Author:
Educurious .
Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson, Lesson Plan, Module, Teaching/Learning Strategy, Unit of Study
Level:
Middle School
Tags:
  • PBL
  • Washington State History
  • wa-sel
  • wa-social-studies
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Connected

    Connected

    Overview

    This unit is designed to build inquiry about and interest in the themes and topics woven throughout Educurious’s multi-unit Washington State History course. To start off, students discover and share how they are connected to their classmates by participating in a “Web of Connectedness” activity. Throughout the unit, students engage in mapping, data visualization, and cost-benefit analyses in order to unpack the theme of connectedness and answer the unit driving question: How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world? As students learn about resources, economies, innovations, people, and places in Washington, they draft a series of six interactive community boards that educate others about the ways in which people are connected. For the culminating product of this unit, student teams finalize one of their six draft community boards to help students in their school make connections between themselves, Washington, and the world.

    Educator Welcome

    Dear Educator,

    We understand the joy every teacher experiences when they discover what lights up a student, and how that breakthrough can make way for a powerful shift in student learning. We’re thrilled to partner with you in bringing project-based learning (PBL) to your classroom, and we think you’ll love these lessons, which were created in collaboration with educators, learning scientists, and experts in the field.   

    Whether this is your first voyage into PBL or you’re a seasoned pro, we’re sure you’ll agree that this approach sparks interest, ignites possibility, fuels a love for learning in students, and brings wonder to the classroom.

    We believe Open Educational Resources (OER) promote equitable access to standards-aligned, high-quality instructional materials for all educators to adapt and use. Contact us at info@educurious.org to learn more about how Educurious can support district or school adoption of this curriculum and the development of PBL teaching practices. Explore Educurious.org to discover other PBL courses and order printed materials.

     

    As you join your students on this learning journey, we’d love to hear from you. We want to experience your students’ curiosity, celebrate their projects, and hear about your successes, as well as what we can do better. Click here to share your thoughts. Thank you for taking us along on your adventure. 

    Onward!

    Your friends at Educurious

     

    Acknowledgements

    Unit Credits & Acknowledgments

    Educurious would like to express sincere gratitude to our partners from the Issaquah, Kent, Mercer Island, Riverview, and Tahoma School Districts for contributing their expertise, insights, and energy. Their collaboration was instrumental in the co-design of this Washington State History project-based learning unit.

    A special thank you to Linda Henderson at Issaquah School District, Amy Abrams at Kent School District, Mark Klune at Riverview School District, Fred Rundle at Mercer Island School District, and Bridget Vannice at Tahoma School District for their leadership and support throughout this project.

    Design Teachers and Districts:

    • Andrea Byford, Kent School District
    • Brian Lockhart, Kent School District
    • Jeffrey Knutson, Kent School District
    • John Buchinger, Kent School District
    • Kailey Shepard, Kent School District
    • Keith Henry, Kent School District
    • Reb Parsley, Kent School District

    The Educurious Team:

    Unit Development Team:

    • Writer: Chris Carter
    • Educurious Reviewer: Sara Nachtigal
    • External Reviewers: Natasha Warsaw, Rosanne Golding, Laura-Louis Jacques, Jane Lo, Shanee Washington, and Maribel Santiago
    • Editor: Kristina Hawley

    Production Team:

    • Erik Robinson, Alex Goodell

    Project Manager:

    • Josie Brogan

    Educurious Leadership:

    • Jane Chadsey, CEO

    Unit Poster Image Credits:

    • Poster created by Educurious with Canva

    License & Attribution

    Copyright

    Except where otherwise noted, Connected by Educurious is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. You are free to share this material (by copying and redistributing it in any medium or format) and adapt it (by remixing, transforming, or building upon it). However, you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate whether changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your adaptation. You may not use this material, or any adaptation of it, for commercial purposes. Please take care that adaptations do not introduce cultural bias.

    All logos and trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All art, illustrations, and photos in this work are used with permission and are not included in the open license. This resource contains links to websites operated by third parties. These links are provided for your convenience only, and do not constitute or imply any endorsement or monitoring by Educurious. Please confirm the license status of any third-party resources and ensure that you understand their terms before use.

    If you adapt this work, please note the substantive changes, retitle the work, and provide the following attribution: “This resource was adapted from Connected, which was produced and published by Educurious in 2022 and is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 1: Connections to the World

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 1: Connections to the World

    Connected

     

    Unit Driving Question

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question

    What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?

    Module 1 Overview

     

    Module Overview

    One of the intentions behind the design of this unit is to build interest and inquiry around the other Washington State History units, including: Decisions that Define Us, Roaring Rivers, #Rights #Representation #Change, Innovation Through the Lens, and Resettling in Washington.

    In Module 1, students learn about some of the ways that people and places around the world are connected to Washington through resources, economies, and innovations. In Lesson 1, students think about the personal connections they have with their peers. This helps them begin to unpack connectedness and how shared experiences and differences can connect us. In Lesson 2, students learn that Washington is one of the largest producers and exporters of apples in the U.S. and the world. Students consider the costs and benefits of people throughout Washington, the U.S., and the world consuming Washington apples. In Lesson 3, students learn how the airplanes produced in Washington have increased human mobility and connected people and places all over the world. In Lesson 4, students learn how salmon supply & demand has risen and fallen over time. In Lessons 2, 3, and 4, students work with their community board teams to draft interactive community boards that are engaging and educational.

     

    Lesson 1.1: Connectedness (55 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    SSS1.6-8.1

    SSS1.6-8.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1

    Success CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Identify what connects them with their peers.
    In this launch lesson, students explore the theme of connectedness by identifying connections they have to each other and the rest of the world. Using a skein of yarn, they work together to identify things that connect them. Once they have created their web of connectedness, they work together to untangle the yarn. As they untangle it, they take turns sharing one thing that people may not know about them. Finally, they review the unit poster and discuss what they already know about people and places in Washington that connect them.
    Lesson 1.2: At the Core (90 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    E2.6-8.3
    E4.6-8.4

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.9

    Success CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Gather evidence from secondary sources on the costs and benefits of Washington’s apple production.
    • Draft an interactive community board about Washington apples.
    In this lesson, students learn why Washington is one of the largest producers of apples in the U.S. and the world. Students start by testing their knowledge about apples. Then, they learn about the costs and benefits of Washington’s apple production from a farmer, a packager, and a journalist. Finally, students meet their community board team and draft an interactive community board that engages people and educates them on how Washington apples connect people and places.
    Lesson 1.3: From 56 Hours to 5 (90 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    SSS2.6-8.2E2.6-8.3

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.7

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    Success CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Read informational texts for facts and details about Washington’s aviation history.
    • Draft an interactive community board about Washington aviation and aerospace.
    In this lesson, students learn some of the history of aviation in Washington, and explore how planes built in Washington connect people and places around the world. Students start by exploring how modern aviation has improved human mobility. Then, they learn about the history of aviation in Washington that has led us to where we are today. Finally, students work with their community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how aviation in Washington connects people and places.
    Lesson 1.4: Canned (80 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    SSS1.6-8.1E2.6-8.4

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    Success CriteriaBy the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Visualize salmon supply and demand.
    • Draft an interactive community board about salmon in Washington.
    In this lesson, students learn how salmon connects people and places by creating a data visualization of the worldwide salmon supply and demand in 1915. Then, students hear the late Lorraine Loomis, former fisheries director for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, describe how people learned to co-manage salmon resources to address overfishing and other issues. Finally, students work with their community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how salmon in Washington connects people and places.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 1.1: Know & Need to Know chart
    • Lesson 1.2: Apple Quiz, Costs & Benefits Analysis, Design Task #1
    • Lesson 1.3: Aviation & Aerospace Notes Organizer, Design Task #2
    • Lesson 1.4: Salmon Data Sheet, Design Task #3
    Vocabulary
    • aerospace: the industry that creates vehicles for space exploration
    • aviation: the industry that designs, develops, and manufactures airplanes
    • cannery: a factory that cans salmon
    • community board: a space in a public area, like a bulletin board, where people can learn about and contribute to a community conversation
    • cost-benefit analysis: a process that compares what is given up or lost and what is gained when a decision is made
    • supply & demand: an economic principle that describes the balance between the amount of goods and services available to people (supply) and the amount of goods and services people want to buy (demand)

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.1: Connectedness

    Module 1 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

     

    Module Driving Question:

    What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Share one event, person, experience, or idea that connects me to my peers.
    • Share something that people may not know about me.

