Author:
Educurious .
Subject:
Ethnic Studies
Material Type:
Lesson, Lesson Plan, Module, Teaching/Learning Strategy, Unit of Study
Level:
High School
Tags:
  • Ethnic Studies
  • Latinx
  • PBL
  • Project Based Learning
  • Social Studies
  • ethnic-studies
  • wa-social-studies
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Pa'lante: Onward With Art

    Pa'lante: Onward With Art

    Overview

    Students begin this unit by discussing their relationship with art, and the extent to which they believe art drives resistance movements. Students then participate in a Gallery Walk that highlights how members of the Puerto Rico community in the Young Lords used art to advance their ideas and preserve their culture. Students center the activism of Indigenous peoples in Puerto Rico by studying bomba music and murals. This helps them understand the roots of art—both visual and performance—as activism, and respond to the question: How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices? Throughout this unit, students work in teams to create a poster series that inspires civic engagement and action on issues of social and political injustice.

    Educator Welcome

    Dear Educator,

    We understand the joy every teacher experiences when they discover what lights up a student, and how that breakthrough can make way for a powerful shift in student learning. We’re thrilled to partner with you in bringing project-based learning (PBL) to your classroom, and we think you’ll love these lessons, which were created in collaboration with educators, learning scientists, and experts in the field.    

    Whether this is your first voyage into PBL or you’re a seasoned pro, we’re sure you’ll agree that this approach sparks interest, ignites possibility, fuels a love for learning in students, and brings wonder to the classroom.

    We believe Open Educational Resources (OER) promote equitable access to standards-aligned, high-quality instructional materials for all educators to adapt and use. Contact us at info@educurious.org to learn more about how Educurious can support district or school adoption of this curriculum and the development of PBL teaching practices. Explore Educurious.org to discover other PBL courses and order printed materials.

    As you join your students on this learning journey, we’d love to hear from you. We want to experience your students’ curiosity, celebrate their projects, and hear about your successes, as well as what we can do better. Click here to share your thoughts. Thank you for taking us along on your adventure.  

    Onward!

    Your friends at Educurious

    Acknowledgements

    Icon

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Pa’lante: Onward With Art

     

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Educurious would like to express sincere gratitude to our partners and friends in the TPS Teachers Network and the Teaching Primary Sources team at the Library of Congress for their guidance and support.

    This resource was made possible with generous funding from the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources (TPS) Western Region at Metro State University.

    The Educurious Team:

    Unit Development Team:

    • Writer:  Valeria Gamarra
    • Educurious Reviewer: Chris Carter
    • External Reviewers:  Natasha Warsaw, Rosanne Golding, Laura-Louis Jacques, Jane Lo, Shanee Washington, and Maribel Santiago
    • Editor: Amara Simons

    Production Team:

    • Erik Robinson, Haewon Baik

    Project Manager:

    • Blake Konrady

    Educurious Leadership:

    • Jane Chadsey, CEO

    Unit Poster Image Credits:

    • Poster created by Educurious with Canva using cropped portions of the following images:

    License & Attribution

    Creative Commons Attribution License

    Except where otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art by Educurious is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. You are free to share this material (by copying and redistributing it in any medium or format) and adapt it (by remixing, transforming, or building upon it). However, you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate whether changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your adaptation. You may not use this material, or any adaptation of it, for commercial purposes. Please take care that adaptations do not introduce cultural bias.

    All logos and trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All art, illustrations, and photos in this work are used with permission and are not included in the open license. This resource contains links to websites operated by third parties. These links are provided for your convenience only, and do not constitute or imply any endorsement or monitoring by Educurious. Please confirm the license status of any third-party resources and ensure that you understand their terms before use.

    If you adapt this work, please note the substantive changes, retitle the work, and provide the following attribution: “This resource was adapted from Pa'lante: Onward With Art, which was produced and published by Educurious and is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 1: Latinx Identity

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 1: Latinx Identity

    Pa’lante: Onward With Art

    Unit Driving Question

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?  

    Module Driving Question

    How do you define Latinidad?

    Module 1 Overview

    Module Overview

    Though people have migrated from Latin America to the United States for as long as the country has existed as a sovereign state, the Latinx population in the United States has significantly increased since the 1980s. As the community grows it has become harder to define. Latin America is a region with a complex and diverse history that impacts the cultural elements found throughout the different groups of people who inhabit it. This cultural diversity doesn’t disappear when people from Latin America migrate to the United States. Even though the Latinx community has been grouped politically and socially, it is made up of people with a plethora of different values and views about the world.

    In this module students build their contextual understanding of the factors that impact the Latinx identity and use their understanding to answer the question—what is Latinidad? In Lesson 1.1, students explore the unique identity of the Young Lords and discuss the ways in which that identity shaped their resistance efforts. They begin the exploration of how art is used as a resistance tool by different groups within the Latinx community. In Lesson 1.2, students listen to people in the Latinx community and begin to build an understanding of the factors that impact the ways in which people within the community identify. In Lesson 1.3, students research the histories of different Indigenous groups in the territory known as Latin America to understand why some people reject the idea of Latinidad. Finally, in Lesson 1.4, students uncover the historical context that heavily impacts the identity of people in the Latinx community. They explore the impact of colonization, imperialism, and enslavement on different groups of people in Latin America.

    Lesson 1.1: Pa’lante: Onward With Art (60 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Participate in a whole group discussion about art, resistance, and Latinidad.  
    • Engage in a source analysis on the history and impact of the Young Lords in Chicago and on Latinx communities across the United States.
    • Create a Know & Need to Know chart about the unit content and final product.
    In this lesson students are introduced to Latinidad and begin to understand the unit’s big ideas through an exploration of the Young Lords political and social activism. They engage in a class discussion about their relationship to art, and the extent to which they believe art drives resistance movements. Students build background knowledge of the Young Lords, then participate in a gallery walk that highlights the ways in which art was used to spread the Young Lords mission and to preserve their legacy. Finally, students preview the final project (a poster series), organize into poster teams, and establish team norms.
    Lesson 1.2: What’s in a Name? (70 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Reflect on and discuss identity and begin to analyze the factors that bring a community together.
    • Identify the factors that impact the ways in which people within the Latinx community identify.
    • Make an inference about the factors that impact the diversity of opinions on terms used to identify people in the Latinx community.
    • Identify the qualities of an effective digital campaign. 
    In this lesson students explore the history and significance of the different terms used to identify the many groups within the Latinx community. Students reflect on the history of the terms Hispanic, Latino, Latinx, Afro-Latinx/o/a, Latine, and reasons why each identifier is supported or opposed. Then students listen to people from the many groups within the Latinx community discuss the factors that influence how they identify. Finally, students explore a digital cultural preservation project and connect what they learn to their own poster series projects.  
    Lesson 1.3: Indigenous Roots (75 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Explore and discuss arguments against the concept of Latinidad made by people with roots in the territory known as Latin America.
    • Research and gather information about different Indigenous groups in the territory widely known as Latin America.
    • Analyze elements of a successful resistance campaign, highlighting political views, by analyzing the Unapologetic Street Series Project.  
    In this lesson students explore criticisms of Latinidad and discuss the extent to which terms they’ve discussed in this unit are representative of the lived experiences and histories of the various groups within the Latinx community. Then, students work in teams to research different Indigenous groups that existed in the region we currently recognize as Latin America. They present their research and work as a class to build understanding of several Indigenous groups from the region. Finally, students analyze the Unapologetic Street Series in preparation for their project.
    Lesson 1.4: European Colonization & U.S. imperialism (70 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Learn the history of colonization and imperialism.
    • Listen to stories from Afro-Latinx people and evaluate the role that race plays on their lived experiences.
    • Reflect on inferences from Lesson 1.2 and discuss how new historical context from helps explain the lack of consensus around one identity term for the Latinx community.   
    In this lesson students learn about another facet of Latinidad—the legacy of European colonialism and U.S. Imperialism on the Latinx community. Students begin by learning key facts and details about the history of colonization, enslavement, and imperialism. Then, students listen to Afro-Latinx people describe the role that race has played in their lived experiences. Finally, students reflect on historical context that informs how they define Latinidad through a written short response.  
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 1.1: Ignite Learning: Free Write, Gallery Walk Notes Organizer, Know & Need to Know chart
    • Lesson 1.2: Source Analysis Notes Organizer
    • Lesson 1.3: Article Excerpt Guided Questions, Indigenous Groups Research Guide, Unapologetic Street Series handout
    • Lesson 1.4: Colonization & Imperialism Notes Organizer, Short Response handout
    Vocabulary
    • Afro-Latinx: an identity term used by Latinx individuals who have African ancestry and identify as Black
    • colonization: when a country extends their power by taking control of other people’s territory and imposing their own laws over that territory
    • corollary: a statement that follows, or is added to, a previous statement that has already been accepted as true
    • Hispanic: an identity term used by Spanish speaking people living in the United States, usually of Latin-American descent
    • imperialism: a political practice of extending a country’s power to other territories in order to control those territories
    • Latine: a gender-neutral identity term used by people of Latin American origin or descent living in the United States. The “e” in the term is gender neutral in the Spanish language so this term is more accessible to Spanish speakers
    • Latino/a: a gendered identity term used by people of Latin American descent or origin in the United States. 
    • Latinx: A gender-neutral identity term used by people of Latin American origin or descent living in the United States.

     

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0

    Lesson 1.1: Pa’lante: Onward With Art

    Module 1 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do you define Latinidad?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Participate in a whole group discussion about art, resistance, and Latinidad. 
    • Engage in a source analysis on the history and impact of the Young Lords in Chicago and on Latinx communities across the U.S.
    • Create a Know & Need to Know chart about the unit content and final product.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will be introduced to Latinidad and begin to understand the unit’s big ideas through an exploration of the Young Lords political and social activism. You will engage in a class discussion about your relationship to art, and the extent to which you believe art drives resistance movements. You will build background knowledge of the Young Lords, then participate in a gallery walk that highlights the ways in which art was used to spread the Young Lords mission and to preserve their legacy. Finally, you will preview the final project (a poster series), organize into poster teams, and establish team norms.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Participate in a discussion on art and resistance: Reflect on the unit question through the Ignite Learning: Free Write and by engaging in a whole group discussion on the purpose of the unit.
    2. Prepare for and engage in a gallery walk on Young Lords art: Watch the Third World Newsreel video trailer, “¡Palante, Siempre Palante!" and review a timeline of the Young Lords activism and the impact they had on their community in the ThoughtCo article, “A Brief History of the Young Lords.” Then use the Gallery Walk Notes Organizer to analyze Young Lords art from their Palante publications, and discuss how art is a tool of resistance.
    3. Create class Know & Need to Know chart: Review the unit driving question, the module driving questions, and the final product. Then use the Know & Need to Know chart discuss what you know and need to know in order to create a poster series that uses art to confront a social and/or political issue.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:60 minutes
    Standards

    D3.1.9-12: Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.

    D2.His.1.9-12: Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time & place as well as broader historical contexts.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C: Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Anchor Charts
    • Markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students are introduced to Latinidad and begin to understand the unit’s big ideas through an exploration of the Young Lords political and social activism. They engage in a class discussion about their relationship to art, and the extent to which they believe art drives resistance movements. Students build background knowledge of the Young Lords, then participate in a gallery walk that highlights the ways in which art was used to spread the Young Lords mission and to preserve their legacy. Finally, students preview the final project (a poster series), organize into poster teams, and establish team norms.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Prepare Anchor Charts/Class Thought Catcher Tool: Choose a thought catcher tool for class discussion. It can be a digital tool, or you can build anchor charts (as suggested in the Teacher Tip below), but make sure it is something you can reference throughout the unit as students build a deeper understanding of the topics initially discussed in this lesson.
    • Step 2:  Set Up Small Group Structure: Students will be getting into project teams at the end of this lesson but there are opportunities for small group or partner work throughout the lesson. Before starting the lesson, decide how you want to group students to build collaboration.
    • Step 2: Preview Young Lords Background Information. Slides 5–8 are included to build background knowledge of the Young Lords before jumping into a source exploration. Preview the text, notes, and video, along with the explore more teacher links to prepare for this step. 
    • Step 2: Print & Display Young Lord Art (Gallery Walk): On separate anchor charts, print and display the gallery walk sources and create four separate stations (one for each source) around your classroom in preparation for the gallery walk.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Participate in a discussion on art and resistance  (15 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to the unit topic, the unit driving question, and the overall purpose of the unit. Students are asked to reflect on their relationship to art and to discuss the role that art plays in resistance movements. Students should walk away from this step understanding the ways in which we will explore Latinx identity, art, and resistance throughout the unit.

    You might say: Today we are starting our unit on Latinx identity and resistance. We will explore the ways in which Latinx groups, specifically in Puerto Rico, preserve their culture and organize resistance movements through art.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a reflection to ignite learning.

    • Q1. What do you think of when you hear the word “Art”? What do you consider “Art” to be?
    • Q2. What kind of art do you tend to connect with? What recent art (in any format) have you been drawn to?
    • Q3. What does resistance mean to you?
    • Q4. In your opinion, to what extent does art serve as a tool for resistance?
    • Q5. What do you know about the community commonly referred to as “Latinx” or “Hispanic”?

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a discussion on art.

    • On this slide the word “art” is displayed.
    • Invite students to share their responses to questions 1 and 2.
      • Q1. What do you think of when you hear the word “Art”? What do you consider “Art” to be?
      • Q2. What kind of art do you tend to connect with? What recent art (in any format) have you been drawn to?
    • Refer to the Pa’lante Teacher Discussion Guide for opportunities to deepen the discussion.
    • Diagram their thoughts on an anchor chart (or on the slide).

    You might say: We are going to work through the first two reflection questions about what we consider art to be and the type of art that we connect to. As you discuss, I will take notes on your ideas on the board, so we come away with a collaborative understanding of what makes a piece of art meaningful. Make sure to add our collective understanding of these words on your Ignite Learning: Free Write handout as we discuss. You will use these notes later in our lesson.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate a discussion on resistance.

    • On this slide the word “resistance” is displayed.
    • Invite students to share their responses to questions 3 and 4.
      • Q3. What does resistance mean to you?
      • Q4. In your opinion, to what extent does art serve as a tool for resistance?
    • Refer to the Pa’lante Teacher Discussion Guide for opportunities to deepen the discussion.
    • As students discuss, diagram their thoughts on an anchor chart (or on the slide).

    You might say: We are going to repeat the discussion and collaborative understanding process through the word “resistance” much like we just did for the word “art.” As you discuss, I will take notes. Make sure to add to your Ignite Learning: Free Write handout. 

    [Slide 5–6] Introduce the unit, Pa’lante: Onward With Art.

    • Review the unit driving question and the Module 1 driving question:
    • Unit DQ: How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?
    • Module 1 DQ: How do you define Latinidad?

    You might say: In Module 1, we will explore the many factors that influence the diversity that we find within the Latinx community. By the end of the unit, through lessons on Latinidad, we will have a more nuanced understanding on the relationship between art and resistance, or the act of confronting social and political injustices.

