.
    • This will be used for team feedback.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Understand the presentation process(10 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to the presentation process for the day. They learn the order of the presentations and the process to answer questions and give feedback.

    [Slide 2] Introduce any guests and the process for the day.

    You might say: Today is the day that your teams get to showcase all of the hard work and research you have done to tell the stories of those who have shaped our region and its history. It is very exciting to see the creative thinking you have all done to design your murals around those stories.

    • Introduce any guests who may be in the room and what their roles are in the community.
    • Explain that each guest will listen to several presentations and everyone in the audience will have an opportunity to ask questions and provide feedback to each team.
    • Explain the process:
      • Each team will introduce themselves and have five minutes to present their proposal and design.
      • Each team will take at least two questions from their audience.
      • The audience will provide feedback for the presenting team using the Mural Proposal Rubric and submit them to the guest or a designated student in each group.
    • Distribute enough copies of the Mural Proposal Rubric to each student, based on how many teams are in their presentation group. For example, if there are two guests, each guest can take 3–4 teams.
    Step 2: Present your team’s mural proposal and design(40 min)

    Purpose: Project teams showcase their work to their classmates and guests through a clearly articulated and thoughtful mural proposal and design. The teams emphasize the mural’s purpose in highlighting the rich history and stories of the people in their community.

    Have students get into their presentation groups and begin the presentation process.

    • Make sure all of the groups are situated in a space either in the same room or a separate room nearby.
    • Begin the timer for the first presenting team. After five minutes, have students move toward answering two questions from the audience. After about two minutes, have the audience provide feedback in the Mural Proposal Rubric and submit it to the guest or a designated student to collect.
    • Repeat with the remainder of the presenting teams.
    • Collect the Mural Proposal Rubric from each guest after all teams have completed their presentations.
    • Invite each of the guests to share any general feedback or insights with the class.
    Step 3: Engage in a reflection of your team’s work(10 min)

    Purpose: Students use this time to independently engage in a reflection of their team’s work and their presentation. Students will have an opportunity to reflect on the content and the learning process in the following lesson.

    Have students engage in a reflection of their team’s work and presentation.

    • Explain to students that the reflection process is important when it comes to learning and growing from different experiences. It is useful to think about what their strengths are and ways they can improve their skills or process in completing a task.
    • Explain to the students that they will each complete a Team Reflection document that asks them to assess their work together throughout the learning and work process, as well as on their presentation.
    • Distribute the Team Reflection document and go over the directions with the class.
    • Collect the document from each team as they complete it and use their self-assessment as a part of your own assessment of their work.

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

    Lesson 3.4: Reflect and Look Ahead

    Module 3

    Unit Driving Question:

    What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    Module Driving Question:

    How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have
    defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Self-reflect on what I have learned about the stories of the people who have shaped my community.
    • Engage with my classmates in a discussion to answer the module and unit driving questions.
    • Reflect on the impact of past decisions and how they might shape and define the future.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will be reflecting on all that you have learned from your work together and from the stories of those who have shaped your communities. You will take some time to self-reflect on your work in the unit, and what you have learned about yourself and the stories from your community. Finally, you will engage in a discussion with your classmates to answer the module and unit driving questions.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Complete a self-reflection of the unit: Reflect on what you have accomplished and learned about yourself and the stories of the people who shaped your community in the Decisions That Define Us Unit Self-Reflection.
    2. Engage in a Concentric Circles discussion: Engage in a discussion to revisit the unit driving question.
    3. Reflect on whether past decisions have to influence future actions: Visit a website and read an article about past decisions in Washington and reflect on whether past decisions have to define us and our future decisions. Use this new learning to revisit the module driving question.
    4. Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart: Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart to see how far you have come with your learning, and how your work toward completing your mural proposal has helped you answer your questions. Use this task to generate new questions that move you toward action.
    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards
    C4.6-8.3: Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a state or local issue.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students celebrate their achievements and hard work by reflecting on all they have learned from their work together, and from the stories of those who have shaped their communities. Students take some time to self-reflect on their work in the unit, and what they have learned about themselves and the stories from their community. Finally, they engage in a discussion with their classmates to answer the unit driving question, What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?
    Teacher Preparation
    • For Step 1, students will complete a Google Form as their Unit Self-Reflection.
      • Student names will not be collected for this survey, as the results will be used to inform the pilot process for this unit. If you are interested in the results from the survey, please contact Chris Carter at ccarter@educurious.org.
      • If you would like to use the reflection questions as an assessment, we recommend looking over the questions in the Decisions That Define Us Unit Self-Reflection and using them as part of a whole-group or individual discussion with students.
    • For Step 2, prepare for the Concentric Circles discussion activity.
    • Set up a space in your classroom where students can stand in concentric circles, or in two rows facing each other. Determine in advance how to adapt the discussion protocol for your students. For directions on how to conduct this activity, scroll down to the Concentric Circles section of "The Big List of Class Discussion Strategies" by Cult of Pedagogy.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Complete a self-reflection of the unit(20 min)