    Purpose

    In this launch lesson, we will explore the theme of connectedness by identifying connections we have to each other and the rest of the world. Using a skein of yarn, we will work together to identify things that connect us. Once we have created our web of connectedness, then we will work together to untangle the yarn. As we untangle it, we will take turns sharing one thing that people may not know about us. Finally, we will review the unit poster and discuss what we already know about people and places in Washington that connect us.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Create a web of connections: Using a skein of yarn (or ball of string), create a web of connectedness. As you create literal connections with the yarn, share what events, people, experiences, and ideas connect you.
    2. Untangle your web of connections: Work together to untangle these literal connections. As you and your peers untangle the yarn, take turns sharing one thing that people may not know about you. We might discover we’re connected in ways we haven’t considered before.
    3. Create class Know & Need to Know chart: Learn about the unit and the unit project, which is to create and post an interactive community board in our school that engages people and educates them about what connects people in Washington to each other and the rest of the world. Use the Know & Need to Know chart handout to discuss what we know and what we need to know about how people and places in Washington help create connectedness among us.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:55 minutes
    Standards

    SSS1.6-8.1: Analyze positions and evidence supporting an issue or an event.

    SSS1.6-8.2: Evaluate the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.

    • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • 1–3 skeins of yarn or balls of string (depending on the number of students) that are each at least 50 yards long
    Lesson Overview
    In this launch lesson, students explore the theme of connectedness by identifying connections they have to each other and the rest of the world. Using a skein of yarn, they work together to identify things that connect them. Once they have created their web of connectedness, they work together to untangle the yarn. As they untangle it, they take turns sharing one thing that people may not know about them. Finally, they review the unit poster and discuss what they already know about people and places in Washington that connect them.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Determine the number of groups and quantity of materials. This activity works best with groups of 10–15, but can work for larger groups if you have the space and time. For classes of 30, dividing students into 2–3 groups is recommended. Each group needs one skein of yarn (or ball of string) that is at least 50 yards long. Note that you will need a large enough space for students to circle up. Consider using a hallway, the cafeteria, or other community space in your school for this activity.
    • Steps 1 and 2: Prepare for variable timing. The suggested timing for each step is 20 minutes. Depending on group sizes and what students are sharing in their discussions, this activity could take more or less time.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Create a web of connections(20 min)

    Purpose: Students visualize their connectedness by using a skein of yarn (or ball of string) to create literal connections as they take turns sharing things (i.e., events, experiences, people, and ideas) that connect them. This will prime students to think about how they are connected with other people and places in Washington.

    You might say: We are connected by experiences, events, people, and ideas. Some of these connections are obvious and some less obvious. Connections and relationships are the foundation of a community. Today, we are going to engage in an activity called Web of Connections, in which we will work together to visualize and discuss what connects us. Later in the lesson and throughout the unit, we will draw on what we have learned from this activity to help us think critically about how things, people, and places in Washington connect us.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate students creating a web of connections.

    • Organize students into one large group or multiple smaller groups of 10–15 students.
    • Each group forms a circle. Students can either stand or sit.
    • Invite students to think about their response to the question:
      • What is one experience, event, person, or idea that connects you with other people in this group?
    • Give one student in each group a skein of yarn or ball of string.
    • Explain that after each student shares their response, they will hold the loose end of the skein of yarn as they toss the skein to another student across from them in the circle. This process continues until all students have shared.
      • If you have students with mobility challenges and/or disabilities that affect their ability to participate, consider mapping the conversation on the board. Write students’ names in a circle, organized by how they are seated in the class, and draw arrows between them as they speak.

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a discussion on what students noticed.

    • Invite students to reflect individually and then share out their responses to the questions:
    • What does this visual representation of connectedness mean to you?
    • What did you learn or realize that you did not know before?

     

    Step 2: Untangle your web of connections(20 min)

    Purpose: Students now reflect on what makes them distinct from the group, which may increase feelings of connection. The idea here is that students have an opportunity to recognize what makes them unique, and how their individual strengths and experiences also contribute to a strong classroom community. This will help students understand the value of each person’s specific contributions and identities as well.

    You might say: While there are many commonalities that connect us, it’s important to understand that differences also connect us. We each have unique experiences, perspectives, and strengths. These differences are important and valuable to our community. Now, we will untangle the yarn, and as we do, we will each share one thing that others might not know about us.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate students untangling their web of connections.

    • Invite students to think about their response to the question:
      • What is a unique skill, interest, or perspective that I bring to our community?
    • Explain that after each student shares their response, they should toss the skein of yarn to the person connected to them. This process continues until all students have shared, and the web of yarn is gone.

    [Slide 5] Facilitate a discussion on what students noticed.

    • Invite students to reflect individually and then share out their responses to the questions:
    • Why do you think it is important to take time, today and in the future, to do activities like this?
    • What did you learn or realize that you did not know before?
    • How does reflecting on our diverse skills, interests, and perspectives help us create a stronger community?
    Step 3: Create class Know & Need to Know chart(15 min)

    Purpose: Students review the unit poster and learn about the final product. Then, they draw on their prior knowledge, lived experiences, and identities to reflect on what they know about creating an interactive community board, and what connects people in Washington to each other and the rest of the world. This helps students orient themselves to the focus of the unit and start making sense of the unit project.

    [Slide 6] Provide an overview of the unit.

    • Review with students the unit driving question, module driving questions, and final product.
    • Highlight the three themes (resources, economies, and innovations) that students will explore in Module 1.

    [Slides 7–8] Have students access their prior knowledge about how people in Washington are connected to each other and the rest of the world.

    • Create a class Know & Need to Know chart to engage students in activating what they already know about the unit topic and final product, as well as raising questions they want to answer.
    • Facilitate a Turn and Talk on the questions below, then share as a class. As students share out, record their ideas on a class Know & Need to Know chart.
      • What do I already know about how people in Washington are connected to each other and the rest of the world?
      • What questions do I have about what connects people in Washington to each other and the rest of the world?
      • What do I already know about interactive community boards?
      • What do I need to know in order to create an interactive community board?
    • Explain to students that as they progress through the unit, they will continue revisiting and updating the Know & Need to Know chart.
    Teacher Tip: Tracking and Resolving Questions With a Know & Need to Know ChartA Know & Need to Know chart provides an opportunity for students to track how their thinking changes over time on a whole-class level. For project-based learning units, the chart helps leverage students’ ideas about the connections between the content they are learning and their project work. To learn more about Know & Need to Know charts in PBL, read about different tactics and pedagogical considerations at the Opening Paths Consulting website and how to use students’ questions for planning and assessment from PBL Works.

     

     Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.2: At the Core

    Module 1 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Test my knowledge about apples in Washington.
    • Analyze the costs and benefits of Washington being a leader of apple production in the U.S. and the world.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn why Washington is one of the largest producers of apples in the U.S. and the world. You will start by testing your knowledge about apples. Then you will learn about the costs and benefits of Washington’s apple production from a farmer, a packager, and a journalist. Finally, you will meet your community board team and draft an interactive community board that engages people and educates them on how Washington apples connect people and places.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Test your knowledge of Washington apples: Use the Apple Quiz to assess your knowledge of key facts and interesting details about Washington apples.
    2. Discuss the costs & benefits of Washington’s apple production: Watch the Washington Grown video “Apples” and EarthFixMedia video “Former apple orchards leave behind a legacy of contaminated soil for evidence of the costs and benefits of Washington’s apple production. Record your evidence in the Costs & Benefits Analysis handout.
    3. Draft your first community board: Meet your community board team and work together to complete Design Task #1.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes
    Standards

    E2.6-8.3: Analyze the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in societies from the past or in the present. 

    E4.6-8.4: Explain the costs and benefits of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society in Washington state. 