    Teacher Tip: Collaborative Anchor Charts  When launching a unit, it is an effective practice to capture initial thoughts using a permanent structure that students can return to throughout their unit, especially as they close out and reflect on the unit. Using classroom anchor charts (physical or digital) for each class allows you to build in natural reflection moments at the end of each module. Simply bring the anchor charts back out as you finish each module and ask students to reflect on whether their collective understanding of the concept has changed and if there is anything that should be added or amended.
    Step 2: Prepare for and engage in a gallery walk on Young Lords art(30 min)

    Purpose:  Students further interact with the driving unit questions and ideas through an exploration of the Young Lords. First, they build background knowledge of the group through a video and short excerpt. Then, they analyze the role art played in building momentum for the group and the way art is used to memorialize their work for the community through a gallery walk. Finally, they tie their learning of the Young Lords to the driving questions through two small-group brief discussions.

    [Slide 7–8] Introduce the Young Lords via a quote: Display the quote from the Third World Newsreel summary of the “¡Palante, Siempre Palante” video. Read aloud as a group and then ask students about their initial impressions of the Young Lords.

    • “In the midst of the African American civil rights struggle, protests to end the Vietnam War, and the women's movement for equality, Puerto Rican and Latino communities fought for economic and social justice. From Chicago streets to the barrios of New York City and other urban centers, the Young Lords emerged to demand decent living conditions and raised a militant voice for the empowerment of the Puerto Rican people in the United States.”
    • Prompt students to turn and talk:
      • What do we know about the Young Lords?
    • Unpack the meaning of Pa’lante and explain why the Young Lords organized:
      • Pa’lante is an abbreviated word from “Para Adelante” which means “Onward.” What does the use of this phrase tell us about the mission of the group?
      • The Young Lords emerged to fight for the Puerto Rican community at a time when many Americans were beginning to push back against the U.S. government.
      • As the quote said, they worked to bring better living conditions to their community, but they also did much more. Let’s learn some background quick facts about the Young Lords now.

    [Slides 9] Play "¡Palante Siempre Palante!" video trailer in its entirety [1:16].

    • Explain to students that they will now hear from former Young Lords members about their mission as an organization.

    [Slides 10–22] Introduce a timeline of key events leading up to the founding of the Young Lords.

    • Explain to students that you will now present a timeline of events from 1917–1976 drawn from the ThoughtCo article,  "A Brief History of the Young Lords" that will provide helpful historical context for the founding of the Young Lords.
    • Instruct students to listen for the reasons why Puerto Rican communities organized and the resistance they faced in making progress toward their political and social goals.
      • Slide 10. In 1917, The U.S. government passed the Jones–Shafroth Act, which granted U.S. citizenship to citizens of Puerto Rico.
      • Slide 11. By the late 1960s, 9.3 million Puerto Ricans lived in New York City. Many other Puerto Ricans migrated to Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago.
      • Slide 12. Even though Puerto Ricans were part of the workforce and fought in WWI, WWII, and Vietnam, they were often marginalized as a community.
      • Slide 13. Puerto Rican communities faced poor working and housing conditions, and lacked access to proper medical care and other social services.
      • Slide 14. In the 1960s, young Puerto Rican social activists gathered in the Puerto Rican neighborhood of Chicago to form the Young Lords Organization. 
      • Slide 15. The Young Lords were heavily influenced by the Black Panther Party and worked to get access to better social services for their community.
      • Slide 16. The Chicago organizers provided a charter to their peers in New York, and the New York Young Lords was formed in 1969.
      • Slide 17. In 1969, the Young Lords were described as a ‘’street gang with a social and political conscience.’’
      • Slide 18. As an organization, the Young Lords were considered militant, but they opposed violence.
      • Slide 19. One example of their organized efforts was called the ‘Garbage Offensive.’ The Young Lords lit garbage bins on fire to protest the lack of garbage collection services in Puerto Rican neighborhoods.
      • Slide 20. In another example of their organizing efforts, the Young Lords barricaded the Bronx Lincoln Hospital in 1970. They protested the poor hospital conditions and access to proper healthcare services in the neighborhood. The Young Lords worked with healthcare workers in the neighborhood to offer improved medical treatment to the community. This event led to the overall improvement of the hospital’s health services.
      • Slide 21. In the 1970s the group became a political party to grow their influence within government.
      • Slide 22. However, as the U.S. government became increasingly involved in investigating the group, infighting grew among members of the Young Lords. Membership within the party decreased and by 1976 the party was disbanded.
    • [Slide 23] Invite students to share out the reasons for organization and examples of resistance the Puerto Rican communities faced in making progress toward their political and social goals.
    • [Slide 24] (Optional) Consider playing the Vice video "Puerto Rican Activists Took Over the Statue of Liberty" [6:02] in its entirety to help students learn about examples of Puerto Rican resistance and activism.
      • What new information did we learn about the Young Lords?
      • What did we learn about their mission & goals as a group?
      • How are the Young Lords an example of a resistance movement? Connect to our opening discussion.

    [Slide 25] Prepare students for a gallery walk of Young Lords art.

    You might say: As we discussed earlier in this lesson, one major theme we will explore in this unit is the role that art plays in resistance movements that try to address social and political issues in our society. The Young Lords provide us with examples of the power of art in a movement. In this gallery walk we will explore some of that art. As we go through this gallery walk, think deeply about the impact that art has on resistance movements like the one created by the Young Lords. Capture your reflections on your Gallery Walk Notes Organizer.

    • Review directions for the gallery walk.
      • Each group will be assigned an image to start.
      • As you analyze the image, discuss your thoughts with your group.
      • Write down your reflections before moving on to the next image.
      • You will have 3 minutes at each station, I will let you all know when it is time to rotate to the next image.

    [Slide 26] Facilitate Gallery Walk Rotations.

    • Organize students at their starting station.
    • Display timer on the board to support student time management.
    • Let students know when it is time to move to the next station.
    Teacher Tip: Setting Up Gallery WalksGallery walks are another way for students to analyze sources, usually images, but to do it in a way that gets them moving. It’s a great tool to re-engage students in the middle of a lesson. Before introducing a gallery walk in your classroom, prepare by identifying small groups ahead of time and by printing and displaying the separate images on anchor charts that you can place at each station. For this lesson, students are asked to reflect on their student handouts, but you can also have students reflect briefly on the anchor charts at each station. This will allow students to read and respond to their peers as they rotate.

    [Slide 27] Facilitate a discussion on the Young Lords legacy on Latinx/Hispanic identity.

    • On the slide the word “Latinidad” is displayed.

    You might say: Now that we have gained more context through our exploration of the Young Lords, we are going to discuss what we think we know about the Latinx/Hispanic community. In our next lesson we will dive deeper into an exploration of the terms used to identify this community, but for now we are discussing the prior knowledge we have about this community. After our discussion, I will share an overview of the term “Latinidad” to understand how it is used in this unit and in our module driving question.  

    • Ask students:
      • What gallery walk station did you connect to the most? What was it about this station that made you understand the mission of the Young Lords a bit better?
      • What do we know about the community commonly referred to as “Latinx” and “Hispanic”?
    • Refer to the Teacher Discussion Guide for opportunities to deepen the discussion.
    • As students discuss, diagram their thoughts on an anchor chart (or on the slide).
    • Then, give students a working definition of the word “Latinidad”

    [Slide 28-29] Broadly Define Latinidad.

    • Latinidad is a term that was coined in 1985 as a way to discuss the Latinx community at large.
    • The term is used to express a common cultural identity amongst a group of people based on:
      • geographic origins (Latin America).
      • similar and complex migration histories influenced by the political actions of foreign governments.
      • racial and ethnic similarities.
      • shared languages.
    • It is important to note that “Latinidad” is not a nationality and it is not a race; it is a social construct used to identify people in the U.S. who have shared histories and cultural identities.
    • This was originally done for political purposes. The idea being that by bringing people with shared histories and cultural identities into a unified group, they would have more political power to advocate for representation in the U.S.
    • This is why individuals who live in Latin America don’t identify as Latinx. Rather, they identify as Colombian, Brazilian, Peruvian, etc. In the U.S., these diverse communities are grouped together in the term Latinidad.
    • The other terms we will use in this unit, such as Latino, Latina, Latinx, Afro-Latinx, and Latine, all fall under the Latinidad umbrella.
    • In defining Latinidad we are trying to capture the nuances of this social construct, and describe the cultural identity shared by this diverse group of people.
    Step 3: Create Know & Need to Know chart(15 min)

    Purpose: Students preview the final product—a poster series. After reviewing the overall project goals, students organize into project teams. Working in their project teams, students create their first collaborative assignment— their Know & Need to Know chart.

    [Slide 30] Introduce the unit poster.

    • Unit title: Pa’lante: Onward With Art
    • Unit driving question: How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?
    • Module 1 driving question: How do you define Latinidad?
    • Module 2 driving question: How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?
    • Module 3 driving question: How can we use art to connect across cultures and inspire civic engagement?
    • Final product: Students create a poster series that highlights culturally significant events of resistance efforts within the Puerto Rican community to inspire others to address social and political injustices in the United States today.
      • Explain the final product. Talking points:
    • Through this project you will create a poster series that highlights culturally significant events of resistance efforts within the Puerto Rican community to address social and political injustices in the United States today.
    • You will Identify an issue or event of significance that you want to highlight.
    • You will create three posters with a clear message addressing social and political injustices facing the Puerto Rican community.
    • You will identify and develop poster elements that unite your three posters as one cohesive series.
    • As we move through this unit you will receive more guidance on this project, and you will have plenty of opportunities to work collaboratively in your project teams to complete your poster series. Today we are selecting project teams.

    [Slide 31] Organize students in their project teams.

    • Adapt this slide to communicate how students will organize into poster teams.
      • You can assign teams or let students choose their own teams.
      • There should be 3–4 students per team.

    [Slide 32] Poster teams work together to create their Know & Need to Know chart.

    You might say: Now that you have selected your project teams—it’s time to complete your first assignment together. As a team, you will work together on a Know & Need to Know chart for this unit. What do you know about what we will be doing in this unit based on our lesson today? What do you know about Latinidad, art, and resistance, based on our exploration of the Young Lords today? What do you still need to know? What are you curious about? Let’s get started.

    • Distribute the Know & Need to Know chart handout to students and review the directions.
      • Know: On this part of your chart, reflect on what you already know about Latinidad, art, resistance, or the general purpose of the unit we have just started. Make sure to be as detailed as possible.
      • Need to Know: On this part of your group chart, reflect on what you all still need to know about these big ideas. What do you need to know about the project? What do you need to know about Latinidad? Include anything you’re curious about.
    Teacher Tip: Teams Create Norms You might have already worked with students on identifying norms that lead to a successful collaborative product or goal. If you have not invited students to set group norms, you may want to set aside time in this lesson for students to reflect on norms they can set within their groups to support successful collaboration. Some reflection questions for teams to consider are:
    • What are my strengths as a group member?
    • What factors make a group successful when working together on a project?
    • How should a group communicate when there is a problem?
    • What do I want my peers to know about my working style as we begin a group project?
    • What is the most important mindset to have when working on a group project?
    • What commitments can I make to my team to ensure we work together to meet our goals? 

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0

    Lesson 1.2: What’s in a Name?

     

    Module 1 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do you define Latinidad?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Examine Latinidad through a wide range of views, factors, and terms that people use when sharing about their identity.
    • Preview elements of a successful identity preservation campaign by analyzing the “Veteranas and Rucas” project. 

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will explore the history and significance of the different terms used to identify the many groups within the Latinx community. You will reflect on the history of the terms Hispanic, Latino, Latinx, Afro-Latinx/o/a, Latine, and reasons why each identifier is supported or opposed. You will then listen to people from the many groups within the Latinx community discuss the factors that influence how they identify. Finally, you will explore a digital cultural preservation project and connect what you learn to your own poster series project. 

    Lesson Steps

    1. Reflect on and discuss identity: Read and analyze a quote by Audre Lorde from Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches to begin to understand the idea that oppression brings people together into a single community.
    2. Explore the many terms to use to describe Latinx identity: Watch the BBC News video "Latino or Hispanic? What's the difference?" and read the article Hispanic, Latino, or Latinx? A History of Identity for key facts about the ways in which people identify and the factors underlying the diversity and complexities of Latinx identity.
    3. Discuss the importance and impact of terminology: Using the Source Analysis Notes Organizer, listen to different people explain how they identify, the terms they use, and the reasoning behind each term. Make an inference about the factors that might impact the diversity of opinions on terms used to identify the many groups within the Latinx community
    4. Identify the qualities of an effective digital campaign: Read Guadalupe Rosales’s project statement about her Veteranas and Rucas Instagram project to begin to understand how projects like your poster series can invite people into visual narratives that “historicize subcultures” and inspire storytelling that stirs civic engagement.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    D3.1.9-12: Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.

    D2.His.1.9-12: Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time & place as well as broader historical contexts.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.6: Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.9: Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students explore the history and significance of the different terms used to identify the many groups within the Latinx community. Students reflect on the history of the terms Hispanic, Latino, Latinx, Afro-Latinx/o/a, Latine, and reasons why each identifier is supported or opposed. Then students listen to people from the many groups within the Latinx community discuss the factors that influence how they identify. Finally, students explore a digital cultural preservation project and connect what they learn to their own poster series projects.  
    Teacher Preparation

    Step 1–4: Review the Teacher Discussion Guide. Read through the What’s in a Name Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons along with questions you can use to help students deepen their understanding during the discussion. Please note that bringing in additional questions from the Teacher Discussion Guide will extend the length of this lesson.

    Step 2: Preview Background Knowledge. This section is included in order to build background knowledge on some geographic and political factors that have influenced the terms used to describe the many groups within the Latinx community. Preview this background knowledge and prepare 2–3 potential student questions you might receive as you present this information to ensure you are ready to clarify student misconceptions.

    Step 3: Decide on Extension Activity. Read through the teacher tip extension opportunity and decide if you would like to include it in your lesson. If you do decide to include this in your lesson, create 2–3 guiding questions for students to engage with the source.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Reflect on and discuss identity(5 min)

    Purpose: Students kick off the lesson by briefly analyzing a quote from Audre Lorde about the ways in which common oppressions can lead to the formation of common defenses and community identity among groups of people. Students reflect on the idea that the many groups within the Latinx community have often faced common oppressions and shared histories, which has led to them being seen as a single ethnic group. Throughout the rest of this module, students explore the diversity that exists among the many groups within the Latinx community, which makes it hard to define Latinidad as a single story.  

    [Slide 2] Reflect on Audre Lorde quote.

    • Read the Audre Lorde quote aloud.
      • “When a people share a common oppression, certain kinds of skills and joint defenses are developed. And if you survive you survive because those skills and defenses have worked. When you come into conflict over other existing differences, there is a vulnerability to each other which is desperate and very deep.”
    • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share on two questions:
      • According to Audre Lorde, how does oppression bring people together into a single community?
        • Possible response: Oppression can lead a group of people to develop certain skills and defenses, and even histories. These commonalities can lead to the creation of a community.
      • What are examples of common oppressions that might bring a community together?
        • Possible responses: Examples can include things like how a group of people are treated because of their race, sex, country of origin, religious beliefs, or any other identity factors that make them different than the identity in power.
    • Invite students to share their responses whole-class.