    Purpose: Students individually complete a self-reflection on what they have learned through their group work and through the stories of the people in their community. The self-reflection provides students with the opportunity to think about areas for growth and their connection to the history and stories in their community.

    You might say: Reflection is an important part of learning and growing. Today you are going to reflect on the work you and your team did to prepare your mural design and what you learned about the people who have shaped your community. This reflection will help you and help me identify what worked and what we can improve upon. You will each fill out an online self-reflection form that will be used to assess your learning, but will also provide important information to help improve this unit for future students.

    Invite students to reflect on the work and content in the unit.

    • Have students complete the Decisions That Define Us Unit Self-Reflection survey.
        • Be sure to let teams know that their honest reflections should consider their individual preparation and participation in both the proposal and final presentation.
    Step 2: Engage in a Concentric Circles discussion(25 min)

    Purpose: The discussion protocol used in this step is intended to provide students with a safe and supported way to talk about changes in their historical understanding and their thinking about the decisions and stories that define Washington. For many students, comparing their incoming knowledge to what they understand today will demonstrate significant growth. For this reason, discussion is held between individuals rather than with the whole class.

    You might say: The Concentric Circles discussion protocol will get us talking about what we knew about the decisions and stories that shaped Washington at the beginning of the unit and what we know now as we answer the driving question of the unit: What decisions and whose stories define Washington state?

    [Slide 2] Explain the Concentric Circles discussion protocol with the class.

    • Divide your class into two equal groups: A and B.
    • Ask Group A to form a large outer circle and Group B to form an inner circle.
    • Group B faces the students in Group A.
    • Once students are in position, explain the Concentric Circles process:
    • The timer will be set for 3 minutes:
      • 1 minute: Partner A shares their response
      • 1 minute: Partner B shares their response
      • 1 minute: Discuss similarities or differences in your responses
    • After each round, students in Group A will move one space to their right so they are in front of a new person from Group B. (Group B stays in place.)
    • Cue which group should speak first and then rotate speakers for subsequent rounds (so the same group doesn’t always speak first).
    • Give students an easy, lighthearted practice question (e.g., What’s your favorite snack?) to make sure everyone understands the protocol.

    [Slides 3–6] Facilitate the Concentric Circles Discussion.

    • Post the driving question and pause for students to read it silently.
    • Present the following questions for each round of discussion. Reduce the number of questions or add more of your own as time and context allow.
        • Round 1: What did you think the answer to this driving question was at the beginning of the unit?
        • Round 2: What do you think the answer to this driving question is now?
        • (Optional) Repeat Round #2 two or three times so students can hear and discuss several different responses.
        • Round 3: What issues or questions were raised for you in the unit?
        • Round 4: How do you think young people like yourself can make sure that the decisions of the past which have negatively impacted people in Washington are not repeated?
    • Debrief the process. Discuss any next steps or actions students might take to learn about the impact of federal, state, and local decisions on people in the community where they live.
    Teacher Tip: Concentric Circles in virtual learningIf students are still engaging in a virtual learning space, one way to adapt the Concentric Circles discussion is to create breakout rooms with two people in each room. Students will follow the same protocol as described in the directions above. You can provide students with three minutes to answer each question and to discuss in each of the four rounds. For each round, you will create new breakout rooms so each student is with a new partner.
    Step 3: Reflect on whether past decisions have to influence future actions(20 min)

    Purpose: It is important for students to see that past decisions do not have to define future actions. Students read an article on how leaders in a community in Washington reflected on their past decisions in order to change the future stories that would be told.