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn why Washington is one of the largest producers of apples in the U.S. and the world. Students start by testing their knowledge about apples. Then, they learn about the costs and benefits of Washington’s apple production from a farmer, a packager, and a journalist. Finally, students meet their community board team and draft an interactive community board that engages people and educates them on how Washington apples connect people and places.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Decide how to facilitate the Apple Quiz and update Slide 2. Consider importing the Apple Quiz questions into Kahoot, or another interactive assessment platform where students can submit their team’s responses and you can easily show the class the correct answers. Alternatively, you can give teams three minutes to complete the Apple Quiz together, then use the Apple Quiz KEY to review the correct answers with students. Teams can tally up how many questions they answered correctly and share out their scores.
    • Step 3: Update Slide 8. Students will work in community board teams starting in this lesson and in all future lessons in this unit. Decide if you want to assign students to teams or if you want to give students voice and choice in deciding who they work with.

     

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Test your knowledge of Washington apples(15 min)

    Purpose: Students work together in small groups and draw on their prior knowledge in a friendly competition to see which group knows the most about Washington apples. These interesting and surprising facts will spark students’ curiosity about Washington apples and their impacts on people and places.

    You might say: According to the Washington Apple Association, by 1826, early settlers had established the first apple orchard on the ancestral lands of the Colville Tribes and Yakama Nation tribal people. Since that time, apple orchards have exponentially expanded in Eastern Washington. As a result, we can find apples grown in Washington at local grocery stores. To kick off today’s learning, we’re going to have a friendly competition and test our knowledge of Washington apples.

    [Slide 2] Test student knowledge and spark curiosity about Washington apples.

    • Organize students into groups of 3–4.
    • Explain how the Apple Quiz will be facilitated.
    • Share correct answers after students have completed a question, and consider sharing the fun facts that are noted parenthetically in the Apple Quiz KEY.

    [Slide 3] Debrief the quiz with students. Ask:

    • Was there a fact that surprised you? If so, which one and why?
    • Did the quiz raise any questions for you about Washington?
    Step 2: Discuss the costs & benefits of Washington’s apple production(25 min)

    Purpose: Students hear from people pioneering new techniques and technology in the apple industry, then hear from people impacted by Washington’s apple production. As students listen to multiple points of view on Washington’s apple production, they gather evidence on its costs and benefits. Students will draw on this information in the next step to help them design their first community board.

    You might say: Apple growers in Washington take pride in their work. However, there is a darker legacy of apple production that impacts communities in Eastern Washington. We will now hear from people who live on former orchard land to learn their points of view on the lingering consequences of apple production. This will help us further understand how people and places are connected to apples in Washington.

    [Slides 4–7] Facilitate a cost & benefit analysis of Washington’s apple production.

    • Slide 4. Keep students in their small groups.
    • Slide 5. Play the Washington Grown video “Apples” from [3:38–7:09], then prompt students to discuss and answer Questions 1 and 2.
      • Invite small groups to share out their responses. Use the Costs & Benefits Analysis KEY to support students in identifying relevant evidence, facts, and details. Repeat this step after students watch and discuss the clips on the following two slides.
    • Slide 6. Play “Apples” from [18:19–21:04], then prompt students to discuss and answer Question 3.
    • Slide 7. Play the EarthFixMedia video “Former apple orchards leave behind a legacy of contaminated soil in its entirety [5:12], then prompt students to discuss and answer Question 4.

    Step 3: Draft your first community board(50 min)

    Purpose: Students meet their community board team and work together to design their first interactive community board. This first community board will be about Washington apples.

    You might say: You will now meet up with the people in your project team, known as your community board team. You will work with this team throughout the unit to creatively use what you are learning to draft six interactive community boards on the theme of connectedness.

    [Slide 8] Organize students into their community board teams.

    • The ideal team size is four students. If needed, you can have teams of three students.

    [Slide 9] Review the final product on the unit poster.

    • Explain to students that they will work in community board teams to draft six community boards throughout this unit, each with a different focus and engagement strategy.
    • By the end of the unit, each team will finalize a draft and put it on a school bulletin board.

    [Slides 10–14] Share examples of interactive community boards (and bulletin boards) to help students consider the possibilities. Talking points:

    • Slide 10. Think creatively about the content and design of your community board. A key feature of any community board is that it is interactive. This means the audience has a way of contributing their ideas, experiences, identities, and questions to the board. In this example, you can further explore related information by using a smartphone or tablet to scan QR codes. This is an example of an educational board that is interactive, but doesn’t invite you to contribute in any way.
    • Slide 11. In this example, you are invited to finish a sentence starter. This is a good example of an educational and interactive board where you are a contributor.
    • Slide 12. In this example, you are invited to write your answer to a question. This is an excellent example of an interactive board where you can learn from one another.
    • Slide 13. In this example, you are invited to create hashtags for events in history. This is an example of an educational and interactive board.
    • Slide 14. In this example, you are invited to identify the author of various quotes, then checking your answers underneath the quotes. This is a good example of using gamification to assess knowledge. Gamification is when you add elements of games to improve engagement. While this is interactive and educational, you are not contributing to the board in any way.

    You might say: Remember, it takes creativity to come up with designs that are educational and invite people to interact and contribute. Some boards will be more challenging to design than others, given their content. You will work in teams in this unit so that you can draw on your team’s collective creativity to come up with innovative and interactive community board designs.

    [Slide 15] Introduce the first design task.

    • Distribute one copy of the Design Task #1 handout to each team and review the directions with students.
      • Alternatively, instead of having students sketch out physical designs, consider identifying a collaborative virtual space where students can create and share their designs.
    • If time allows, invite teams to share out their completed design task.

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.3: From 56 Hours to 5

    Module 1 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Determine the average flight times from Seattle to at least five other cities I want to visit.
    • Read an informational text and watch an informational video for evidence of how aviation in Washington connects people and places.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about the history of aviation in Washington, and explore how planes built in Washington connect people and places around the world. Start by exploring how modern aviation has improved human mobility. Then, learn how the history of aviation in Washington has led us to where we are today. Finally, work with your community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how aviation in Washington connects people and places.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Explore human mobility through modern air travel: Use Flight Aware to identify the average flight times from Seattle to at least five other cities in the world, including New York City. Discuss the different ways air travel impacts people and places.
    2. Learn about the history of aviation in Washington: Use the Aviation & Aerospace Notes Organizer to record your thinking as you watch “Washington state: A global leader in aerospace and read “Washington state: The state of U.S. aerospace for facts and details about Washington’s history and leadership in aviation (compared to other states).
    3. Draft your second community board: Work with your community board team to complete Design Task #2.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:90 minutes
    Standards

    SSS2.6-8.2: Evaluate the breadth, reliability, and credibility of primary and secondary sources to determine the need for new or additional information when researching an issue or event.

    E2.6-8.3: Analyze the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in societies from the past or in the present.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
     

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn some of the history of aviation in Washington, and explore how planes built in Washington connect people and places around the world. Students start by exploring how modern aviation has improved human mobility. Then, they learn about the history of aviation in Washington that has led us to where we are today. Finally, students work with their community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how aviation in Washington connects people and places.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Practice accessing and using the zoom feature on Flight Aware. Practice zooming out to see the entire globe and zooming in on different continents, then Washington.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Explore human mobility in modern air travel(15 min)

    Purpose: Students are introduced to Flight Aware, an interactive data dashboard website that people and companies use to monitor air travel. Students use the data dashboard to help them understand human mobility between the Seattle-Tacoma Airport (SeaTac) and other cities around the world. The data and visuals will help spark students’ curiosity and interest in learning in Step 2 about Washington’s aviation and aerospace history.

    You might say: Chances are that many of us have flown on an airplane, or know someone who has. In 1929, a person could fly from Seattle, Washington to New York City in 56 hours. That’s over two days! It took that long because the planes needed to refuel more often than today’s planes do, so they had to fly shorter distances. Today, you can fly from Seattle to New York City in just a few hours without stopping to refuel. Thanks to faster flights, people are more connected today than at any other point in history. We will start today’s lesson by looking at a map that shows us how many planes are in the air right now. (To learn more, read “Air travel from Seattle to New York in just 56 hours begins at Boeing Field on October 23, 1929.”)

    [Slide 2] Introduce Flight Aware.