    You might say: As Audre Lorde sees it, common oppression can lead a group of people to develop certain skills and defenses. We could call that community. Lorde also says that when there is conflict within a community based on common defenses, that disagreement can feel very difficult; it can feel very deep. In today’s lesson we will explore shared histories and conflicting ideas in a community through an exploration of how different members of the Latinx community self-identify, and the differences in thought over the “right” term to use. Let’s get started.

     

    Step 2: Explore the many terms used to describe Latinx identity(10 min)

    Purpose: Students build background knowledge on the shared geography that unites the Latinx community. Then they breakdown the definitions of the terms Hispanic, Latino/a, Latinx/e, and Afro-Latinx/a/o/e in order to better contextualize the information from the source exploration in Step 3.

    You might say: You might have noticed that we’ve mostly used the term Latinx to refer to the community we are exploring in this unit. However, there is actually not consensus on which term to use when referring to the many groups within the Latinx community. We will spend the majority of our lesson today analyzing different opinions on the issue of what term to use to identify the many groups within the Latinx community. To start this off, let’s watch a video about the difference between two of the possible terms: Latino vs Hispanic.

    [Slide 3] Introduce the terms Latino and Hispanic.

    • Talking points:
      • According to the video, Hispanic is a term that is defined by the Spanish language and Spanish heritage. Meanwhile, Latino is a term used to describe a group of people from the same geographic area: Latin America.

    [Slide 4] Read, annotate, and discuss the article Hispanic, Latino, or Latinx? A History of Identity.

    • Organize students into pairs to read the article.
    • Distribute the article and review the directions.
    • Share any specific annotation strategies that will support the reading purpose.
    • After students have completed their reading and annotations, invite them to respond to the discussion questions individually before discussing as a class.
      • What are the fundamental differences between the identity terms “Hispanic” and “Latino/a”?
        • Possible response: Hispanic refers to a group of people who speak Spanish. Latino/a refers to a group of people who have ethnic origins in Latin America, which does not always mean they speak Spanish.
      • How do the terms Afro-Latino, Latinx, and Latine further affirm diverse identities within the community?
        • Possible Response: These terms are more inclusive of the different identities within the groups of people that make up the Latinx community. Afro-Latinx affirms people who are descendants of African populations in Latin America and whose lived experiences are shaped by their racial heritage. Latinx & Latine are gender neutral terms that affirm gender non-conforming populations with ethnic roots in Latin America.
    Step 3: Discuss the importance and impact of terminology(35 min)

    Purpose: Students explore different first-hand accounts of how people within the many groups within the Latinx community identify. Students begin to see the diversity of thought and lived experiences of the many groups within the Latinx community. They are not expected to reach consensus on one term to use when referring to the community, but instead to understand that there are many ways to define Latinidad.

    [Slide 5] Facilitate a source analysis on identity.

    You might say: We have explored three different sources that offered diverse perspectives on how the many groups within the Latinx community identify. There are conflicting opinions among them about how people should identify. What historical factors have led to these conflicting opinions?

    [Slide 6] Facilitate small group discussions on consensus and disagreement about terminology.

    • Invite poster teams to discuss:
      • Why do people disagree about which term to use?
      • Is it important to have consensus? Why or why not?
    • Invite students to share whole-class what they discussed.

    You might say: While there might not be one word that the many groups within the Latinx community use across the board to identify themselves, we need to make sure we are being culturally respectful in how we refer to members of the community throughout this unit. As we start our whole group discussion, make sure that your reasoning is rooted in the first-hand accounts you explored with your project teams. 

    [Slide 7] Create a list of terms that might be used when learning about Latinidad.

    • Ask students to engage in a Think-Pair-Share on the reflection prompt:
      • As we move through this unit, and as we move through society, what terms should we use to identify members of this community? What can we do to make sure we are affirming people’s identities?
    • Invite students to share out the terms they have chosen and their rationales. Record these terms in a place where they can be referenced in future lessons.

    You might say: As we discussed, there are varying opinions from the many groups within the Latinx community on how they want to be identified. This means that there is no consensus that we can use that is agreed upon by all members of the community.

    In different texts and videos, you will see all variations of the terms we discussed. You will see the many groups within the Latinx community referred to as Hispanic, Latino, Latinx, etc. Now you know what they mean and where those terms come from. In my own framing, I will be using the term Latinx. We want to make sure we are as inclusive as possible in our language and Latinx affords us the ability to do that as the conversation about the “right” word to use for everyone continues to evolve.

    Step 4: Identify the qualities of an effective digital campaign(20 min)

    Purpose: Students analyze a digital art project to develop an understanding of what elements and messages make a successful digital project. At the end of this unit students will create a poster series, and this step will help them begin the process of understanding the impact of similar digital projects.

    You might say: In order to better understand the purpose of our unit project, we will explore some examples of powerful digital projects that artists are creating today to spread messages of resistance and messages of Latinx culture. Today, we are looking at the digital project “Veteranas and Rucas.” In your project teams you will read the artist statement, then analyze the Instagram page where the project is displayed in order to dissect the artist’s message and the impact of the medium that she chose for the project.  

    [Slide 8] Facilitate a discussion about the qualities of an effective digital campaign in poster teams.

    • Project and share the link to Guadalupe Rosales’s Instagram Projects Artist Statement.
    • Review discussion questions with students.
      • What is the artist’s purpose behind the digital campaign “Veteranas and Rucas?”
      • To what extent is the digital medium effective in delivering Rosales’ message to her community?
      • What are the qualities of an effective digital campaign that can inform your team’s work on your poster series?
    • Define the term medium.
      • Medium is a term used by artists and critics to refer to what a piece of art is made from. For example, the Mona Lisa uses an oil on canvas medium. Critics can analyze the extent to which the medium was more effective than, say, a sculpture made out of bronze. Similarly, today we are looking at an art project that uses a digital medium. Photography is also a medium of art.
    • Scroll through the Veteranas and Rucas Instagram page for students. Provide time for students to analyze the primary sources and respond to the guiding questions, then invite teams to share out their responses.
    • Project and review the Poster Series Rubric with students and highlight other qualities that they will be including in their poster series.
    • Close out the lesson by explaining that Latinidad is not a monolith and that identity is personal, influenced by geography, and multi-faceted.

    You might say: As we move through this unit, it’s important to be mindful of the ways that we identify members of the community. As we discussed today, there are many different opinions on what term should be used. We will see a combination of all of them throughout this unit, and the best rule of thumb is to use the term that the person we are hearing from wants us to use.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0

    Lesson 1.3: Indigenous Roots

    Module 1 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do you define Latinidad?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Explore and discuss arguments against the concept of Latinidad made by people with roots in the territory known as Latin America.
    • Research and gather information about different Indigenous groups in the territory widely known as Latin America.
    • Analyze elements of a successful resistance campaign, highlighting political views, by analyzing the Unapologetic Street Series Project. 

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will explore criticisms of Latinidad and discuss the extent to which terms we’ve discussed in this unit are representative of the lived experiences and histories of the various groups within the Latinx community. Then, you will work in teams to research different Indigenous groups that existed in the region we currently recognize as Latin America. You will present your research and work as a class to build understanding of several Indigenous groups from the region. Finally, you will analyze the Unapologetic Street Series in preparation for their project.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Explore criticisms of Latinidad: Use the Article Excerpt Guided Questions handout to read an excerpt from The Nation article "The Problem with Latinidad" and discuss the criticisms of Latinidad from the article.
    2. Research Indigenous people of the territory known as Latin America: Using the Indigenous Groups Research Guide, work in teams to research different Indigenous groups from the territory known as Latin America, then work as a class to build knowledge around all researched groups.
    3. Learn about a political poster series from a Latin American artist: Use the Unapologetic Street Series Analysis handout to examine the artist’s purpose, message, and stylistic choices behind the Unapologetic Street Series by Johanna Toruño.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards

    D3.1.9-12: Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection. 

    D2.His.1.9-12: Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time & place as well as broader historical contexts.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Anchor charts
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students explore criticisms of Latinidad and discuss the extent to which terms they’ve discussed in this unit are representative of the lived experiences and histories of the various groups within the Latinx community. Then, students work in teams to research different Indigenous groups that existed in the region we currently recognize as Latin America. They present their research and work as a class to build understanding of several Indigenous groups from the region. Finally, students analyze the Unapologetic Street Series in preparation for their project.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1-4: Preview Teacher Discussion Guide. Read through the Indigenous Roots Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons along with the questions you can use to encourage students to delve deeper during each part of discussion.
    • Step 2: Assign Team Research Topics. Organize students into teams of 2–4 if they are not already in teams, and decide how you will assign the different Indigenous groups to teams so that there is even representation for each Indigenous group.
    • Step 3: Select tool for whole-group share out. After teams have researched the Indigenous group they were assigned, you will work as a class to collate the information. The easiest way to do this is to create an anchor chart for each Indigenous group and write the information as each team shares. You can also do this digitally, but be sure to prepare the digital tool you will use for your thought catcher before your lesson.
    • Step 4: Decide on Extension Activity. Read through the teacher tip extension opportunity and decide if you would like to include it into your lesson. If you do decide to include this in your lesson, create 2–3 guiding questions for students to engage with the source.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Explore criticisms of Latinidad(15 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students hear first-hand accounts from people who might ordinarily be grouped into the Latinx community about their rejection of the concept of Latinidad. Students should walk away understanding that some people reject association with the Latinx community and Latinidad because the framework doesn’t reflect  the diverse identities of people with roots in Latin America, particularly Indigenous people.

    You might say: Yesterday we discussed the lack of consensus around which term to use when referring to the different groups in Latin America. In the article we are about to read, people who might normally be grouped into Latinidad, or the Latinx community, speak about why they reject the concept. One important thing to remember as you read is that they are not rejecting the word Latinidad, they are rejecting the concept of it—that diverse groups of people from a large geographical region are identified as a single community.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a guided reading of an excerpt from "The Problem with Latinidad."

    • Organize students into groups of 3 or 4.
    • Distribute the Article Excerpt Guided Questions handout to students, review the directions and questions.
      • What do you notice about how the people interviewed identify?
      • According to the people interviewed in the article, who is largely excluded when people with roots in Latin America are grouped into one community in the United States?
      • List two arguments made against Latinidad from the article.
    • Provide groups time to read the excerpt and respond to the questions.
    • As groups are reading and responding to the questions, use the Article Excerpt Guided Questions: Teacher KEY to support groups.

    [Slides 3] Students share out their responses to the article guiding questions.

    • Refer to the Article Excerpt Guided Questions: Teacher KEY as students share out.
    Step 2: Research Indigenous People of the territory known as Latin America(40 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students learn more about the Indigenous people that lived in the territory we now know as Latin America before colonization. Students build knowledge about the groups of people who have inhabited the region the longest in order to better understand how the concept of ‘Latinidad’ erases their unique cultures and histories.

    You might say: There are a lot of valid criticisms when it comes to the idea of Latinidad. One of the major critiques is that by grouping together so many different people into one umbrella term, the identities of Indigenous people are largely erased. People are grouped into the Latinx community because of their roots in Latin America but even the words “Latin America” erase the origins of the people from the region. Today we are going to research some Indigenous groups of the region to ensure we center their identities as we continue through this unit.

    [Slide 4] Share key information with students to frame research. Display key points for students before they start their research in teams.

    • Latin America refers to the region in the Americas made up of countries that speak Romance languages— languages derived from Latin, such as Spanish or Portuguese.
    • However, the term “Americas” was coined after an Italian explorer—Amerigo Vespucci. The term is therefore a reflection of European colonization. It is not a reflection of the Indigenous people who lived in the region prior to exploration and colonization.
    • Similarly, since the definition of Latin America is contingent on Romance languages, it does not reflect the Indigenous languages and cultures that existed in the region long before Spanish or Portuguese colonization.
    • In other words, the term Latin America already erases Indigenous people, so using terms such as Latinx has the same effect.

    You might say: In tomorrow’s lesson we will explore European colonization further. We will also cover imperialism and enslavement and discuss how these events impacted the people of the region we think of as Latin America. But it would further erase Indigenous people to talk about colonization before talking about Indigenous groups of the region. In this next activity we will research different Indigenous groups and create space to learn about the original people of the region we are exploring in this unit. It is important to note that though we are exploring three Indigenous groups today, there are hundreds of Indigenous groups in the region that still exist, each with their unique histories and cultures.

    [Slides 5] Display Research Instructions.

    • Distribute the Indigenous Groups Research Guide and review directions with students.
      • You will be working in teams to research one of three Indigenous groups in the region commonly known as Latin America. You will be assigned one of the following groups:
          • Quilombolas
          • Garifuna
          • Taíno
      • You will work on completing your Indigenous group research handout.
      • After you complete your research, we will work as a class to collate the information about each of the Indigenous groups. You will share research for the group of people you learned about.

    Whole Group Share-out. Students share out their findings for their assigned Indigenous group.

    [Slides 6] Post-Research Discussion. Invite students to reflect on the purpose of the activity through the discussion question below.

    • Ask students:
      •  Why is it important to learn about Indigenous groups from the region commonly known as Latin America before learning more about European colonization and imperialism?
    • Possible Response: Responses will vary but students should generally land on understanding that much of what we talk about when it comes to Latinidad is post-colonization, therefore the concept of Latinidad erases Indigenous roots. We want to ensure that we don’t add to that erasure.
    Step 3: Learn about a political poster series by a Latin American artist(20 min)

    Purpose: Students begin to develop their understanding of what elements and messages make up a successful poster series project. At the end of this unit students will create a poster series; this step gives them an exemplar for that project.

    You might say: So far in this unit, we have explored the nuances, or complexities, of Latinidad. We have a better understanding of how diverse histories and identities shape the lived experiences of people grouped together under Latinidad. Now we will analyze a poster series that can help guide your own team poster series. As you explore this poster series, take note of how the artist’s complex identity is presented through her art, and reflect on the role that art plays in supporting and advancing Latinx political and social changes.

    [Slide 7] Poster Series Analysis. Distribute the Unapologetic Street Series handout and review directions and sources (Source #1: About the Artist, Source #2: Poster Series) with students.