    You might say: Throughout this unit, you had many opportunities to reflect on your identity and how it has also connected to decisions, places, people, and changes in your lives. We have all made decisions, or others have made decisions for us, that have impacted us or others in positive and negative ways. Those decisions that had a negative impact don’t have to define us. We are stronger when we learn and grow from our mistakes. You will read about a community of people in Washington who did their part to learn from past decisions made in their town in order to make amends with those who were negatively impacted by them.

    [Slide 7] Introduce students to how one community reflected on its past decisions.

    • Talking point:
      • You will look at a website and a news article. The website highlights the proposal and history of a public memorial that commemorated several historical events that impacted Asian immigrant communities in the city of Bellingham, Washington.
    • Explain to the students that they should look at the website, read the sections under “Arch Project,” and look at the information under all four tabs in the Historical Background section. They will then read the article.
    • Use the slide to go over the questions they are to answer as they are looking at the two resources.
      • What events happened in Bellingham?
      • What does the Arch of Healing and Reconciliation represent and who does it honor?
      • Why was an arch chosen for the project design?
    • Have students get into their project teams look at the The Arch of Healing and Reconciliation website and read the article "Bellingham Mayor Apologizes, 125 Years After Expulsion of Chinese."

    [Slides 7–9] Facilitate a discussion about the website and article and connect students back to the module driving question.

    • Slide 7. Invite students to share their responses to the questions from the slide.
    • Explain that the arch was commemorated by the community in 2017 and was seen as a symbol of healing from decisions and actions that had once impacted immigrants in the region.
    • Slide 8. Revisit the Module 3 driving question and ask students to reflect on a question about their mural proposal:
      • How can art in public spaces spark conversations about decisions that have defined Washington and how we define ourselves today?
      • What conversations do you hope your mural will spark among members of the community?
    • Have students turn and talk to a partner to respond to the module driving question.
    • Invite students to share out what their partner shared.
    • Slide 9. Talking points:
      • Do the decisions of the past have to continue to define us? That is something we as a state and people have to think about when we make big decisions.
      • The image on the slide depicts a marker placed in Bellingham when the mayor issued a formal apology to the Chinese community for years of violence and forced expulsion. This sign marked the boundary that the Chinese were not allowed to cross.
      • The Chinese characters on the marker send the message, “Study the past if you would divine the future.”
    • Ask students to discuss the following prompts:
      • Why is it important that we reflect on decisions of the past?
      • Do past decisions need to continue to define us?
    • Invite students to share out their responses.
    Step 4: Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart(10 min)

    Purpose: Revisiting the Know & Need to Know chart at the end of the unit provides an opportunity for students to track their learning and maintains the sense of ownership developed in the project. This allows students to see how issues examined in their unit of study remain issues in their own communities and in the world. Use this final opportunity with the Know & Need to Know chart to emphasize how future learning and civic action are lifelong processes for citizens that should continue both inside and outside of school.

    [Slide 10] Revisit the Know & Need to Know chart.

        • Present the original class chart that was created throughout the unit.
        • Ask the class to review what is on the chart. Use the following questions to prompt changes in thinking and track student learning.
        • Annotate the Know & Need to Know chart to reflect updates and new additions.
          • For the “Know” column:
            • How has your original knowledge about the history and stories of the people in your community changed or deepened?
            • What do you know now that you didn’t before?
          • For the “Need to Know” column:
            • Which of your questions have been answered, partially or fully?
            • Which questions are still outstanding—and still important?
            • What new questions do you have that you are leaving the unit with?
            • How might you pursue the answers to those questions?

    Unless otherwise noted, Decision that Define Us by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.