    • Project the website https://flightaware.com/.
    • Scroll down to “Real-time Worldwide Flight Traffic.”
    • Click the “Expand map to full screen” icon, which appears in the bottom right corner of the map when the cursor is hovering over the map. Zoom out so students can see air traffic around the world. Ask:
      • Where is there more air traffic and where is there less air traffic?
        • Possible responses: There is more air traffic between Europe and the northeast United States, and between Alaska and southeast Asia. Also, there is considerable air traffic from multiple regions in the world to Dubai in the Middle East. There is less air traffic in Africa, Russia, and south of Brazil, and no air traffic at all south of Uruguay/Buenos Aires.   
      • Given this information, what can we infer about people and places that are connected and disconnected?
        • Possible response: Places that have airports, particularly international airports, are more connected. Islands are likely more disconnected. Rural communities have planes flying over them, but not necessarily to them. This all suggests that having an airport in a community increases its connectedness to people and places.

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a human mobility analysis.

    • Model for students how to use Flight Aware to identify flight times from Seattle to New York City.
      • Use the “Search by Route” feature.
        • Origin: KSEA
        • Destination: New York City (select ZNY)
      • Choose any flight from the list that has arrived by clicking on the hyperlinked “Ident” flight number in the second column to the left.
        • Depending what time of day you are teaching this lesson, it’s possible that you may only see scheduled flights. You can click on those as well, but note that their travel time is estimated, not actual.
      • Point out on the page where students can find the total travel time.
    • Invite students to use Flight Aware to determine the travel time from Seattle to five other cities in the world.
    • Once students have identified travel times, invite them to discuss the following question with a classmate: How do faster travel times affect people and places around the world?
      • Responses will vary, but may include that air travel and transport provide positive economic and social benefits.
      • According to the Air Transport Action Group, air travel and transport facilitates tourism, trade, and connectivity; generates economic growth; provides jobs; improves living standards; alleviates poverty; provides a lifeline for remote communities; and enables a rapid response when disasters occur. (To learn more about the benefits of air travel and transport, read the “Aviation: Benefits beyond borders” report by the Air Transport Action Group.)
    • Explain to students that air travel and transport do have negative impacts. People closest to airports face greater noise and air pollution. According to Conserve Energy Future, flying contributes to global warming and pollution, and “leaves a huge carbon footprint.”
    Step 2: Learn about the history of aviation in Washington(15 min)

    Purpose: Students read two secondary sources from the Choose Washington program and gather evidence about the history of aviation in Washington and its impacts. Teams will draw on this information in Step 3 to create content for their second community board.

    You might say: The history of aviation in Washington goes back at least 100 years. We can trace its beginnings back to J.C. Mars’s dirigible balloon rides, when adventurers who wanted to pay $1 could get a bird’s eye view of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition fairgrounds. We will now watch a short video and read a brochure, both published by the state of Washington, to learn about Washington’s aviation accomplishments and their impacts. (*Source: A Century of Aerospace Know-How timeline.)

    [Slides 4–5] Facilitate exploration and analysis of Washington aviation and aerospace.

    • Organize students into small groups that are not their community board teams, if you’d like students to have some variety in who they work with. Otherwise, students can work in their community board teams.
    • Slide 4. Distribute the Aviation & Aerospace Notes Organizer, then review the directions, questions, and the resource with students for Parts 1–3.
    • Invite students to watch the videos together in their small groups, then discuss and respond to the questions.
    • Use the Aviation & Aerospace Notes Organizer KEY to support students as they discuss and respond to the questions.

    When students have completed the handout, invite them to share their answers with the whole class. Use the Aviation & Aerospace Notes Organizer KEY to support students in identifying key facts and details.

    Step 3: Draft your second community board(60 min)

    Purpose: In community board teams, students work together to draft their second interactive community board, this one on aviation and aerospace in Washington.

    [Slide 6] Introduce the second design task.

    • Organize students into their community board teams, if they were not already in these teams for Step 2.
    • Distribute a copy of Design Task #2 to each team and review the directions with students.
    • If time allows, invite teams to share out the content they have been working on.

     Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 1.4: Canned

    Module 1 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Use historical data to create a map that illustrates the supply and demand for salmon from the Pacific Northwest.
    • Listen to the late Lorraine Loomis explain her perspective on the significance of salmon.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn how salmon connects people and places by creating a data visualization of the worldwide salmon supply and demand in 1915. Then, you will hear the late Lorraine Loomis, former fisheries director for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, describe how people learned to co-manage salmon resources to address overfishing and other issues. Finally, you will work with your community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how salmon in Washington connects people and places.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Create a data visualization of salmon supply and demand: Watch the EarthFixMedia video “Tribal fishing tradition runs deep” and reflect on what you already know about salmon. Use the Salmon Data Sheet to determine the amount of salmon that was caught and canned, and the countries and territories to which the U.S. exported the most salmon, in 1915. Then, use information from the Salmon Abundance dashboard and examples of data visualization from “World’s trade explained in 10 visualizations” to create your own data visualization of salmon supply and demand.
    2. Learn why the WA government and tribes co-manage salmon resources: Watch “Tribal fishing 201 part 2: How are fisheries managed?” to learn about the efforts made by tribes to preserve their fishing rights.
    3. Draft your third community board: Work with your community board team to complete Design Task #3.

     

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:80 minutes
    Standards

    SSS1.6-8.1: Analyze positions and evidence supporting an issue or an event.

    E2.6-8.4: Analyze how the forces of supply and demand have affected international trade in Washington state in the past or present.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
     

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • 11″ x 17″ copy paper
    • Colored pencils or markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn how salmon connects people and places by creating a data visualization of the worldwide salmon supply and demand in 1915. Then, students hear the late Lorraine Loomis, former fisheries director for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, describe how people learned to co-manage salmon resources to address overfishing and other issues. Finally, students work with their community board team to draft an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how salmon in Washington connects people and places.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Step 1: Practice creating a data visualization of the salmon trade (i.e., supply and demand). This will help you anticipate challenges and misconceptions students might encounter when they create their own version. Additionally, you can share your example with students to help them see another way to create a visualization.  
    • Step 2: Connect with a local tribal member. Many tribes have educational resources about salmon and fishing rights. This is an opportunity to bring those resources into your classroom and help students learn in their local context.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Create a data visualization of salmon supply and demand(30 min)

    Purpose: Students analyze salmon data from a 1916 U.S. government report in order to create a data visualization of the worldwide salmon supply and demand in 1915, one of the peak years for salmon canning in Washington. This will help broaden students’ historical perspective on the history of the salmon.

    [Slide 2] Introduce one example of salmon fishing, from a tribal perspective.

    • Play the EarthFixMedia video “Tribal fishing tradition runs deep” to [1:55] (the video is [3:55] in its entirety), then ask:
      • What do you think of when you think about salmon fishing?
    • Invite students to turn and talk about the question, then share out their ideas whole-class.
    • Explain to students that there are many issues that arise when people discuss salmon, including: the impact of dams, reduction of salmon, cultural traditions, recreational fishing, and commercial fishing.

    You might say: If you live in Washington, you probably know a thing or two about salmon. Sadly, according to a 2020 Washington state report, some salmon species are “on the brink of extinction.” In this lesson, we will learn about the worldwide demand for salmon and how the state government and tribes in Washington work together to co-manage salmon. (To learn more about the possible extinction of some species of salmon, read the New York Times article “Northwest’s salmon population may be running out of time.”)

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a data analysis of the salmon trade (i.e., supply and demand).

    • Distribute the Salmon Data Sheet and review the directions and questions with students.
      • Explain to students how to read the data in Table 2. Point out to students that the data for 1915 is to the right of the data from 1914.
    • Use the Salmon Data Sheet KEY to support students as they analyze data. Review the correct answers with students before students create their data visualizations.

    [Slide 4] Prepare students to create a geospatial visualization of the salmon trade.

    • Explain to students that there are many creative ways to visualize trade, or the economic relationship between producers and consumers.
    • Project “World’s trade explained in 10 visualizations” and show students different examples and approaches to visualizing trade. Stop and pause at 2–3 examples and facilitate a discussion. Ask students:
      • What is the main idea of this visualization? How does the author visualize this idea?

    [Slide 5] Provide students with materials and time to create data visualizations of the salmon trade.