    • Work in your project teams to analyze the Unapologetic Street Series poster series.
    • Read through the Artist’s statement first, then explore the poster series.
    • Answer the analysis guiding questions as a team.
      • What is the artist’s purpose behind The Unapologetic Street Series?
      • What social and political issues is Toruño addressing through her art?
      • Now, focus on the style and artistic choices in the series. What elements unite the poster series so that it’s clear they all belong to the same artist and are part of the same project?
    • Use the Unapologetic Street Series: Teacher KEY to support students in their analysis.
    Teacher Tip: Exploring Intersectionality Explore the intersections of Toruño’s identity, and the reflection of that identity in her art, through a discussion around the Teen Vogue article “Artist Johanna Toruño Is Making the Voices of Queer Latinx People Heard With Her Unapologetic Street Series.” Push students to think about the ways that Toruño creates space for all intersections of her identity in her art and in the political and social messages within it.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.4: European Colonization & U.S. Imperialism

    Module 1 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do you define Latinidad?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Evaluate how the political and economic decisions made during European colonialism, the history of transatlantic enslavement, and U.S. imperialism impacted and continues to impact Latinx and Afro-Latinx people.
    • Integrate information from multiple Afro-Latinx people and relevant sources to continue to develop my understanding of the meaning and impact of the term Latinidad.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will learn about another facet of Latinidad—the legacy of European colonialism and U.S. imperialism on the Latinx community. You will begin by learning key facts and details about the history of colonization, enslavement, and imperialism. Then you will listen to Afro-Latinx people describe the role that race has played in their lived experiences. Finally, you will continue to examine and discuss the historical context that informs how you define Latinidad through a written short response.  

    Lesson Steps

    1. Discuss race as a component of Latinidad: Learn about the J Balvin controversy by watching the Billboard video,  "J Balvin Apologizes to Black Women for Controversial ‘Perra’" and discuss the role that race plays within Latinidad through discussion of a related social media post.
    2. Learn the history and legacy of colonization and U.S. imperialism: Using your Colonization & Imperialism Notes Organizer, explore the role that colonization, enslavement, and imperialism plays on the development of Afro-Latinx communities and on the Latinx community in the United States Then read the article U.S. Imperialism in Latin America.
    3. Listen to stories from Afro-Latinx people: Watch the Pero Like video, "What Afro-Latinos Want You to Know" and listen to Afro-Latinos speak about their experiences and discuss the role that race plays in the lives of Latinx people.
    4. Revisit Latinidad: Revisit context from the previous lesson and discuss the new context from this lesson to define Latinidad.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    D2.His.16.9-12: Integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about the past.

    D2.Geo.5.9-12: Evaluate how political and economic decisions throughout time have influenced cultural and environmental characteristics of various places and regions.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

     

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students learn about another facet of Latinidad—the legacy of European colonialism and U.S. imperialism on the Latinx community. Students begin by learning key facts and details about the history of colonization, enslavement, and imperialism. Then, students listen to Afro-Latinx people describe the role that race has played in their lived experiences. Finally, students reflect on historical context that informs how they define Latinidad through a written short response.  
    Teacher Preparation

    Step 1–4: Preview Teacher Discussion Guide. Read through the Colonization & Imperialism Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons as well as questions you can use to encourage students to delve deeper during each part of discussion.

    Step 2: Preview Background Knowledge. This section is included in order to build background knowledge on the history of colonialism, enslavement, and U.S. imperialism in Latin America. Preview this background knowledge and prepare 2–3 potential student questions you might receive as you present this information to make sure you are ready to clarify student misconceptions.

    Step 3: Decide on Extension Activity. Read through the teacher tip extension opportunity and decide if you would like to include it in your lesson. If you do decide to include this in your lesson, create 2–3 guiding questions for students to engage with the source.

    Step 4: Create Source Guide. Go through the module to identify all the sources that students viewed/read/analyzed and put them into a single document so that students can easily pull evidence for their short response.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Discuss race as a component of Latinidad(15 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students explore the modern issues around race within the Latinx community. Through an examination of a controversial music video, and reactions to it on social media, students gain an understanding of the historical context behind modern instances of racism in the Latinx community. This activity frames the learning that will take place in lesson steps 2 and 3.

    [Slide 2] Play the Billboard News video "J Balvin Apologizes to Black Women For Controversial ‘Perra’ Music Video" in its entirety [1:16].

    • Ask students to turn and talk:
      • What made J Balvin’s music video controversial?
    • Invite students to share their responses whole-class.

    [Slides 3] Read Dr. Leyva’s Instagram Post.

    • Project the Instagram post, scroll through and read aloud for students.
    • Ask students to turn and talk:
      • What argument is Dr. Leyva making about race, whiteness, and Latinidad? 
    • Invite students to share their responses whole-class.

    You might say: One of our goals for this project is to strengthen our ability to analyze and engage with primary sources. Social media posts are primary sources; even comment sections under those posts serve as primary sources. These posts and comments are the first-hand accounts and opinions of people who are living in our society right now.

    • Ask students to reflect on the following question, then invite them to share out their responses.
      • How might social media posts be used to help us better understand social and political issues?
    Step 2: Learn the history and legacy of colonization and U.S. imperialism(30 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students build background knowledge around three significant moments in Latin American history: European colonization, enslavement, and U.S. imperialism. These moments have contributed to diversity in political thought, in racial makeup, and lived experiences within the Latinx community. Through engaging with this critical context, students walk away with a better understanding of the events that have led to both a community based on common oppression and a community with divided views about the world.

    You might say: In the previous lesson we began a discussion about why there is a lack of consensus on the existence of Latinidad. Today we are going to build more context around our definition of Latinidad by looking at moments in history that impact the diversity in the Latinx community. These events in history help us understand not only why there are differences of opinions in the community, but also why members of the same community can have such different lived experiences

    [Slide 4] Build background knowledge on Latin American colonization & enslavement.

    You might say: J Balvin does not live in a bubble. His portrayal of Black women in his video reflects deeper issues of racism in the different groups that make up the Latinx community. Through European colonization and transatlantic enslavement, a race-based hierarchy has developed in the groups that make up the Latinx community. In order to understand this better, we are going to look at some moments of Latin American history that continue to impact the Latinx community.

    Review key facts about colonization in Latin America.

    • European colonization in Latin America began in the 15th century with the “discovery” of the new world.
    • The Indigenous populations that were already living in Latin America were quickly overpowered by European colonizers, mostly from Spain and Portugal.
    • Colonization decimated Indigenous communities in Latin America but also led to the existence of an Afro-Latinx population due to the enslavement of Africans.
    • The transatlantic slave trade began in 1444 when the Portuguese kidnapped the first African people and brought them to Europe. By 1526, the Portuguese brought enslaved Africans to Brazil and the Transatlantic slave trade spread throughout the Americas.

    [Slide 5] Play the TeleSUR video "Legacy of Slave Trade in Latin America" in its entirety [2:25].

    • Distribute the Colonization & Imperialism Notes Organizer to each student and review the guiding question for the video:
      • How does the history of enslavement impact racial diversity and racial tension in Latin America?
    • After watching the video, invite students to respond to the question in their Notes Organizers before sharing their responses whole-class.
    • Refer to the Colonization & imperialism Notes Organizer Teacher KEY to support the share-out of responses to the guiding question.
    • Optional: If students need additional background knowledge on the slave trade more broadly, consider playing the TED-Ed video "The Atlantic slave trade: What too few textbooks told you" [5:38] and asking students the following question:
      • What factors led to the existence of enslavement in the Americas, particularly Latin America?
        • Possible response: As European powers like Spain and Portugal colonized regions in the Americas, there was a boom in demand for crops from these new territories. These crops included tobacco, sugar cane, and cotton—which were very labor-intensive. To increase supply and profits, the Portuguese used their power in colonies in western Africa to kidnap and enslave Africans to serve as a free labor source for these new crops.

    You might say: The history of enslavement in Latin America led to the existence of oppression and segregation that still impacts the lived experiences of Afro-Latinx people today. The differences in lived experiences based on race in the community can help explain why there are such varying opinions about how to identify. However, there are other significant moments in history that have impacted the experiences of people in the Latinx community, such as moments of U.S. imperialism in Latin America. 

    [Slides 6] Read and annotate the article U.S. Imperialism in Latin America.

    • Organize students into pairs to read the article.
    • Distribute the article and review the directions.
    • Share any specific annotation strategies that will support the reading purpose. Here is an example of an annotation strategy you can use.
      • Non-fiction annotation strategy:
        • Part 1: Complete for every section/paragraph in your text.
          • Who: Who Is this section/paragraph about? It can be a person, event, or place.
          • What: What did you learn about the “who” in this section/paragraph?
        • Part 2:
          • Determine the central idea of the entire text/document in the fewest words possible (summarize your learning concisely).

    [Slides 7] Learn a brief history of U.S. imperialism in Puerto Rico.

    You might say: We are going to look at Puerto Rico as an example of U.S. imperialism. In the case of Puerto Rico, we will see that the United States benefitted from pushing other imperialist powers out of the western hemisphere.

    • Review the guiding questions students will respond to after they have watched the video:
    • After the video, provide students time to respond to the questions individually or in pairs before they share their responses whole-class.
    • Refer to the Colonization & Imperialism Notes Organizer- Teacher KEY to support the share out of responses to the guiding questions.

    [Slide 8] Facilitate a whole group discussion on the history and impact of U.S. imperialism.

    You might say: There are many more examples of U.S. imperialism throughout history. These include U.S. interventions in Nicaragua and Bolivia, and heavy U.S. militarization in Colombia and El Salvador among others. As the United States continues to forcefully exert their influence on Latin America, it is the communities in those countries who are most affected by destabilized political systems. This has led to mass migrations to the United States and the growth of Latinx communities throughout the country. How has U.S. imperialism affected the experiences and culture of people in the Latinx community? Let’s discuss this now.

    • Invite students to discuss in small groups and share out their response to the discussion question:
      • How does the history of U.S. Imperialism in Latin America impact the shared experience and culture of Latinx people living in the United States?
    Teacher Tip: Film Extension Opportunity   If you want students to further contextualize the experiences of Afro-Latinx communities, consider streaming one of the documentary films discussed in the Remezcla article "15 Afro-Latino Movies You Should Stream for Black History Month." Make sure to preview the film and create a discussion guide for students. 
    Step 3: Listen to stories from Afro-Latinx people(5 min)

    Purpose: In this step students explore first-hand accounts of Afro-Latinx people. Given the diverse racial makeup of the Latinx community, and the misconceptions around race and ethnicity, stories of Afro-Latinx people are often erased, and their lived experiences flattened. Through this step students center the existence of this group of people and analyze the role that race plays in the community.

    [Slide 9] Play the Pero Like video "What Afro-Latinos Want You to Know" [3:41]

    • Share the discussion question with students before playing the video in its entirety.
      • What role does race play in the lived experiences of Afro-Latinx people? 
    • Invite students to turn and talk with a classmate to discuss the question, then invite students back to share their ideas whole class.

    You might say: U.S. Imperialism, as we just discussed, has had a huge impact on the existence of the different groups within the Latinx community in the United States Through imperialism people have been pushed out of their home countries in Latin America and grouped together as one in the United States We also discussed the impact of enslavement on the existence of Afro-Latinx people. Afro-Latinx people have been impacted by both enslavement and U.S. imperialism. Through this next video we will explore the unique experiences of Afro-Latinx people in the United States

    Step 4: Revisiting Latinidad(20 min)

    Purpose: Students summarize their learning from this module by answering the module driving question. Students construct claims using the information and sources from all the lessons in this module. While there is no single definition of Latinidad, students should walk away with a piece of writing that addresses the nuances that impact the diversity within the Latinx community.

    [Slide 10] Display short response prompt. Provide instructions and expectations for short response.

    You might say: In today’s lesson we built historical context. This means we have more of an understanding of the moments in history that impact the diversity and lived experiences of the groups of people that make up the Latinx community. We have been exploring the diversity in histories, identities, and experiences within the Latinx community throughout this unit. Now it’s time to summarize that learning through a short response to the module driving question that has energized our thinking in this module.

    • Talking points:
      • Module Driving Question: How do you define Latinidad?
      • Write a claim that defines Latinidad using your understanding from this module.
      • Use three sources from different lessons in the module as evidence.
      • Make sure to explain how the evidence you selected contributes to your definition of Latinidad.

     

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 2: Puerto Rican Art and Activism

    Module Overview

    Icon

    Module 2: Puerto Rican Art and Activism

    Pa’lante: Onward With Art

    Unit Driving Question

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?  

    Module Driving Question

    How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art? 

    Module 2 Overview

    Module Overview 

    In Module 2 students take a deep dive into the Puerto Rican community that exists within the broader Latinx community. In Lesson 2.1, students learn about the history of colonization in Puerto Rico and the ways in which Puerto Rican artists are using their art to fuel resistance movements. In Lesson 2.2 students build background knowledge about the Indigenous roots of Puerto Rico through a source exploration of the Taíno people. Through this exploration they discuss the role that cultural preservation plays in modern identity through an active listening activity. In Lesson 2.3, students explore another example of Puerto Rican resistance through art, this time though an exploration of Bomba music. Students analyze the ways in which Bomba music allows people to celebrate their history and culture while also making connections to social and political issues facing their community today. Finally, in Lesson 2.4 students analyze the ways that gender identity impacts the lived experiences of people in Puerto Rico. They explore the resistance of transgender Puerto Rican activists and discuss the social and political issues that gender non-conforming people face within the Latinx community in order to further understand the factors that impact Latinx identity.  