    • Set out art supplies, including paper and colored pencils or markers.
    • Review the task with students:
      • Use information from your analysis to create a data visualization of the salmon trade in the year 1915.
    • Explain to students that they will share their data visualizations with their community board teams later on in the lesson.
    Step 2: Learn why the WA government and tribes co-manage salmon resources(15 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the challenges tribes faced from people and governments while exercising their fishing rights throughout the 1900s. This will help students think more critically about how salmon connects people and places.

    You might say: The salmon is a finite resource that can disappear if overfished. Fortunately, tribes are leading efforts in Washington to help people care for salmon and their habitats. We will now watch a video in which the late Lorraine Loomis, former fisheries director for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, shares the history of salmon fishing rights and her hopes for how people can work together to help the salmon recover.

    [Slide 6] Preview the guiding questions below with students, then show the Northwest Treaty Tribes video “Tribal fishing 201 part 2: How are fisheries managed?” in its entirety [4:13].

    • After the video, invite students to discuss the guiding questions with a classmate. Then prompt students to share what they discussed with the whole class.
    • What did tribes give up and receive when they signed the Stevens Treaties?
      • Possible response: Tribes gave up the vast majority of their land, and in return were promised they had the right to fish in all of their usual and accustomed places.
      • Remind students that tribes have been fighting for their fishing rights ever since the Stevens Treaties were signed between 1854 and 1856, and that the Boldt Decision in 1974 affirmed tribal fishing rights.
    • What does co-management mean and look like?
      • Possible response: State, federal, and tribal fishery managers gather to create a plan each year for the salmon. Fishers have quotas, and when they reach those quotas, they have to stop fishing.

    [Slide 7] Project the Salmon Abundance dashboard.

    • Ask students which region on the map includes the area where they live, then click on that region.
    • Review with students which fish species are “in crisis” and “not keeping pace” to emphasize the work that still needs to be done, then recognize the fish species that are “making progress” and approaching goal” to acknowledge the benefits of co-management leading up to 2020.
    Step 3: Draft your third community board(35 min)

    Purpose: In community board teams, students work together to draft their third interactive community board about aviation and aerospace in Washington.

    [Slide 8] Introduce the third design task.

    • Organize students into their community board teams.
    • Distribute one copy of Design Task #3 to each team and review the directions with students.
    • If you have time, invite teams to share out the content they have been working on.

     [Slide 9] Facilitate a whole-class discussion on the Module 1 driving question and draft boards. Ask:

    • What resources, economies, and innovations connect people and places?
    • How have you incorporated these ideas into your draft community board?

     Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Module 2: Connections to Washington

    Module OverviewIcon

    Module 2: Connections to Washington

    Connected

     

    Unit Driving Question

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question

    How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

     

    Module 2 Overview

     

    Module Overview

    In Module 2, students move from thinking globally to thinking locally. Students learn about some of the ways that people and places in Washington are connected to land, food sources, and energy sources. In Lesson 1, students learn that many of the maps we look at are designed from a settler-colonial society point of view. Students consider what they need to learn and who they can learn from to create a map of Washington with an Indigenous perspective in mind. In Lesson 2, students learn that a number of the food items in grocery stores travel hundreds, if not thousands, of miles. They learn that food miles have a negative impact on the environment. Students research where they can find locally grown food staples, and map their local food system. In Lesson 3, students learn about the energy sources that power homes and businesses in the area and region they live in Washington. Students learn about the importance of hydroelectric dams and how they impact people and places. In Lessons 1, 2, and 3, students work with their community board teams to try out different approaches to designing interactive community boards about Indigenous people and land, food miles and local food sources, and hydroelectric dams. In Lesson 4, students work with their community board teams to bring one of their six draft boards to life in a public space in their school. Once their community boards are posted, teams and classes work together to host a community event that promotes dialogue about the different ways that Washington connects people and places.

     

    Lesson 2.1: Acknowledging Indigenous People and Lands (85 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    G1.6-8.3

    G1.6-8.4 

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.9

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    Success Criteria

    By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Explain how point of view affects mapping.
    • Design an interactive community board about land acknowledgement.
    In this lesson, students learn about the people who have been living and working on the land where they live since time immemorial. They use the Native Lands interactive map to investigate Indigenous territories, languages, and treaties that can be represented on a map of Washington. Then, students learn from members of tribes about the importance of recognizing and honoring Indigenous peoples and lands. Finally, they work with their community board team to design an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how land acknowledgement in Washington connects people and places.
    Lesson 2.2: Mapping Food Sources (80 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    G1.6-8.3 G1.6-8.4 

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7

    Success Criteria

    By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Calculate and map the food miles for common food staples.
    • Draft an interactive community board about food miles and eating local.
    In this lesson, students look at their connections to food sources, some nearby and some farther away. To do this, students learn about food miles and calculate the food miles of items they might buy in a grocery store. Then, they research where they can find food locally and create a map that shows the nearest farmer, producer, or market where they could purchase common food staples. Finally, students work with their community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to reflect on their relationship to the food they eat.
    Lesson 2.3: Analyzing Energy Sources (85 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    E4.6-8.4

    G1.6-8.3

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7

    Success Criteria

    By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Describe some of the costs and benefits of energy production in Washington.
    • Draft an interactive community board about energy sources and their impacts.
    In this lesson, students learn where the energy that powers homes and businesses where they live comes from. Students use the Electricity Map app to identify the energy sources that power their community. Then, students learn about some of the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams, one of the most consequential energy sources in Washington. Finally, students work with their community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to consider the impacts of the energy sources that power their lives.
    Lesson 2.4: Community Board Event (130 minutes)

    Key Standards for Success Criteria

    SSS4.6-8.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.2

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7

    Success Criteria

    By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Create an interactive community board in their school that helps others explore their connectedness to people and places in Washington.
    In this lesson, students bring to fruition an interactive community board that creatively educates others and engages them in dialogue about their connectedness. To do this, students review their six drafts with their community board team and identify the qualities of interactive community boards that are educational and engaging. Then, students finalize one of their six drafts in a public space in their school to promote dialogue and inquiry about connectedness in Washington.
    Module Assessments
    • Lesson 2.1: Show What You Know Cards, Mapping Washington, Design Task #4
    • Lesson 2.2: Food Miles Analysis, Mapping Your Local Food System, Design Task #5
    • Lesson 2.3: Analyzing Energy Sources, Design Task #6
    • Lesson 2.4: Final Community Board
    Vocabulary
    • biomass: renewable organic material that comes from plants and animals
    • Elwha River: a 45-mile-long river on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state
    • food miles: the distance food travels between production and consumption
    • food staple: a food that is eaten regularly 

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.1: Acknowledging Indigenous Peoples and Lands

    Module 2 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Discuss how point of view impacts mapping.
    • Create a map of Washington with an Indigenous perspective in mind.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn about the people who have been living and working on the land where you live since time immemorial. First, you will use the Native Lands interactive map to investigate Indigenous territories, languages, and treaties that can be represented on a map of Washington. Then, you will learn from members of tribes about the importance of recognizing and honoring Indigenous peoples and lands. Finally, you will work with your community board team to design an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how land acknowledgement in Washington connects people and places.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Participate in the challenge activity “Show What You Know”: Working with your community board team and using the Show What You Know Cards, participate in a friendly class competition to show how much you know about Washington state history.
    2. Learn about honoring and acknowledging land: Watch the U.S. Department of Arts and Culture video “#HonorNativeLand” to hear members of tribes describe the importance and impact of land acknowledgements.
    3. Learn about Indigenous peoples and lands using maps: Use the Native Land interactive map and the Mapping Washington handout to learn more about the people native to the land known as Washington. Then, create a new map that acknowledges the people and territories of tribes in Washington.
    4. Draft your fourth community board: Work with your community board team to complete Design Task #4.

    Explore More

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:85 minutes
    Standards

    G1.6-8.3: Analyze maps and charts from a specific time period to understand an issue or event. 

    G1.6-8.4: Explain how human spatial patterns have emerged from natural processes and human activities. 