    Lesson 2.1: Puerto Rico Fights Back (70 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Update their Know & Need to Know chart with new understandings from module 1.
    • Discuss the impact of U.S imperialism on Puerto Rico.  
    • Analyze and contextualize Puerto Rican resistance art and discuss the societal and political issues in the community that these art projects address.
    • Collaborate with poster teams to read the Poster Series Rubric and create a team checklist for a successful project. 
    In this lesson students learn about the series of events that led to the U.S. colonization of Puerto Rico, and evaluate how U.S. political and economic policies have impacted the island. First students analyze how U.S. colonization has shaped the perspectives and resistance efforts of Puerto Rican people through an exploration of Puerto Rican street art. Then, students use this art exploration to discuss the module driving question—How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art? Finally, students spend time in their poster teams breaking down the elements of a successful final project for this unit.  
    Lesson 2.2 The Taíno People: Then & Now (70 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Craft an argument addressing the importance of cultural preservation on identity using various primary sources of the Taíno people in Puerto Rico.
    • Discuss the importance of recording and evaluating multiple perspectives of varying groups of people throughout time.
    • Work in project teams to build an inspiration board for their poster series project.
    In this lesson students explore sources from the Library of Congress and the National Museum of the American Indian that help build their understanding of the Taíno People in Puerto Rico. After analyzing these sources students will craft an argument about the importance of cultural preservation for the identity of a group of people. Students discuss the themes of identity, art, and cultural preservation through the example of the Taíno people using a structured active listening protocol. Afterward, students draw on what they have learned to work with their poster teams to create an inspiration board for their poster series.
    Lesson 2.3: Bomba Music & Resistance (55 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Analyze how Afro-Latinx identity in Puerto Rico has shaped resistance and cultural preservation efforts in the community.
    • Learn about Bomba Music in Puerto Rico and the ways it has been used as a tool for cultural preservation and resistance.
    • Respond to the module driving question through the lens of Afro-Latinx Puerto Ricans-How do Puerto Rican activists express their social and political ideas through art.
    In this lesson students learn about the Afro-Latinx community in Puerto Rico and explore how they use music as a tool for resistance. Students read an article about a Puerto Rican community using this tool as a form of protest in the United States today. Finally, students reflect on the module driving question—How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art—through the lens of Afro-Latinx people in Puerto Rico.
    Lesson 2.4: The Fight to Protect Trans Lives (70 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Draft norms as a class in order to set boundaries for a discussion about gender identity and trans lives.
    • Explore the causes and impact of the Stonewall uprising, focusing on the role that Puerto Rican activist Sylvia Rivera played in the uprising and subsequent fight for trans liberation while exploring the present-day demonstrations calling for justice in the case of Alexa Negrón.
    • Reflect on the political and social obstacles that trans people, particularly Black and brown trans people, face in the U.S today though a gallery walk.
    • Work in project teams to finalize the issue/event that the poster series project will focus on.
    In this lesson students work as a class to establish norms for having respectful discussions about gender identity. Students listen to stories about the Stonewall uprising and discuss the impact that that historic event had on the LGBTQ community. Students then explore Puerto Rican resistance in support of transgender liberation by exploring the role that activist Sylvia Rivera played in expanding LGBTQ rights in the United States, and the recent demonstrations demanding justice for Alexa Negrón. Students participate in a silent gallery walk reflecting on the many obstacles that transgender people, particularly young Black and brown transgender women, face today. Finally, students work in project teams to finalize the issue or event that their community poster campaign projects will focus on.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 2.1: Resistance Street Art Notes Organizer, Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony
    • Lesson 2.2: The Taíno People Notes Organizer
    • Lesson 2.3: Bomba Music and Resistance Notes Organizer
    • Lesson 2.4: The Fight to Protect Transgender Lives Notes Organizer
    Vocabulary
    • Bomba: a genre of music from the Caribbean, particularly Puerto Rico, that has roots in resistance from enslavement and continues to be used as a resistance tool today
    • LGBTQ: a term used to identify the lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer community
    • Taíno: the Indigenous people of the Caribbean, the Taino people existed in the region before European colonization and their cultural traditions live on today, particularly in Puerto Rico

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.1: Puerto Rico Fights Back

    Module 2 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Evaluate how U.S. political and economic imperialist policies have affected Puerto Rico since 1898.
    • Analyze how Puerto Ricans have used art to showcase different perspectives of societal and political issues in their community. 

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will learn about the series of events that led to the United States colonization of Puerto Rico, and evaluate how U.S. political and economic policies have impacted the island. First you will analyze how U.S. colonization has shaped the perspectives and resistance efforts of Puerto Rican people through an exploration of Puerto Rican street art. Then, you will use this art exploration to discuss the module driving question— How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art? Finally, you will spend time in your poster teams breaking down the elements of a successful final project for this unit. 

    Lesson Steps

    1. Revisit Know & Need to Know chart: Work collaboratively to update your class Know & Need to Know chart with new understandings from Module 1 before beginning Module 2 learning.
    2. Learn about U.S. imperialism in Puerto Rico: Read the article Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony to understand the impact that U.S. policy has had on the Island.
    3. Analyze and contextualize Puerto Rican resistance art: Using your Resistance Street Art Notes Organizer and drawing on the historical context from the article Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony, explore examples of Puerto Rican Street art and discuss the societal and political issues in the community that these art projects address.
    4. Poster Series Studio Time: Work in poster teams to review the Poster Series Rubric from Lesson 1.2 and create a team checklist for a successful project.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    D2.His.1.9-12: Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts.

    D2.His.5.9-12: Analyze how historical contexts shaped and continue to shape people’s perspectives.

    D2.Eco.15.9-12: Explain how current globalization trends and policies affect economic growth, labor markets, rights of citizens, the environment, and resource and income distribution in different nations.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C: Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Chart paper
    • Markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students learn about the series of events that led to the U.S. colonization of Puerto Rico, and evaluate how U.S. political and economic policies have impacted the island. First, students analyze how U.S. colonization has shaped the perspectives and resistance efforts of Puerto Rican people through an exploration of Puerto Rican street art. Then, students use this art exploration to discuss the module driving question—How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art? Finally, students spend time in their poster teams breaking down the elements of a successful final project for this unit.  
    Teacher Preparation
    Steps 1-4: Preview teacher discussion guide. Read through the Puerto Rico Fights Back Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons along with questions you can use to help students deepen inquiry and thinking during each part of discussion.Step 3: Decide how students will display reflections for the Module 2 driving question. Sticky notes are recommended as they are easy to share on a new class anchor chart and help students keep their reflections brief, but you can also use a digital thought catcher tool. Step 3: Create class anchor chart, or digital display, of the Module 2 driving question. Students will place their short reflections on the driving question on this chart.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Revisit Know & Need to Know Chart(15 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students reflect on what they learned in Module 1 to synthesize the information they have gained while refocusing on the unit’s driving ideas about art, resistance, and Latinidad. Then, students reflect on what they still need to know about the unit’s major themes—or about their final project—allowing them to more intentionally seek this information as we launch into in Module 2.

    You might say: When we started this unit, we discussed what we already knew about art, resistance, and Latinidad. Then, we worked in teams to identify what we still needed to know about these themes, and about the final product—a poster series. Finally, we worked through four lessons that helped build our understanding of identity and history in the Latinx community. Now we will now reflect on what we learned in Module 1 by revisiting the Know & Need to Know charts we completed as teams, and we will update them using the new understanding we built in Module 1.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a reflection on Module 1. Students revisit their Know & Need to Know charts from Lesson 1.1 and add information based on what they have learned so far.

    • Prompt students to turn and talk with a classmate:
      • What new information did we learn about Latinidad, our poster series project, resistance, and art?
      • What do we still need to know about the Latinx community, our poster series project, art, or resistance?
    • Invite students to share their ideas whole-class and record their ideas on the class Know & Need to Know chart.

    Reflect on learning as a class. Students discuss the information they added to their Know & Need to Know charts from Module 1. Teacher displays a digital copy of the Know & Need to Know chart and records class thoughts.

    [Slide 3] Present the Module 2 driving question and provide framing.

    • How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    You might say: One of the enduring understandings we should take from Module 1 is that the Latinx community is not a monolith. This means that the community is not made up of a single identity. However, people in the Latinx community are deeply affected by the history of the Latin American regions in which they live or have ancestry. For example, a Latinx person from Colombia views the world differently than a Latinx person from Cuba. Regional context matters. When we speak about “Latin America” as a whole, we conceive of it as a single community, erasing the many diverse identities. To avoid this erasure of diversity, we will focus on one Latin American region in this module—Puerto Rico. We will explore what makes the people of Puerto Rico culturally unique, and we will explore how they use art to preserve their culture and create resistance movements that address social and political issues specific to their community. The choice to focus on Puerto Rico is intentional, because it is not only a Latin American region, but also a colony of the United States, giving it a proximity to our own society that we sometimes forget about. Let’s learn a little more about that now. 

    Step 2: Learn about U.S. imperialism in Puerto Rico(20 min)

    Purpose: Students build background knowledge of the history of Puerto Rico, from its Indigenous roots to the impact that U.S. imperialism has had on the island. They will use this historical context throughout the rest of the module to deepen their inquiry.

    You might say: As we continue to explore Puerto Rican art and resistance movements, we need to build more context about what they are resisting. We need to understand Puerto Rico’s history before and after colonization by the Spanish—and later by the United States We will do this by reading an article about the island’s history.

    [Slide 4] Read and annotate the article Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony.

    • Organize students into groups of three or four. For the sake of variety, consider grouping students with classmates not in their poster team.
    • Distribute the article Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony and review the reading purpose, annotation strategies, and reading questions.
      • Reading purpose: Read about Puerto Rico’s history as a colony and the impact of U.S. imperialism on the island. Respond to text guiding questions.
      • Non-fiction annotation strategy:
        • Part 1: Complete for every section/paragraph in your text.
          • Who: Who is this section/paragraph about? It can be a person, event, or place.
          • What: What did you learn about the “who” in this section/paragraph?
        • Part 2:
          • Determine the central idea of the entire text/document in the fewest words possible (summarize your learning concisely.)
      • Reading questions:
        • Why was Puerto Rico colonized by so many different imperialist nations?
        • Why was the United States interested in gaining control of the Island?
        • How has U.S. colonization impacted the people of Puerto Rico?
    • Provide time for students to read and annotate the article together in their groups, then respond to the questions.
    • Circulate around the room and use the Puerto Rico: The Forgotten Colony: Teacher KEY to support student analysis of the article.
    • After groups have responded to the questions, invite students to share their responses whole-class.
    Step 3: Analyze and contextualize Puerto Rican resistance art(25 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students explore three examples of street art that express how Puerto Rican people feel about the political and social issues they are facing. After discussing the way that Puerto Rican artists express their desire for change through their work, students reflect on the module driving question.

    You might say: Now that we have some historical context about the island, we can better understand the political and social issues that some Puerto Rican activists have attempted to address through their art. We will look at three examples of Puerto Rican resistance art. As we do, think about the messages in the art and how they connect to the history of Puerto Rico.

    [Slide 5] Invite students to explore Puerto Rican art.

    [Slide 6] Reflect on Module 2 question.

    • Invite each student to use their analysis of resistance street art to respond to the Module 2 driving question on a sticky note or notes and place it on the class anchor chart for the Module 2 question.
      • How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    You might say: Now that we have learned more about the history of Puerto Rico and explored some resistance art, let’s reflect on our module driving question. Write a brief response to the module question, then post it on the class anchor chart. We will revisit these reflections when we finish the module. Your reflection should summarize your initial thoughts based on this lesson, but your response may develop and change over the course of this module.

    Step 4: Poster Series Studio Time(10 min)

    Purpose: In our last module, students explored examples of digital Latinx projects to gain a better idea of what a digital poster series might look like. In this step, project teams review the Poster Series Rubric, and create a checklist of what they need to complete their project.

    You might say: By the time we finish Module 2, your team will have a plan for a successful poster series. You will have created a mood board, selected your series elements, and decided on the message behind your poster series. Before we start, we need to be 100% clear on what the project expectations are. You will spend the remainder of class analyzing each element of the project rubric. You will create a checklist, using the rubric, of what your team needs to do in order to build a successful poster series.

    [Slides 7-8] Deconstruct project rubric.

    • Slide 8. Distribute the Poster Series Rubric to students and review the criteria.
    • Slide 9. Invite poster teams to use the rubric to identify what they need to create their projects, and begin discussing how they will create them. Encourage teams to discuss the following guiding questions:
      • What will be the focus of your poster series?
      • How many posters will you create?
      • How will you create these posters?
      • Will you create digital posters or create the posters by hand?
      • What help or materials will you need to create your poster series?
    • Students work in poster teams to create a checklist for a successful poster series.
    • Invite teams to share their checklist with the class so they can learn from each other’s thinking.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.2: The Taíno People: Then & Now

    Module 2 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Craft an argument addressing the importance of cultural preservation for identity using various primary sources of the Taíno people in Puerto Rico.
    • Discuss the importance of recording and evaluating multiple perspectives of varying groups of people throughout time.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will explore sources from the Library of Congress and the National Museum of the American Indian that help you build understanding of the Taíno People in Puerto Rico. After analyzing these sources, you will craft an argument about the importance of cultural preservation for the identity of a group of people. You will discuss the themes of identity, art, and cultural preservation through the example of the Taíno people using a structured active listening protocol. Afterward, you will draw on what you have learned to work with your poster team to create an inspiration board for your poster series.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about the Taíno people today: Watch the Pero Like video, "How Taíno Culture Affects Us Today".
    2. Explore key aspects of the history and culture of the Taíno people: Work in teams to analyze three sources on Taino history and culture and record your learning in the Taíno People Notes Organizer
    3. Reflect on cultural preservation and identity: Practice active listening in a partner discussion on the importance of cultural preservation to the collective identity of a group of people. Write a reflection post to share whole-class.
    4. Poster Series Studio Time: Work in project teams to build an inspiration board for your poster series project.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    D2.His.16.9-12: Integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about the past.

    D2.His.8.9-12: Analyze how current interpretations of the past are limited by the extent to which available historical sources represent perspectives of people at the time. 

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D: Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students explore sources from the Library of Congress and the National Museum of the American Indian that help build their understanding of the Taíno people in Puerto Rico. After analyzing these sources students will craft an argument about the importance of cultural preservation for the identity of a group of people. Students discuss the themes of identity, art, and cultural preservation through the example of the Taíno people using a structured active listening protocol. Afterward, students draw on what they have learned to work with their poster teams to create an inspiration board for their poster series.
    Teacher Preparation
    Step 3: Preview teacher discussion guide. Read through the Taíno People Then & Now Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons along with the questions you can use to help students deepen inquiry and thinking during each part of discussion.Step 3: Select active listening partner groups. You can have students self-select partner groups for this step or create a list of partners ahead of time. Step 4: Select a date for inspiration board submission. Though these won’t be graded, it will help you keep track of teams’ progress on their poster series.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about the Taíno people today(10 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students learn about the Taíno people today. Students should walk away from this step understanding that, while colonization had a devastating impact on the Taíno population, descendants of the Taíno people are working to preserve their history and culture today.

    [Slide 2] Opening Mini Discussion. Before framing the lesson, allow students to briefly discuss their reflections to the following question:

    Opening Reflection Question: Does knowing your own ancestry shape your identity? If so, how?

    You might say: For some of us, understanding our ancestry is integral to the development of our own identity. This is also true for the people of Puerto Rico. Today we will learn more about the ancestors of the island, the people who existed long before colonization and who continue to influence the identity of Puerto Ricans—the Taíno people.

    Yesterday we read about the history of the colonization of Puerto Rico. As we learned about this history, we also read a little about the Taíno people. The article shared facts and details about the mid-16th century, when the Taíno population greatly decreased due to European colonization and the introduction of European diseases. However, the Taíno people did not just disappear. Taíno people survived, and they continue to pass down their culture and history. Today, many Puerto Rican people are working to keep Taíno culture alive—and we will be exploring that cultural preservation today.

    [Slide 3] Play the Pero Like video "How Taíno Culture Affects Us Today" [5:43].

    • Ask students to pay attention to the ways in which Taíno descendants are working to preserve Taíno culture as they watch the video.
    • Share two questions students will reflect on after they watch the video:
      • What do we know about the Taíno people?
      • How does understanding the Taíno people help us understand the identity and culture of Puerto Rican people?  
    • Prompt students to turn and talk about the two questions, then invite students to share their responses whole-class.
      • What do we know about the Taíno people?
        • Possible responses: We know that they were the Indigenous people of the Caribbean, and that they lived on the territory now known as Puerto Rico. We also know that people today still practice Taíno traditions and feel culturally connected to their Taíno ancestors. 
      • How does understanding the Taíno people help us understand the identity and culture of Puerto Rican people?  
        • Possible responses: The Taíno people were the people who lived on the island territory before Spanish colonization. Spanish colonization decimated a large part of the Taíno population and many Taino cultural traditions were lost, or their origins suppressed. In order to understand who the people of Puerto Rico are outside of colonial elements, we can look to the traditions and history of the Taíno and how those cultural traditions and histories have been passed down throughout time.
    Step 2: Explore key aspects of the history and culture of the Taíno people(20 min)

    Purpose: Students build a deeper understanding of the history of the Taíno people and their culture. Students should walk away from this step having more context about Taíno culture that has been preserved over time, despite European violence and disease, in order to better understand the importance of cultural preservation to the identity of Puerto Rican people.