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Colored pencils or markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn about the people who have been living and working on the land where they live since time immemorial. They use the Native Lands interactive map to investigate Indigenous territories, languages, and treaties that can be represented on a map of Washington. Then, students learn from members of tribes about the importance of recognizing and honoring Indigenous peoples and lands. Finally, they work with their community board team to design an interactive board that engages people and educates them on how land acknowledgement in Washington connects people and places.
    Teacher Preparation

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Participate in the challenge activity “Show What You Know”(10 min)

    Purpose: Students engage in a friendly class competition to recall what they have learned or already know about six topics they are studying in this unit. This is an opportunity to informally assess knowledge, and to revisit and update the class Know & Need to Know chart as needed, before students pivot from learning about connectedness at the global level to connectedness at the regional and local levels.

    [Slide 2] Introduce “Show What You Know.”

    • Organize students into community board teams.
    • Distribute one set per team of Show What You Know Cards and review the directions:
      • You have six cards, one for each topic we are studying in this unit. Some of these topics we have learned about already, and some we haven’t studied yet.
      • The objective of this activity is for your team to show what you know until the time is up.
      • Each person in your team will start with a different card. When I say switch, rotate the cards clockwise.
      • Eventually, you will return to a card you have already written on. That’s okay. Keep showing what you know.
    • Set a timer for at least 3 minutes, but no more than 5 minutes.
    • Every 20 seconds, say “switch!”
    • When the time is up, invite teams to discuss:
      • What cards/topics do you know more about?
      • What cards/topics do you know less about?
      • What questions do you have about the topics you know less about?
    • Return students to the class Know & Need to Know chart from Lesson 1.1 and invite them to share their ideas from their discussion. Track new ideas and questions on the class chart.
    Step 2: Learn about honoring and acknowledging land(10 min)

    Purpose: Students hear Indigenous perspectives on the importance and impact of non-Native people acknowledging and honoring the people who have resided on the land since time immemorial. This will prepare students to create a map that centers Indigenous peoples, rather than settler-colonial societies, in Step 3.

    [Slide 3] Play the video “#HonorNativeLand” in its entirety [4:05].

    • Invite students to discuss the following two questions in small groups, then share out their ideas whole-class.
      • What are land acknowledgements? Why are they important?
      • How can we acknowledge Indigenous peoples and land?
    • Use page 6 of Native Land’s Education Guide to support the discussion.
    Step 3: Learn about Indigenous peoples and lands using maps(25 min)

    Purpose: Students use the crowdsourced Native Land interactive map to help them see Indigenous peoples and land in Washington. They contrast this point of view with the maps they typically see, which are from the perspective of settlers and depict the land they seized from Indigenous peoples. This will help students think about their relationship to the land, and prepare them to learn more about this relationship in future units, including Decisions That Define Us, Roaring Rivers, and Innovation Through the Lens.

    You might say: Maps help us see the world in different ways. However, maps also often communicate ownership and rights. For example, when we look at a map of Washington, many of the names of roads and land features are in English. That is one way to see the world. Today, we will work to create maps that acknowledge Native people and lands. We can refer to this as mapping with an Indigenous perspective in mind.

    [Slides 4–5] Facilitate an analysis of maps of Washington that were created using different perspectives.

    • Slide 4. Distribute the Mapping Washington handout and review the directions and guidance with students.
    • Invite students to create their map independently or in pairs.
    • Use the Mapping Washington KEY and Native Land’s Education Guide to support students as they investigate the Native Land interactive map and design their map of Native peoples and land in Washington.
    • Use a timer to manage students’ progress for Parts 1, 2, and 3.
    • Slide 5. Bring the class back together to discuss Part 3 before students add information about Indigenous peoples and the lands they have lived on since time immemorial. Ask:
      • How can we acknowledge Indigenous peoples and land on a map?
      • What additional information do we need to do this accurately? Who can we talk to for that?

    You might say: Remember, mapping with an Indigenous perspective is different than mapping with a settler-colonial society point of view. We are “visualizing the complexity and diversity of Indigenous peoples, nations, and cultures across the Americas.” (Source: Native Land 2019 Teacher Guide)

    Step 4: Draft your fourth community board(40 min)

    Purpose: In community board teams, students work together to draft their fourth interactive community board, this one about honoring and acknowledging Indigenous peoples who have been living and working on the land since time immemorial.

    [Slide 6] Introduce the fourth design task.

    • Organize students into their community board teams.
    • Distribute Design Task #4 and review the directions with students.
    • If time allows, invite teams to share out the content they have been working on.

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.2: Mapping Food Sources

    Module 2 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Calculate food miles using information on food labels.
    • Create a map that shows the distance to local food sources from where we live.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will look at your connections to food sources, some nearby and some farther away. To do this, you will learn about food miles and then calculate the food miles of items you might find in a grocery store. Then, you will research where you can buy food locally and create a map that shows the nearest farmer, producer, or market where you could purchase common food staples. Finally, you will work with your community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to reflect on their relationship with the food they eat.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Calculate food miles for grocery items: Use the Food Miles Analysis handout to examine 12 food items for information that identifies where they were produced or distributed from.
    2. Map your local food system: Use WA Food & Farm Finder and the Mapping Your Local Food System handout to guide your research, gather information, and reflect on how people can connect with local food staples in Washington. Read “What are food miles?” to learn about the negative impacts of foods that travel long distances between production and consumption.
    3. Design your fifth community board: Work with your community board team to complete Design Task #5.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:80 minutes
    Standards

    G1.6-8.3: Analyze maps and charts from a specific time period to understand an issue or event. 

    G1.6-8.4: Explain how human spatial patterns have emerged from natural processes and human activities.

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
     

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Blank paper
    • Colored pencils or markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students look at their connections to food sources, some nearby and some farther away. To do this, students learn about food miles and calculate the food miles of items they might buy in a grocery store. Then, they research where they can find food locally and create a map that shows the nearest farmer, producer, or market where they could purchase common food staples. Finally, students work with their community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to reflect on their relationship to the food they eat.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Complete the Food Miles Analysis and Mapping Your Food System handouts. Both require students to engage in guided research. In completing these handouts yourself, you will create examples you can use to support students as they engage in the same analysis. Furthermore, completing these handouts will help you identify possible student misconceptions and challenges that you can proactively plan for.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Calculate food miles for items you might find at the grocery store(25 min)

    Purpose: Students gather information about their relationship with food by calculating the approximate distance that 12 food items travel to reach them. This promotes students’ curiosity about buying food that is locally produced, or that is at least produced in their state.

    You might say: Do you ever wonder where in Washington your food comes from? What about how many miles your food travels to get to your grocery store? Does it surprise you to learn that some of the food we eat travels hundreds or thousands of miles? That’s right! While Washington produces more apples and potatoes than other states, it imports a significant amount of food too. In today’s lesson, we’ll learn about how we can connect with food produced locally and in our state.

    [Slide 2] Define food miles.

    • food miles: the distance food travels between production and consumption.

    Project the webpage “What is a food mile?”

    • Share with students the five examples of food miles provided:
      • Kiwi that traveled 5015 miles from Chile
      • Tomato that traveled 456 miles from Canada
      • Banana that traveled 2048 miles from Panama
      • Pear that traveled 5216 miles from Argentina
      • Pineapple that traveled 2048 miles from Costa Rica

    [Slide 3] Facilitate a food miles analysis.

    • Distribute the Food Miles Analysis handout, then review the directions and food labels with students.
    • Students can work independently or in pairs to complete their analysis.

    [Slide 4] Facilitate a discussion on the relationship people in Washington have with their food.

    • Prompt students to turn and talk, then share out their ideas whole-class.
      • Based on your food miles analysis, how would you describe the relationship between people in Washington and the food they eat?

    [Slide 5] Share the article “What are food miles?” with students.

    • This article will help students better understand the impacts of consuming foods from far away.
    • Consider reading portions of this article or the article in its entirety with students, then facilitate a discussion on the negative impacts of food miles.
    Teacher Tip: How to Talk to Students About Food Access According to a survey carried out by Washington State University, the University of Washington, and Tacoma Community College, 30% of Washington’s population was food-insecure in 2020. It is likely that you have students in your class experiencing food insecurity. According to Feeding America, there are many causes for food insecurity, including: poverty or low income, lack of affordable housing, lack of access to healthcare, and systemic racism and racial discrimination. Other causes include limited transportation, few supermarkets, and long distances to stores.
    For this lesson, be mindful that food insecurity is a complex issue. Food security includes access to not just any food, but the right foods for your age, culture, religion, and nutritional needs. And that food must be affordable. To learn more about food insecurity and how to talk about it with students, consider reading one or more of the following resources:
    Step 2: Map your local food system(20 min)

    Purpose: Students build on what they learned in Step 1 by investigating how they can connect with staple foods that are grown or produced locally.

    You might say: Discovering how far our food travels helps us better understand our relationship to people and places in Washington. In the food miles analysis, we realized that the grocery store food items we looked at were not from Washington; they were from other places around the United States and the world. When we reduce food miles, we reduce carbon emissions, which lowers the environmental impact of our food choices. According to Choose Washington, Washington has “15 million acres of farmland that help produce 300 different crops.” Let’s see if we can find locally sourced and produced foods, and reduce the environmental impacts of our food miles.

    [Slide 6] Support students in mapping their local food system.

    • Distribute the Mapping Your Local Food System handout and review the directions with students.
      • Project the WA Food & Farm Finder webpage and show students how to use the finder.
        • Set “search by” to Category.
        • Then, set the desired search range. For more rural areas, consider using a wider range.
        • Enter your city or zip code.
        • Expand “Farms” and “Locally Made” to show students where they can find the ten food staples.
        • Click “Farms,” then click “Eggs.”
        • Find an icon of a farmer/producer/market that sells eggs, and place your cursor on the icon. Point out the food miles in the top right-hand corner of the pop-up window.
    • Students can map their local food sources independently or in pairs.
    • Share your example map with students to help them understand the task.
    • Set out blank paper and colored pencils.
    • Consider using a timer to help students manage their progress in Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    [Slide 7] Facilitate a whole-class debrief on what students notice about food miles. Ask:

    • What are the total food miles for the ten foods we looked at? What is the difference between this number and the total food miles from the Food Miles Analysis at the beginning of the lesson? Does this difference surprise you? Explain.
    • Which local food staples have the greatest food miles? Why do you think that is?
    • How are you connected to people and places in Washington?

    You might say: Mapping local food sources is just one way to see the connections we have to people and places in Washington. It is also a good reminder that we can meet most of our food needs locally. By meeting our food needs locally, we are supporting businesses, jobs, industries, and families in our community. Furthermore, this local support reduces food miles, and therefore also emissions created when food travels long distances between production and consumption. Reducing emissions helps the environment, which helps us all.

    Step 3: Design your fifth community board(35 min)

    Purpose: In community board teams, students work together to design their fifth interactive community board about connecting with local food sources in Washington.

    [Slide 8] Introduce the fifth design task.

    • Organize students into their community board teams.
    • Distribute Design Task #5 and review the directions with students.
    • If time allows, invite teams to share out the content they have been working on.

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.3: Analyzing Energy Sources

    Module 2 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

     

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Analyze some of the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams in Washington.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will learn where the energy that powers homes and businesses where you live comes from. You will use the Electricity Map app to identify the energy sources that power your community. Then, you will learn about some of the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams, one of the most consequential energy sources in Washington. Finally, you will work with your community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to consider the impacts of the energy sources that power their lives.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Identify energy sources: Watch the Puget Sound Energy video “Source to switch” and check out the U.S. Energy Atlas to learn about energy sources that power homes, businesses, and schools throughout Washington.
    2. Analyze electricity production and consumption: Use information from the app Electricity Map to compare the energy sources that power the homes and businesses in your state with those in other states.
    3. Learn about some of the impacts of hydroelectric dams: Watch the National Geographic video “After largest dam removal in U.S. history, this river is thriving” to learn how removing the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams improved the Elwha River, nearshore habitat, and surrounding ecosystem. Then, reflect on the impacts of Washington’s main energy source—hydroelectric dam projects—on people and places.
    4. Draft your sixth community board: Work with your community board team to complete Design Task #6

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:85 minutes
    Standards

    E4.6-8.4: Explain the costs and benefits of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society in Washington state. 

    G1.6-8.3: Analyze maps and charts from a specific time period to understand an issue or event. 

    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • Colored pencils and/or markers
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students learn where the energy that powers homes and businesses where they live comes from. Students use the Electricity Map app to identify the energy sources that power their community. Then, students learn about some of the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams, one of the most consequential energy sources in Washington. Finally, students work with their community board team to design an interactive board that encourages people to consider the impacts of the energy sources that power their lives.
    Teacher Preparation

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Identify energy sources(15 min)

    Purpose: Students use their prior knowledge to identify energy sources in Washington on a map. This promotes students’ curiosity about who and what powers homes, businesses, and schools in Washington.

    You might say: Electricity powers our lives: our lights, cars, heaters and air conditioners, and more. Today, we’re going to explore where our electricity comes from and how it impacts people and places in Washington.

    [Slides 2–4] Learn about energy sources in Washington.

    • Slide 2. Play the Puget Sound Energy video “Source to switch” in its entirety [2:40].
    • Slide 3. Ask:
      • What did you learn about how electricity is generated and distributed?
      • Besides natural gas-fired power, wind power, and hydroelectric power, what other power sources might we find in Washington?
        • Possible responses: biomass, coal, nuclear, and solar.
    • Slide 4. Invite students to share out what areas or regions of Washington they think produce the most electricity, and which use the most electricity.
    • Project the U.S. Energy Atlas and zoom in on “Washington, USA” to help students confirm what they know and expand their understanding of where energy is produced in Washington.
    Step 2: Analyze electricity production and consumption(20 min)

    Purpose: Students learn about the energy sources that power the homes, businesses, and schools in the area where they live.

    You might say: Washington is rich in natural resources. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state. The Grand Coulee Dam is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world. And yet, in 2020, Seattle was also the fourth-largest coal export center in the United States. Let’s find out which energy sources produce the electricity that powers our classroom, school, and the many buildings and places in our community. (To learn more, read “Washington State Profile and Energy Estimates.”)

    [Slide 5] Facilitate an analysis of electricity production and consumption.

    • Project the Electricity Map app and zoom in on Washington.
    • Click on the region where your school is located and examine its electricity production and consumption by source. Ask:
      • What are the sources of energy production and consumption in our area?
    • Hover your cursor over the sources of energy production in your area, one at a time. Ask:
      • Is the energy producer exploiting the full potential (capacity) of this source?
    • Zoom out to the United States and explain to students that carbon intensity is one way we can measure the environmental impact of energy production. Ask:
      • Based on this data visualization, what conclusions can we draw about energy production in Washington?
        • Possible response: Energy production in Washington, in comparison to other states, produces the lowest amount of carbon emissions. This might indicate that Washington is a more environmentally friendly energy producer than any other state.
    Step 3: Learn about some of the impacts of hydroelectric dams(15 min)

    Purpose: Students focus on the impacts of one of the most significant sources of energy in Washington, hydroelectric dams. They learn about the benefits that resulted from the removal of the Elwha Hydroelectric Dam, which helps them understand how an energy source can negatively impact the environment, ecosystems, and habitats.

    You might say: We see power lines along roads, above sidewalks, and in parks. Power lines transmit electricity from its source to homes, businesses, and schools. Let’s imagine we trace one of these power lines to its source, and the source is a hydroelectric dam. While we benefit from a dam that is many miles away, how does that dam impact the area where it is located? To help us think about this, let’s learn about the removal of the Elwha Dam in Western Washington.

    [Slide 6] Facilitate a discussion on the impacts of dams as energy sources.

    • Play the video “After largest dam removal in U.S. history, this river is thriving” in its entirety [3:21]. Then, invite students to discuss two questions:
      • What impacts did the dam have on the Elwha River and its nearshore area?
        • Possible responses: The dam trapped sediment and blocked fish from traveling upstream, which resulted in significant harm to the nearshore ecosystem.
      • How were those impacts addressed?
        • Possible response: The dam was removed, which distributed all of the trapped sediment. This helped rehabilitate the nearshore ecosystem and create a healthy habitat for many species of salmon.

    You might say: Mapping energy sources helps us see the various energy sources that power communities and businesses across the state. It helps us better understand the benefits and consequences of dams, both locally and regionally.

    [Slide 7] Identify nearby major dams and facilitate a discussion that deepens student inquiry on the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams.