    You might say: As we saw in the video, people today are working to preserve Taíno culture and, for many, it is a critical part of their identity. Now we will explore specific aspects of the Taíno culture and learn how Taíno culture is part of the identity of Puerto Rican people.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate source analysis.

    • Organize students into groups of 3–4. For the sake of variety, consider organizing students into groups with classmates that are not in their poster teams.
    • Distribute The Taíno People Notes Organizer and review the directions and source analysis questions.
      • What new information about the Taíno people did I learn from this source?
      • How did examples of Taíno culture in this source impact the culture of present-day Puerto Rico?
      • How does preserving the cultural artifacts from a region’s past impact the identity of the people of that region? 
    • Students work in teams to explore the sources about the Taíno People and to respond to the source analysis questions in preparation for step 3.
    Step 3: Reflect on cultural preservation and identity(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students connect their understanding of the Taíno people and their impact on Puerto Rican identity to the ideas they already have about identity. Students come to understand the importance of preserving Indigenous culture in a region largely decimated and controlled by Western imperialist powers through a structured active listening activity that encourages them to listen deeply and reflect on the nuances of culture and identity.

    You might say: Understanding Taíno Indigenous culture is crucial to understanding the identities of Puerto Rican people. The preservation of Taíno culture has been an intentional act of resistance by Puerto Rican people. They didn’t let it die, even when Western powers tried to control everything about their island. That’s resistance. It’s also something that informs Puerto Rican identity. Culture can shape identity. And maybe that’s something we already relate to. In this part of our lesson, you will discuss these larger themes of culture and identity, first as it relates to your own identity, and later, how it relates to Puerto Rican identity. In order to make sure that we are really listening to each other’s thoughts on these themes, we will participate in an active listening activity. This is a little different from a regular discussion—it will help us internalize and reflect on other people’s views rather than trying to respond with our own views. Let’s get started.

    [Slide 5] Explain Active Listening Norms. Set expectations for the active listening activity by going over the following instructions with students:

    • You will be working with a partner to discuss ideas about cultural preservation and identity through your understanding of the Taíno people.
    • In an active listening activity, one person speaks and the other listens and asks clarifying questions but does NOT speak about their own thoughts or opinions until it is their turn.
    • Partner A will have 5 minutes to respond to any of the discussion questions. If there is a lull in their response, partner B can ask a question but cannot respond to the discussion questions themselves.
    • After 5 minutes, partner B will have 5 minutes to respond to any of the discussion questions. If there is a lull in their response, partner A can ask a question but cannot respond to the discussion questions themselves.
    • After both partners have spoken, each partner has 3 minutes to reflect and discuss one statement their partner made that stuck with them during the activity.

    [Slide 6] Display Discussion Questions. Students read through the discussion questions and partner listening questions before starting the activity. The teacher keeps a timer and will let students know when it is time to switch.

    Discussion Questions:

    1. Does knowing your own ancestry shape your identity? If so, how?
    2. For a long time, many believed that the Taíno people no longer existed. How do you think that impacted the identities of Puerto Rican people?
    3. Why is it important to learn about the culture of Taíno people and to preserve their stories?
    4. What does the lack of acknowledgement of Taíno history up until recently tell us about the impact of colonization on Puerto Rico’s culture?

    Partner Listening Questions:

    • When you said____ what did you mean?
    • Can you elaborate on your statement _______?
    • Can you give an example to support your statement _______?

    [Slide 7] Reflect on Active Listening Activity. Students discuss the extent to which the activity helped them listen to understand rather than listen to respond, and how they can use this protocol in other discussions.

    • How did it feel to not respond in the moment to what your partner said?
    • How does this activity help strengthen our listening skills?
    • What can we take form this activity to use in other parts of our lives?
    Step 4: Poster Series Studio Time(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step students identify the different elements they will use in their final projects. The work of creating a poster series involves big-picture planning of elements that will create cohesion between the posters, such as color scheme, fonts, image types, etc. Poster teams will put together a focused list of ideas about what their project will look like, moving one step closer to the creation phase. 

    You might say: In your last studio session, you reviewed the rubric for your poster series projects. As you built your project checklists, many of you noticed that the rubric asked you to create three posters that worked together to send an intentional message to your community. This means that the three posters, while different, need to have elements that make it clear they are part of the same series. In order to build cohesion in your poster series, your team must decide on some project elements that you will use in all your posters. This includes the colors you will use, the font you will use, and the image style you are going for. Today you will create something known as an inspiration board, where you will find images online that will guide the direction of your poster series. Let’s start by looking at an inspiration board example before you create your own.

    [Slide 8-10] Display Poster Series Inspiration Board Exemplars. Show students sample inspiration boards. Be sure to draw their attention to these elements: color, font, type of image (photograph, illustration, drawing, etc.) and inspiration from other artists.

    [Slide 11] Display inspiration Board Checklist. Give students a checklist of what their inspiration board should include.

    Inspiration board checklist:

    • Series Colors: choose 3–5 colors that you will use throughout the series to unite all posters.
    • Font: Select 2–3 fonts you might use to display the messaging on your poster series.
    • Image type: Find 3–5 images online that represent the image type you want to use in your poster series.

    Facilitate a reflection on team vision board experiences.

    • After teams have drafted their inspiration boards, invite them to share them with the class and explain the choices they made in their inspiration board and how it connects to what they have learned so far in this unit.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.3: Bomba Music and Resistance

    Module 2 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze how Afro-Latinx identity in Puerto Rico has shaped resistance and cultural preservation efforts in the community.
    • Integrate new information in an analysis of the module driving question.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will learn about the Afro-Latinx community in Puerto Rico and explore how they use music as a tool for resistance. You will read an article about a Puerto Rican community using this tool as a form of protest in the U.S. today. Finally, you will reflect on the module driving question—How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art— through the lens of Afro-Latinx people in Puerto Rico.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Preview Bomba Music: Explore the roots of Bomba music and the ways it has been used as means of cultural preservation and resistance through the Sound Field video "Why Puerto Rican Bomba Music Is Resistance".
    2. Learn about Bomba Music in Puerto Rico: Further explore the roots of Bomba music by reading the article the PBS article- "Rooted in resistance, Puerto Rico’s Bomba honors Black lives."
    3. Reflect on the module driving question: Respond to the module driving question through the lens of the lived experience of Afro-Latinx Puerto Ricans: How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:55 minutes
    Standards

    D3.1.9-12: Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.

    D2.His.5.9-12: Analyze how historical contexts shaped and continue to shape people’s perspectives.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C: Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students learn about the Afro-Latinx community in Puerto Rico and explore how they use music as a tool for resistance. Students read an article about a Puerto Rican community using this tool as a form of protest in the U.S. today. Finally, students reflect on the module driving question—How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art—through the lens of Afro-Latinx people in Puerto Rico.
    Teacher Preparation
    Step 1: Watch the video "Why Puerto Rican Bomba Music Is Resistance" and anticipate places you want to pause the video and want to check students’ understandings on key ideas.Step 2: Preview the article "Rooted in Resistance, Puerto Rico’s Bomba Honors Black lives" for academic language you might want to preview or pre-teach with students.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Preview Bomba Music(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students learn about Bomba music, its roots and development, and the ways in which Afro-Latinx people use this art form as resistance. Students also explore the unique culture of Afro-Latinx Puerto Ricans. This provides them with the context needed to reflect on the module question later in this lesson.

    You might say: In this unit we have talked a lot about identity and how historical context shapes identity and culture. We have discussed that through the historical context of enslavement, a distinct Afro-Latinx culture arose. The lived experiences, culture, and identity of Afro-Latinx people is impacted by their racial background. In this lesson we are going to explore an example of Puerto Rican Afro-Latinx art—Bomba music. Through this exploration we will learn more about the identity and efforts at cultural preservation of a specific group of people in the Puerto Rican community. We’re going to start with a video that helps us understand the roots of Bomba music. As we watch the Sound Field video ‘"Why Puerto Rican Bomba Music is Resistance," let’s make sure to make note of how Bomba music is also a means of cultural preservation for Puerto Rican people.


    [Slide 2] Play the video "Why Puerto Rican Bomba Music Is Resistance" [11:06].

    • Distribute the Bomba Music & Resistance Notes Organizer and review directions and questions with students.
      • Guiding questions:
        • What is Bomba music?
        • How does Bomba music allow Puerto Ricans to preserve and honor their history and culture?
        • Why is Bomba music considered resistance art?
    • Play the video in its entirety.
    • Invite students to discuss their responses to the guiding questions.
    Step 2: Learn about Bomba Music in Puerto Rico(20 min)

    Purpose: Students read an article about Bomba music and further explore the way that this art form is used as resistance within the Afro-Latinx community in Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rican diaspora. Students also have another opportunity to understand how art is a tool for resistance—a driving theme in this unit.  

    You might say: Now that we have a little more context about what Bomba music is, and even some context about how it is used as a tool for resistance—we will dig in a little more by reading an article about Bomba music.

    [Slide 3] Students read an article about Bomba music as resistance.

      • What messages of resistance are Bomba musicians and dancers conveying through their art?
    • Invite students to discuss, then share out their responses to the guiding questions.
      • What connections between the Black Lives Matter movement and Bomba music are made in the article? 
        • Possible Response: In this article, Bomba dancers are using the genre to protest the unjust death of George Floyd. They are making connections between the roots of Bomba music as a celebration of African roots and the movement to uplift and protect Black lives in the U.S.
      • What historical context shapes the Bomba genre?
        • Possible Response: Bomba has roots in enslavement. It was used as a celebratory tool but also to rebel against enslavement and all of that history is carried in the ways that Bomba is used to fight for Black lives today.
      • What messages of resistance are Bomba musicians and dancers conveying through their art?
        • Possible Response: Bomba dancers are sending the message that they are unafraid, that they are proud of their racial heritage, and that they will unite to fight for Black communities, just as they united through Bomba music in the past.
    Step 3: Reflect on the module driving question(15 min)

    Purpose: Students take what they have learned about Bomba music to answer a modified version of the module driving question. Students have already reflected on this question in Lesson 2.1, but now they are asked to do so through the lens of the Afro-Latinx Puerto Rican population, using information from this lesson.

    You might say: Using what we learned today about the Afro-Latinx community in Puerto Rico and Bomba music we will connect our learning to the module 2 driving question.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate a reflection on Module 2 learning.

    • Prompt students to draw on what they have learned about Bomba music to respond to the question:
      • How do Afro-Latinx Puerto Rican activists express their social and political ideas through art?

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.4: The Fight to Protect Transgender Lives

    Module 2 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Module Driving Question:

    How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Assess the social and political issues that people who identify as transgender face in the Puerto Rican community, both in Puerto Rico and in the U.S.  
    • Analyze the impact of transgender liberation efforts in the Puerto Rican community.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will work as a class to establish norms for having respectful discussions about gender identity. You will listen to stories about the Stonewall uprising and discuss the impact that that historic event had on the LGBTQ community. You will explore Puerto Rican resistance in support of transgender liberation by exploring the role that activist Sylvia Rivera played in expanding LGBTQ rights in the United States, and the recent demonstrations demanding justice for Alexa Negrón. You will participate in a silent gallery walk reflecting on the many obstacles that transgender people, particularly young Black and brown transgender women, face today. Finally, you will work in project teams to finalize the issue or event that your community poster campaign project will focus on.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Establish community norms: After viewing the Pero Like video, “Struggles of being Trans and Latinx,” draft norms as a class, setting boundaries for a discussion about gender identity and transgender lives.
    2. Learn about Puerto Rican resistance for transgender lives: Watch the National Museum of American History video, “Sylvia Rivera: Pushing Boundaries” to explore the causes and the impact of the Stonewall uprising, and the role that Puerto Rican activist Sylvia Rivera played in the uprising and subsequent fight for transgender liberation. Read article excerpts in your Fight to Protect Transgender Lives Notes Organizer about present-day demonstrations calling for justice in the case of Alexa Negrón.
    3. Participate in a gallery walk: explore and reflect on the political and social obstacles that transgender people, particularly Black and brown transgender people, face in the U.S. today by viewing information from the Transgender Law Center, Human Rights Campaign, and the National Center for Transgender Equality.
    4. Poster Series studio time: Work in poster teams to finalize the issue/event that the poster series will focus on.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:70 minutes
    Standards

    D4.7.9-12.: Assess options for individual and collective action to address local, regional, and global problems by engaging in self-reflection, strategy identification, and complex causal reasoning.

    D2.Civ.10.9-12: Analyze the impact and the appropriate roles of personal interests and perspectives on the application of civic virtues, democratic principles, constitutional rights, and human rights.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D: Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students work as a class to establish norms for having respectful discussions about gender identity. Students listen to stories about the Stonewall uprising and discuss the impact that that historic event had on the LGBTQ community. Students then explore Puerto Rican resistance in support of transgender liberation by exploring the role that activist Sylvia Rivera played in expanding LGBTQ rights in the United States, and the recent demonstrations demanding justice for Alexa Negrón. Students participate in a silent gallery walk reflecting on the many obstacles that transgender people, particularly young Black and brown transgender women, face today. Finally, students work in project teams to finalize the issue or event that their community poster campaign projects will focus on.
    Teacher Preparation
    Step 1-4: Preview teacher discussion guide. Read through the Fight to Protect Transgender Lives: Teacher Discussion Guide to familiarize yourself with the discussion questions in today’s lessons along with the questions you can use to push students during each part of discussion.Step 1: Determine video length. Preview the video on step 1 and decide how much of the video you will play depending on how much time you have for this lesson.Step 1: Create thought catcher for class norms: Decide on a tool to serve as a thought catcher for class norms. An anchor chart is suggested in order to display norms throughout lesson. Step 3: Read through gallery walk sources. Each source contains a lot of information; depending on how much time you have for this activity, select the sections of each source that you want students to interact with. Include graphs or infographics whenever possible. See step 3 for more guidance. Step 3: Print and display text for gallery walk stations. On separate anchor charts, print and display the gallery walk sources and create three separate stations (one for each source) around your classroom in preparation for the gallery walk.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Establish community norms(15 min)

    Purpose: Students view a video of first-hand accounts from Latinx transgender people about their identity. Then, they work together to create class norms for respectful discourse when engaging with topics about gender identity. The purpose of this step is for students to set clear boundaries for discussion to ensure that they are affirming in nature.

    [Slide 2] Play part of the Pero Like video "Struggles of Being Trans and Latinx Video" [8:52] and have students respond to the video guiding questions.

    Video Guiding Question: How does gender identity impact the lived experiences of transgender people in the Latinx community?

    You might say: We are continuing to learn about societal and political issues that Puerto Ricans face today. We are also learning more about the factors that impact identity in the Puerto Rican community. We will do so through several explorations and discussions about the fight for Transgender liberation in Puerto Rico and in the U.S. While conversations about transgender liberation are becoming more common, talking about transgender lives often illuminates our own biases and lack of understanding. Through this lesson, we will work to build our understanding of the issues that Latinx transgender people face using language that is affirming to all gender identities. In order to do so, we will take some time to come up with community norms on how we should talk about transgender lives. 

    [Slide 3] Establish Discussion Norms. Students work as a class to set norms that create a safe and respectful space to discuss gender identity and transgender lives.

    Suggested Norms:

    • Respect people’s pronouns.
    • Ask questions that seek to understand—not invalidate.
    • If you are unsure how to phrase a question in a way that is affirming, write it down first.
    Step 2: Learn about Puerto Rican resistance for transgender Lives(20 min)

    Purpose: Students build background knowledge about Puerto Rican activism for transgender liberation. They will do so by exploring the work of Sylvia Rivera, a transgender Puerto Rican American activist, and the recent movement in response to the death of Alexa Negrón. Students should walk away from this step understanding what resistance has looked like in the fight to protect transgender lives and the work that still needs to be done.

    You might say: Now that we have set norms around how we will discuss gender identity, we can begin the work of exploring the Puerto Rican activism for transgender liberation. We will begin by learning about Puerto Rican American transgender activist Sylvia Rivera before exploring present-day demonstrations fighting against transgender violence. Let’s get started. 

    [Slide 4] Primary Source Analysis. Students read a primary source about the stonewall uprising and answer the source analysis question.

    • Source Analysis Question 1: According to the newspaper article, what happened at Stonewall?
    • Source Analysis Question 2: What potential societal bias might impact the way that this newspaper reported on the story?

    [Slide 5] Play the National Museum of American History video: "Sylvia Rivera: Pushing Boundaries Video" [3:10] and have students respond to the video guiding questions.

    • Video Guiding Question 1: What was Sylvia Rivera’s involvement in the Stonewall uprising?  
    • Video Guiding Question 2: How did Rivera’s identity as a Puerto Rican American transgender woman impact her activism and goals in the gay liberation movement?

    [Slide 6] Explore present-day demonstrations in support of Puerto Rican transgender lives. Students read two article excerpts about the death of Alexa Negrón and the subsequent community organizing to bring attention to her case. They answer the source guiding questions.

    Guiding Questions:

    1. How are Puerto Rican activists responding to the death of Alexa Negrón?
    2. What does this case demonstrate about the challenges that Puerto Rican transgender women face today? 
    Step 3: Participate in a gallery walk(20 min)

    Purpose: In this step students to reflect on the obstacles that Black and Brown transgender people face in Puerto Rico and in the United States. Students should walk away understanding that the obstacles transgender people face are urgent and dangerous and that transgender people cannot be left out of conversations about resistance when they are often the most marginalized people in society. 

    You might say: The case of Alexa Negrón is not an isolated incident. In fact, brown and Black transgender people around the world face daily violence due to their gender identity. Oftentimes, we talk about Black liberation and about the importance of respecting and affirming Latinx people, but we don’t factor in gender identity. This means that transgender people are oftentimes the most ignored and marginalized members of their communities. We will participate in a gallery walk that gives us a closer look at the obstacles the transgender community faces, and the reasons these obstacles exist. As we walk from station to station, we will reflect on the impact these obstacles have on the lived experiences of the transgender people being discussed.

    [Slide 7] Review directions for the gallery walk.

    • Each group will be assigned a station to start.
    • As you analyze the image, discuss your thoughts with your group.
    • Write down your reflections before moving on to the next image.
    • You will have 3 minutes at each station, I will let you all know when it is time to rotate to the next image.

    Facilitate Gallery Walk Rotations. Organize students at their starting station. Display timer on the board to support student time management. Let students know when it is time to move to the next station. The following sources include a lot of information, please read through each source and select the information you want students to engage with. There are some guidance suggestions under each source.

    • Station 1: “The roots of anti-trans violence: Puerto Rico (Transgender Law Center)
      • Teacher Guidance: Consider including a graph on victim gender along with one paragraph from underneath the chart that gives more context. Include graph showing data about misgendered or deadnamed people along with one paragraph from underneath the chart that gives more context.
    • Station 2: 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey: Report on the Experiences of Latino/a Respondents (National Center for Transgender Equality)
      • Teacher Guidance: Consider including the key findings on page 3 of the report and the two charts on page 7 that reference family relationships for transgendered Latinx people.
    • Station 3: Dismantling a Culture of Violence (Human Rights Campaign)
      • Teacher Guidance: Any one of the pages in this report would work well as one station, particularly page 3 of the report. If you would like to have more than three stations, consider using other paged from this report.

    [Slide 8] Small Group Discussion. Students discuss their reflections for each of the three stations. 

    Step 4: Poster Series studio time(15 min)

    Purpose: Students begin to finalize the messaging of their poster series in preparation for Module 3.

    You might say: Now, we are closing out Module 2. This means that we will be working full time on our poster series. The next step in our planning is to identify the message that we want our poster series to convey. Understanding your message is the most important step in creating powerful pieces of resistance art. Using the guidance on your Notes Organizer, work in teams to finalize the message of your poster series.

    [Slide 9] Poster Series Message. Students work in project teams to finalize the social or political issue they want to highlight in their poster series.  

    • After teams have collaborated on their poster series, invite students to reflect on and discuss the Module 2 driving question:
      • How do members of the Puerto Rican community express their social and political ideas through art?

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa’lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 3: Create Your Poster Series

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 3: Create Your Poster Series

    Pa’lante: Onward With Art

    Unit Driving Question

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?  

    Module Driving Question

    How can we use art to connect across cultures and inspire civic engagement?

    Module 3 Overview

    Module Overview

    In this module students collaborate to complete a poster series that highlights a social and/or political issue facing the Puerto Rican community. In Lesson 3.1, students explore an example of a successful poster series before jumping into studio time and finalizing three posters that cohesively create a message of resistance. In Lesson 3.2, students work with another poster team to review each other’s projects and give each other meaningful and constructive feedback. Students work in project teams to decide how to apply feedback as they prepare for their poster series presentations. In Lesson 3.3, students present their poster series project and deeply reflect on the work created by their peers. Students close out the unit by reflecting on the unit driving question and celebrating their final projects.

    Lesson 3.1: Create Your Poster Series (120 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Explore and discuss successful a Puerto Rican poster project.
    • Create poster series with their poster teams by finalizing the three posters in their poster series in preparation for peer review cycles in the next lesson.
    In this lesson students explore and discuss an example of a successful poster campaign. Students use studio time to conduct further research about the issue they want to highlight and work to build a poster series with a clear message about issues that the Puerto Rican community has faced or continues to face.
    Lesson 3.2: Workshop Your Poster Series (75 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Use a structured feedback cycle to meaningfully critique the work of a peer poster series team  
    • Use peer feedback to improve and revise their team’s poster series in preparation for final poster presentations. 
    In this lesson students work with another project team to workshop their poster series. In this workshop students share their poster series and intended message with another team. Teams give one another targeted feedback using the rubric and peer review form. Afterward, teams meet to review and implement the feedback in preparation for their final poster presentations.
    Lesson 3.3: Present Your Poster Series (75 minutes)
    Key Standards for Success CriteriaSuccess CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
    • Present a poster series with a message of resistance that highlights a perspective on a social and political issue impacting the Puerto Rican community.
    • Reflect on and discuss the unit driving question- How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today? 
    In the unit’s final lesson, students work as a poster team to present their final poster series to an audience of classmates and outside guests. The audience reflects on and responds to the different poster series. Finally, students discuss what they learned in this unit, and through their poster series project, as a class.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 3.1: Poster Series Draft
    • Lesson 3.2: Poster Series Feedback
    • Lesson 3.3: Poster Series Rubric
    Vocabulary
    • Workshop: Workshops are used to give precise feedback on changes an artist can make to strengthen their art pieces. The purpose of the workshop is for the artist to receive multiple perspectives about their piece, reflect on that feedback, and decide what parts of the feedback they want to implement

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.1: Create Your Poster Series!

    Module 3 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we use art to connect across cultures and inspire civic engagement?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Explain the elements of a successful poster series.
    • Use relevant research, my team inspiration board, and the poster series rubric to create three posters that address social and political issues that Puerto Rican people have faced or continue to face.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will explore and discuss an example of a successful poster campaign. You will use studio time to conduct further research about the issue you want to highlight and work to build a poster series with a clear message about issues that the Puerto Rican community has faced or continues to face.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Explore and discuss an example of a successful poster project: You will explore the work of Ricardo Levins Morales to discuss the ways in which his poster projects successfully convey messages highlighting political and social issues.
    2. Create poster series: Use the Poster Series Rubric and the Poster Series PPT Template to finalize the three posters in your poster series in preparation for peer review cycles in the next lesson.
    3. Finalize next steps: If your team did not finish your poster series in class, decide how you will finish your poster series before the next lesson.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:120 minutes
    Standards

    D3.1.9-12: Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection

    D4.7.9-12: Assess options for individual and collective action to address local, regional, and global problems by engaging in self-reflection, strategy identification, and complex causal reasoning.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.5: Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students explore and discuss an example of a successful poster campaign. Students use studio time to conduct further research about the issue they want to highlight and work to build a poster series with a clear message about issues that the Puerto Rican community has faced or continues to face.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 2: Decide on formatting tool for poster series. Preview the PowerPoint template and the Teacher Tip in Step 2 to decide what tool you want students to use to design their posters. 
    • Step 2: Familiarize yourself with the poster series rubric. Preview the rubric so you can use it to conference with students.
    • Step 3: Set dates for peer review & final poster presentations. Decide how much time you will allot students for their poster creation studio time. Decide when you will conduct the peer reviews (Lesson 3.2), and when you will hold final presentations (Lesson 3.3), so students know how much time they have to create their first draft, implement peer feedback, and finalize their projects. Invite outside guests and secure the venue for student presentations. The venue could be your classroom, the school auditorium, or a local public library.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Explore and discuss an example of a successful poster project(10 min)

    Purpose: Students have one more opportunity to discuss the elements of a successful digital poster series by exploring the work of an artist who has created a similar project professionally. Students will spend the bulk of this lesson working in their teams to create their poster series; this step provides them with an exemplar.

    You might say: Today you will spend most of our class time working with your poster teams to create your poster series. So far, we have prepared for this project by breaking down the project rubric, creating a checklist based on that rubric, creating a mood board with color schemes, fonts, and images that inspire us, and by working to finalize the issue we want to address through our poster series. We are in a great place to pull the pieces together and create posters! However, before we jump into that collaborative work, I want us to have one last opportunity to look at digital posters from a real-life artist and evaluate the elements that make these posters effective in delivering a message of resistance.

    [Slide 2] Give students time to explore digital poster examples from Ricardo Levins Morales.

    • Students can explore Morales’s website individually, or you may choose to make this a whole-class activity.
    • As students explore the examples, they are not completing handouts, instead they should spend the bulk of class time working on their projects. However, you can ask them to consider any of the following as they explore:
      • What social or political issues is Morales addressing in his work?
      • What message about these issues is Morales sending through his posters?
      • Do we notice similar elements in Morales’s posters? What lets us know that these posters are related, or created by the same person?
      • What does Morales’s poster series inspire us to think about when it comes to our own poster series?

    Discuss elements of a successful poster series. After students have explored Morales’s work, discuss their responses to the guiding questions.

    Key takeaways for students:

    • The images used in Morales’ posters are all similar. They are hand-drawn illustrations that use a similar color palette.  
    • The color palette used in the posters lean toward earth colors; the similarities in the colors used create cohesion among the posters. It is clear they come from the same artist, so an audience is more likely to see the posters as connected and related to a larger issue.
    • Similarly, the posters all use plant imagery—this symbolizes the people the artist is highlighting (farm workers, the people, etc.).
    • The artist uses few words in these posters, the images drive the message. Any words used are easily recognizable (the young lords).
    Step 2: Create poster series(100 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the tool they will use to complete their poster series, and how much structured work time they will have for the creation of those projects. As students are working, your role will be to conference with students and to give continuous time checks to help students manage their studio work time.

    You might say: Now that we have looked at an example of a successful poster series, you will have the rest of class to work on your posters as a team. Before you jump into that work, let’s review the template you will use to format your poster series.

    [Slides 3–4] Review poster series template.

    • Distribute the Poster Series Rubric and the Poster Series PPT Template.
    • Preview the poster series template with students and explain what they should include in each slide. Inform students that these instructions are also in the notes section in the PowerPoint template in case they want to reference them.
      • Slide 1: Poster Series Name & Artist Signatures
        • On this slide you will include the title for your poster series. The title should speak to the overall message of your poster series. You will also include the names of your team members so it’s clear who collaborated on the posters that follow.
      • Slides 2–4: Posters
        • On these slides you will create your posters. You will use the editing tools in PowerPoint to edit these slides according to the poster plans you have already prepared.
      • Slide 5: Collective Statement
        • On this slide write your collective statement. Use the Poster Series Rubric as a guide for what you should include in your team’s collective statement.
      • Slide 6: Acknowledgements
        • Use this slide to acknowledge the communities/community impacted by the social and political issues you highlighted in your poster series. You should also include resources for people who want to learn more or get involved in movements to address the social or political issue you highlighted.

    You might say: You might notice that there is little guidance on how you should format your poster series title, artist signatures, and acknowledgements. This is because these slides should be formatted to compliment the color schemes, fonts, and messaging of your posters. Since all your poster series will vary, these slides will also vary for each team. This means you can be as creative as you want!

    Teacher Tip: Using Canva to Design Posters  The poster series template provided in this unit is a great option for students to complete their projects using a tool that they are probably already familiar with. However, if you would like students to work on their graphic design skills, or if you have students who are eager to use a tool with more artistic functions—you can use the free Canva teacher tools to set students up with their own Canva account. Use the guidance below if you would like to explore this formatting option. Registering for a FREE Canva Account & Supporting Students
    1. Informational Video: https://youtu.be/58No0D1vy7A
    2. Fill out an application using your official school email address. It takes a week to get approved so do this ahead of time: https://www.canva.com/education/
    3. Once you’ve been approved, you can watch informational videos on how to add a class or collaborate with students here: https://designschool.canva.com/tutorials/education/
    4. Play around with the tool. It is very easy to create posters using Canva, but you should be familiar with the ways in which you can work from a template and change the text, colors, and pictures to better fit the purpose of the poster series assignment. You can find a video on how to do this here: https://youtu.be/XC8tNWE4_ws
    5. You can find more training videos here: https://designschool.canva.com/tutorials/getting-started/

    [Slide 5] Give instructions on work time deliverables. Tell students how much time they will have to work as a team, including whether they will have extra class time after this to work on their poster series. Let students know that you will provide time checks (depending on time allotted for studio time) and that you will circulate and conference with each team.