    • Project Major Dams in Washington and share the website with students.
    • Invite students to identify the five closest major dams, then facilitate a discussion on what students know and want to know about dams in the area where they live. Ask:
      • Based on what you know about the impacts of the former Elwha Dam, what information do you know or want to know about dams near where you live?
      • What information about hydroelectric dams do you think utility companies should be required to share with the public?
    Step 4: Draft your sixth community board(35 min)

    Purpose: In community board teams, students work together to design their sixth interactive community board, which helps people connect with their energy sources and understand how energy sources impact places in different ways.

    [Slide 8] Introduce the sixth design task.

    • Organize students into their community board teams.
    • Distribute Design Task #6 and review the directions with students.
    • If time allows, invite teams to share out the content they have been working on.

     

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

    Lesson 2.4: Community Board Event

    Module 2 DQ

    Unit Driving Question:

    How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?

    Module Driving Question:

    How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

    Learning Targets

    I can:

    • Identify the qualities of an interactive community board that is both engaging and educational.
    • Finalize one of my draft boards in a public space in my school.

    Purpose

    In this lesson, you will bring to fruition an interactive community board that creatively educates others and engages them in dialogue about our connectedness. To do this, you’ll review your six drafts with your community board team and identify the qualities of interactive community boards that are educational and engaging. Then, you will finalize one of your six drafts in a public space in your school to promote dialogue and inquiry about connectedness in Washington.

    Lesson Steps

    1. Identify the qualities of an interactive community board: Review your team’s six interactive community board drafts and come up with a list of criteria that an effective board should address.
    2. Create and post your team’s final community board: Using the criteria identified in Step 1, finalize one of your draft boards in a public space in your school, such as the library, main office, lunchroom, or a hallway.
    3. Host your community board event: Host a Community Board Day (or Week) and invite students from other grades and classes to interact with your community boards.
    4. Reflect: Using the “Web of Connections” activity from Lesson 1.1, reflect on your experience working with a team to create an interactive community board about people and places in Washington that connect us.

    Teacher Preparation Notes

    Pacing
    Lesson Timing:130 minutes
    Standards
    SSS4.6-8.2: Use appropriate format to cite sources within an essay, presentation, and reference page. 
    • CCSS

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.7.2: Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

    Lesson Resources
    For StudentsFor EducatorsMaterials
    • n/a
    • Bulletin boards or wall space
    • Butcher paper
    • Scissors
    • Tape
    • Glue
    • Colored pencils and markers
    • Sticky notes
    • 1–3 skeins of yarn or balls of string (depending on the number of students) that are each at least 50 yards long
    Lesson Overview
    In this lesson, students bring to fruition an interactive community board that creatively educates others and engages them in dialogue about their connectedness. To do this, students review their six drafts with their community board team and identify the qualities of interactive community boards that are educational and engaging. Then, students finalize one of their six drafts in a public space in their school to promote dialogue and inquiry about connectedness in Washington.
    Teacher Preparation
    • Identify bulletin boards and community spaces in your school where students can post their final designs. Alternatively, use a virtual space. The latter is ideal if you don’t have access to art supplies; it can also help students reach a wider audience. Consider using Google Jamboard or another interactive virtual space. If neither of these two options meets your needs, consider hosting the event in your classroom. Remember, you’ll likely have 6–8 boards per class, and may need to be creative with the space available.
    • Gather materials and supplies. Once you’ve decided on where the event will be located and how much space each team will have for its community board, you’ll need to gather supplies and materials.

    Lesson Steps in Detail

    Step 1: Identify the qualities of an interactive community board(20 min)

    Purpose: Students work together to look back over their six community board designs and identify the qualities that make a board educational and engaging. Then, teams reflect on the message they want to communicate through their board about connectedness. This step will prepare students to design their final community board.

    [Slide 2] Facilitate a whole-class discussion on connectedness.

    • Organize students into their community board teams.
    • Explain to students that before they begin work on their final community board, they will reflect on what they have learned about connectedness in this unit.
    • Invite students to discuss the unit and module driving questions in their community board teams before sharing out their ideas whole-class.
      • How are people in Washington connected to each other and the rest of the world?
      • How am I connected to people and places in Washington?

    [Slide 3] Create a draft list of criteria for an interactive community board.

    • Review the focal areas of each of the six community board designs from this unit.
    • Distribute six sticky notes to each student, one for each design, and review the directions:
      • Take turns reviewing each design, one at a time, and writing down on a sticky note what makes it interactive, engaging, and educational.
      • Remember, your drafts may not have captured your intended engagement because they were not finalized yet. Think about what you’ll include in the final design that is not included in your draft.
      • After all designs have been reviewed, come up with a list of criteria that your final community board needs to meet.
      • Be prepared to share your list with the class.

    Create a whole-class list of criteria for the final community boards.

    • Invite teams to share out their lists with the whole class.
    • Track new ideas on the white board or a piece of chart paper.
    • Once all teams have shared and all ideas are listed, review the criteria with students.
      • Criteria should include: Community boards are educational, engaging, and interactive.
      • Explain to students this includes gamified components like the Apple Quiz. Boards provide opportunities for others to learn by reading articles and/or watching videos, which are introduced via QR codes. Boards invite people to contribute their ideas, questions, and experiences. Boards are relevant and include content and sources that we learned about in this unit.

    [Slide 4] Prompt teams to reflect on what they’ve learned about connectedness. Ask:

    • What message does your team want to communicate through your community board about what connects us?
    • Invite students to share the ideas they discussed.
    Step 2: Create and post your team’s final community board(80 min)

    Purpose: Students use what they have learned throughout the unit and fill in the gaps with research to create and post a final community board about how people in Washington are connected to each other and the rest of the world.

    You might say: Washington is rich in history, people, diverse places, and natural resources. In many ways, these things help connect us. Now, you will draw on what you know and what you have learned about Washington in this unit to design your final community board, which you will post in a public space in our school.

    [Slide 5] Facilitate teamwork on final community board designs.

    • Determine which team is working on which topic. You can assign these or let teams choose the topic for their final community board.
      • Apples
      • Aviation & Aerospace
      • Salmon
      • Acknowledging Indigenous Peoples & Land
      • Food Sources
      • Energy Sources
    • Explain to students that they are creating their final product for this unit by finalizing one of their draft boards, and that in the next step, they will bring their design to fruition using other materials and supplies.
    • Provide each team with markers and either a piece of chart paper or a large section of whiteboard.
    • Use the class Community Board criteria list from Step 1 to provide feedback and coach students as they brainstorm, discover, and iterate on their final design.
    • Consider setting a time limit on design work, and using a timer to help students manage their time.

    Facilitate the creation of final community boards.

    • Assign students a space to build and post their final community board. Ideally, this will be a bulletin board or other dedicated space. Provide guidance for the length and width of the community board space, and any materials they should or should not use (e.g., no staples in drywall).
    • Set out materials and supplies for teams to use.
    • Remind students to put their names in the bottom right corner of their board.
    Step 3: Host your community board event 

    Purpose: Students host a community board event in order to engage their school community, and educate them about how people in Washington are connected to the broader world and to each other.

    • Plan for students to provide an announcement about the event over the school’s intercom system the day or week of the event. They should briefly explain the purpose of the community boards and how students can interact with them.
    Step 4: Reflect(30 min)

    Purpose: Students look back over their project-based learning experience and think about what they have learned about themselves and working in teams.

    [Slide 6] Students reflect on their project-based learning experience.

    • Organize students into one large group, or multiple medium-sized groups of 10–15 students.
    • Each group forms a circle. Students can either stand or sit.
    • Invite students to think about their response to the question:
      • What did you learn about yourself and working with others?
    • Give one student in each group a skein of yarn or ball of string.
    • Explain that after each student shares their response, they will hold the loose end of the skein of yarn as they toss the skein to another student across from them in the circle. This process continues until all students have shared.
      • If you have students with mobility challenges and/or disabilities that affect their ability to participate, consider mapping the conversation on the board. Write students’ names in a circle, organized by how they are seated in the class, and draw arrows between them as they speak.
    • Invite students to think about their response to the question:
      • What is something you want to learn more about in Washington State History this year?
    • Explain that after each student shares their response, they should toss the skein of yarn to the person connected to them. This process continues until all students have shared, and the web of yarn is gone.

    Unless otherwise noted, Connected © 2022 by Educurious is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.