    You might say: You will have ____ (amount of time) to work on your posters with your team. As you work, I will come around and conference with each team and lend any support you might need. I will also provide time checks throughout the studio time so you are aware of how much time you have left. You can get started now.

    • Time Checks: Give students a time check every 25-30 minutes. You can use a visual cue, like a countdown timer on the board or an alarm, to help students pace themselves during their worktime.
    • 1:1 Conferencing: Schedule 10-minute meetings with each team in advance of this lesson. Use this time to support students in their poster creation by reviewing their work with them, and offering feedback or answering their questions. You should schedule the conferences to start after teams have had enough time to create at least one poster in their series so that you have something to discuss.
    • Here are some possible challenges you can help students troubleshoot:
    • Clarifying the message:  You might conference with a team that is unclear on the message they are trying to convey through their posters, leading to something that feels too broad. Here, push students to verbally explain what they are trying to say, have them write down those messages in bullet points to help them summarize that messaging into phrases they can use directly in their posters.
    • Being succinct: One of the trickier parts of this poster project is the ability to succinctly send a message without including too much text in the poster. If you conference with a team that has a lot of blocked text in their poster, help them summarize the text as much as possible and discuss what words are necessary to the message they are creating.
    • Pulling a thread across posters: You might notice that some teams have three posters in their series that effectively send a message yet seem unrelated to one another. This could be because each poster uses a completely different color scheme/font/image type. You can help students build cohesion by encouraging them to use some of the same elements in each poster—whether that’s a color, a banner, or a border. Sometimes small changes, like using the same font colors, can build a relationship between the posters more effectively.
    • Font and background color choices:
      • For example:

    Font/ Background color contrast

     

      • You might say: Notice how the good color choice makes the font easier to read? Make sure your color choices enhance your message instead of hiding it! 
    Step 3: Finalize next steps(10 min)

    Purpose: Students use this time to identify next steps for finalizing their poster series before peer reviews in the next lesson.

    You might say: In our next class we are going to workshop each other’s posters series. This means that while your final posters might still change after you receive feedback, you should come prepared for your peer review cycles with a complete poster series. If you still have work to do to complete your three posters, you need to come up with a plan as a team. You can do so now.

    [Slide 6] Provide students with information about important project dates. Inform students of the dates for their peer workshops and final presentations.

    [Slides 7] Invite students to discuss next steps. Allow teams a few minutes to discuss what they need to do based on the dates that you have set for peer review and project completion. If possible, record what tasks remain for teams so you can check in and support teams that may be behind schedule.

     

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.2: Workshop Your Poster Series

    Module 3 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we use art to connect across cultures and inspire civic engagement?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Use a structured feedback cycle to meaningfully critique the work of my peers.
    • Use peer feedback to improve and revise my team’s poster series in preparation for final poster presentations.

    Purpose

    In this lesson you will work with another project team to workshop your poster series. In this workshop you will share your team’s poster series and intended message with another team. Teams will give one another targeted feedback using the rubric and peer review form. Afterward, you will meet with your team to review and implement the feedback in preparation for their final poster presentations.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about workshop structure and revision process: Your teacher will review the importance of peer review and the Ladder of Feedback handout from Making Learning Visible that you will use to give feedback during your workshop time.
    2. Workshop your poster series: You will use the Poster Series Rubric and a Peer Workshop Form to give feedback to another project team. You will receive feedback on your own poster series by the team you are paired with in your workshop.
    3. Apply feedback: You will work with your project team to review the feedback you received, and decide on any changes you will make based on that feedback to strengthen and finalize your poster series.
    Finalize next steps: You will discuss next steps with your team to finish poster series if you need more time to apply feedback in preparation for your poster series presentation.

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards
    D4.5.9-12: Critique the use of the reasoning, sequencing, and supporting details of explanations.
    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D: Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
     
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson students work with another project team to workshop their poster series. In this workshop students share their poster series and intended message with another team. Teams give one another targeted feedback using the rubric and peer review form. Afterward, teams meet to review and implement the feedback in preparation for their final poster presentations.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step1: Adapt Step 1 if your students know the Ladder of Feedback. If your students have engaged in other Educurious units, they may be familiar with the Ladder of Feedback. If this is the case, instead of presenting this as new information, ask your students to recall the process.
    • Step 2: Prepare for workshop peer review. All students should have a blank Peer Review Form to complete as they review the work of the team they were paired with.
    • Step 2: Match poster series teams. Decide which teams will be working together during the peer review workshop. If possible, try to partner teams that complement each other’s project needs. For example, if one team has strong visual presentation but is lacking in terms of their intended message—you might match them with a team who has a strong message but is struggling to present it visually. Use the conferencing that took place in Lesson 3.1 as a basis for matching teams.
    • Step 3: Create plan to conference with students about applying feedback. Schedule teams for a 5-minute conference while they are reviewing and implementing feedback in Step 3.
    • Step 4: Finalize final due dates/presentation dates. Decide whether you will extend studio time based upon the revision needs of the project teams. Decide when students will turn in their final posters and when presentations will take place. Share dates with students in Step 4. 

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about workshop structure and revision process(10 min)

    Purpose: Students understand the peer review structure that they will use to gather and implement feedback for the poster series project. Students should walk away from this step with a clear understanding of the ways they will give and receive feedback on their team project.

    You might say: Up until now, you have worked exclusively in your project teams to create the three posters for your poster series. However, before your poster series is ready to be presented and finalized, you will participate in a peer review workshop so that you can receive feedback to strengthen your projects. 

    [Slide 2] Introduce purpose of a workshop. Explain the role that workshops play in the art creation process and how we will use a workshop structure to improve our final projects.

    You might say: A workshop can work in many ways—in fact the word workshop means several different things depending on the context in which it is used. In the art cycle, workshops are used to give precise feedback on changes an artist can make to strengthen their art pieces. The purpose of the workshop is for the artist to receive multiple perspectives about their piece, reflect on that feedback, and decide what parts of the feedback they want to implement. Today you will be matched with another project team, and you will work through a ladder of feedback structure to ensure that each team walks away with meaningful feedback.

    [Slides 3] Review Ladder of Feedback Structure. Review the peer feedback structure students will use in their workshop, along with the peer review form each student will turn in for the group they are matched with in their workshop. Answer any questions.

    • Read through the Making Learning Visible handout "Ladder of Feedback" as a whole class.
    • Read through the Peer Review Form as a whole class.
    • Review the Poster Series Rubric as a whole class.
    • Explain to students that they will use the Poster Series Rubric to review another team’s poster series and share their feedback by completing the Peer Review Form.

    [Slides 4] Match Peer Review Teams. Let students know which team they are matched with and continue workshop guidance in Step 2.

    Step 2: Workshop your poster series(30 min)

    Purpose: In this step, students give each other feedback on their poster series using the Ladder of Feedback workshop structure. The teams will present their posters to each other just as they will in their final presentations, which provides students an opportunity to practice their poster presentations. Students should walk away from this step with comprehensive feedback to review and implement in Step 3.

    [Slide 4] Provide workshop guidance.

    • Explain to students that they will be presenting their project to the team they are matched with.
    • Explain to students that after their presentation, the team they are matched with will be given time to provide written feedback before switching roles.
    • Give students guidance on which team in each pairing should present first.
    • Give students guidance on how much time each team will have to present and receive guidance based on the time allotted for this activity.

    Display time-check structure. Display a time-check structure (like a classroom timer) for students, and announce when it’s time to switch roles.

    Step 3: Apply feedback (30 min)

    Purpose: Student teams read through, reflect on, prioritize, and implement the feedback they received during their workshop. Students should use the rest of this time to implement feedback from their workshop.

    You might say: Now that you have received feedback from the team you were paired with, read through the feedback with your team and decide which suggestions you will incorporate into your poster series. You will have the rest of the time to implement this feedback and work on finalizing your projects.

    [Slide 5] Review and implement feedback.

    • Review feedback on the Peer Review Form and describe how you will act on it by responding to the question: How will you prioritize and use the feedback you received?
    • Discuss the reflection question in your teams and decide as a group which parts of the feedback you will implement.
    • Decide how much time you will give students to implement feedback and finalize their final projects in preparation for project presentations.
    • 1:1 Conferences: Meet with each project team to discuss the trends in the feedback they received. Push teams to reflect on where feedback overlapped and to identify the feedback with the most leverage to strengthen their final projects.
    Step 4: Finalize your poster series(5 min)

    Purpose: Students wrap up work time and make sure they are clear about next steps for turning in their projects. Students should walk away from this step with next steps and deadlines for revising their poster series presentation. You could decide to omit this step if you extended work time, or if all project teams were able to finish and turn in their projects in the allotted time.

    You might say: We are so close to engaging with the work that you all have been putting into this poster project! Our final lesson in this unit will involve presenting the poster projects to each other, reflecting on the impact of each project, and discussing the lessons we have learned together through this unit and this project. As excited as I am to see all your completed projects, I also know you might still have a few things to do to finish. You will now work in your project teams to discuss any final steps you need to coordinate together.   

    [Slide 6] Provide students with information about important project dates. Inform students when the final projects are due, and when presentations will occur.

    [Slides 7] Invite students to discuss next steps. Allow teams a few minutes to discuss what they need to complete based on the dates that you have set for project completion and presentations.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 3.3: Poster Series Presentations

    Module 3 Icon

    Unit Driving Question:

    How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today? 

    Module Driving Question:

    How can we use art to connect across cultures and inspire civic engagement?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Present a poster series with a message of resistance that highlights a perspective on a social and political issue impacting the Puerto Rican community.
    • Reflect on and discuss the unit driving question: How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?

    Purpose

    In the unit’s final lesson, you will work as a poster team to present your final poster series to an audience of your classmates. Your peers will reflect on and respond to your poster series; then you will respond to the poster series created by other teams. Finally, you will discuss what you learned in this unit, and through your poster series project, as a class.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Learn about presentation structure: Review guidance from your teacher about the order in which you will present your poster series and how you will engage with the poster presentations created by other teams.
    2. Participate in Poster Series Gallery Presentations: The teams in your class will be split in half. Half of the teams will display their poster projects while the other half of the teams circulate through the projects. As your peers circulate, you will present your poster series and answer any questions from your audience about your project. Afterwards, teams will switch, and you will use the Gallery Reflections handout to engage with the poster projects created by your peers.
    3. Reflect on what you have learned: After all teams have had a chance to present their projects and engage with other team projects, you will reflect on and share what you have learned from this unit.

    Explore More

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:75 minutes
    Standards
    D4.3.9-12: Present adaptations of arguments and explanations that feature evocative ideas and perspectives on issues and topics to reach a range of audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.5: Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In the unit’s final lesson, students work as a poster team to present their final poster series to an audience of classmates and outside guests. The audience reflects on and responds to the different poster series. Finally, students discuss what they learned in this unit, and through their poster series project, as a class.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Decide on presentation structure and flow. The idea for presentations in this lesson is to structure it as an opening at a gallery. Student teams display their posters (digitally or printed if you can facilitate printing) and then present their art to other teams. To facilitate this, split your class in two, with half the teams presenting first to the other teams and then switching.  You can also decide to have each team present one at a time to the rest of the class, or for all teams to display their projects at the same time and select one representative from their team to present while the rest of the class walks through all the other projects. Before launching presentations with students:
      • Decide which presentation format you want to use.
      • Predetermine the order of presentations.
      • Edit your 3.3 slide deck to include guidance for presentations. You will share this in step 1.
    • Step 2: Decide how you will evaluate teams. In Step 2, all teams will present their posters using the structure you chose in Step 1. During this time, you will evaluate the projects using the student rubric. Decide how you will capture notes for each team, and how you will inform students about their performance.
    • Step 3: Decide how you will display student reflections. In Step 3, students discuss what they have learned in this unit. They will close out the unit by writing a brief reflection on the unit driving question. You can write the unit driving question on an anchor chart and have students reflect on sticky notes to create a collaborative structure responding to the unit. You can also use a digital tool to capture reflections.
    • Consider a community postering event:  These presentations are structured to take place inside your classroom, but students worked to create messages that they could share with their community in general. Consider extending this project series by finding other places in your school community to display some, or all, of the posters created by your classes. This will allow students to see their work live outside of the classroom and see this project as a community action strategy that they can use in their own future activism.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Learn about presentation structure(10 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the presentation structure they will use in Step 2. Students should walk away with a clear understanding of when and how they will present their projects, and when and how they will reflect on the projects created by other teams.

    [Slides 2] Share guidance on how project teams will present their poster series. Personalize this slide based on the presentation structure you have chosen (see teacher preparation section for options.)

    [Slides 3] Share guidance on how project teams will reflect on the work created by other teams. Personalize this slide based on the reflection structure you have chosen (see teacher preparation section for options.)

    [Slides 4] Orient students to what will happen next.  

    • For example, if you have decided to split teams into two groups, you should:
      • clearly display which teams are presenting first.
      • display how much time they have to set up.
      • inform students regarding when presentations will begin while also providing guidance to teams not presenting on which teams they will visit first and how long they will have with each team.
    Step 2: Participate in Poster Series Gallery(40 min)

    Purpose: Students present their final projects and engage with the projects created by other teams.

    Facilitate poster series viewing gallery.

    • Distribute the Poster Series Gallery Reflections handout.
    • Students use a predetermined presentation structure to present their poster series and to engage with at least three other projects created by their peers.
    • Direct students to use the gallery reflection handout to engage with peer projects.
    Step 3: Reflect on what you have learned(25 min)

    Purpose: Students celebrate the work created by their peers and connect it to the enduring understanding from this unit. This step serves as a culminating reflection on what students learned from this unit. 

    [Slide 5] Silently reflect on enduring understandings.

    • Distribute the Pa’lante Unit Individual Reflection handout.
    • Students silently reflect to the following questions before engaging in a whole-class discussion:
      • What new ideas about Latinidad, resistance, or art did you walk away with after exploring the projects created by your peers?
      • What did you learn by using poster art to confront social and political injustices today?
      • How can understanding Latinidad through art help us confront social and political injustices today?  

    [Slide 6] Facilitate whole-class discussion. Invite students to discuss the enduring understandings they are walking away with after engaging in this unit and poster project.

    • Begin by having students shout each other out and celebrate each other’s projects.
    • Invite students to share their silent reflections.
    • Display the unit driving question and invite students to respond to the question as a class. Encourage students to discuss what new information they learned through this unit, and what ideas they want to learn more about after finishing the unit.

    Display student reflections to the unit driving question.  Students briefly and independently respond to the unit driving question after discussion and display their responses as a class depending on the structure you have chosen (see teacher preparation.)

    Celebrate students and close out unit.

    • Remind students that this unit served as a glance into a community with a lot of history and culture that we did not get to cover. Invite students to continue to learn about the Latinx community on their own.
    • Share your own learning through this unit and the moments you enjoyed the most with your students.

     Unless otherwise noted, Pa'lante: Onward With Art © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.