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2019 BJN Paper of the Year: High-starch, low-sugar diet could favor longevity in Japanese men
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"It might sound like bad advice, but for Japanese men, eating a high-carb diet could actually be a good thing—only, it depends on the type of carb. Because eating too much of the wrong ones could have dire consequences. These are the findings reported by Professor Chisato Nagata and colleagues from the Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan—recipients of the inaugural British Journal of Nutrition Paper of the Year award. Their paper, published in volume 122, issue 7 of BJN, describes a subset of results from the Takayama Study. The study was launched in 1992 to link dietary and lifestyle factors to morbidity from cancer and other diseases. Participants filled out a questionnaire at baseline on how frequently they ate various foods..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/23/2020
Association between Neu5Gc carbohydrate and serum antibodies against it provides the molecular link to cancer
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Consuming high amounts of red meat is commonly linked to an increased risk of developing cancer, especially colorectal cancer. At the same time, antibodies against Neu5Gc , a carbohydrate derived from red meat, have been observed to worsen cancer in “human-like” mice. While these antibodies and red meat consumption are each believed to increase cancer risk, it remains unknown how diet affects the antibodies. Now, research suggests that consuming Neu5Gc from red meat and dairy can modulate the amounts and properties of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in humans, providing clues to how the carbohydrate might be linked to cancer. The team behind the study calculated daily intake of Neu5Gc for more than 19,000 subjects aged 18 years or older. These participants provided regular logs of food consumed over 24-hour periods as part of the NutriNet-Santé study, which was designed to investigate relationships between nutrition and health status..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
02/26/2021
The Bad Bug Book
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
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The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) prepared this online handbook on foodborne pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) and natural toxins. Chapters are arranged under the following headings: Pathogenic Bacteria, Enterovirulent Escherichia Coli Group, Parasitic Protozoa and Worms, Viruses, Natural Toxins, Other Pathogenic Agents, and Appendices. The intent of each chapter is to provide basic facts regarding these organisms and toxins including their characteristics, habitat or source, associated foods, infective dose, characteristic disease symptoms, complications, recent and/or major outbreaks, and any susceptible populations. The chapters also contain minimal information on the analytical methods used to detect, isolate, and/or identify the pathogens or natural toxins.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Reading
Date Added:
10/28/2006
Basic Foundation of Nutrition for Sports Performance
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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Physical activity and/or exercise confers many benefits. It improves our mental outlook and capacity, our self-image and self-confidence, and provides independence for the elderly. Moving can also increase lean body mass and decrease body fat, increases bone mass, and improve heart, lung, and muscle function. Morbidity and mortality are lower in people who are physically active compared to people who are sedentary. Also, the risk is reduced for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, type II diabetes, cancer, particularly colon and breast, osteoporosis, and gallbladder disease.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
LibreTexts
Author:
Byerly
Date Added:
12/05/2022
Benefits of a low-calorie diet for type 2 diabetes
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"New research suggests that a low-calorie diet might help reverse symptoms of type 2 diabetes in men with obesity. The findings of the study add to a growing body of evidence indicating that diabetes is a reversible condition. Authors of the study looked at 18 men in South Africa who were over the age of 35, had class III obesity, and were on insulin treatment for diabetes. The participants were randomized to one of two groups: one followed a commercially available low-fat, low-calorie diet consisting of vegetables and a vegetable-soup-based meal plan; while the control group received a calorie-restricted meal plan. All participants were encouraged to engage in physical activity according to their abilities and to visit a counseling psychologist at least once a month. Over the course of 6 months, the team tracked the men’s levels of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, or HbA1c—using those measures to establish diabetes status..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/20/2019
Biology Online Nutrition Lab:  Energy and Macronutrient Intake Online Lab
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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This resource provides a lab procedure and fillable form pdf lab answer sheet for use in an online biology or nutrition course. Students will need access to a computer and a scale for taking their body weight.

Attributions are provided at the end of the laboratory write-up.

Please refer to the "Completing Lab Reports in Canvas Orientation Exercise" in OER Commons also authored by me (Tina B. Jones) for student instructions on downloading, completing, and uploading the fillable form answer sheets in Canvas.

*Lab answer sheet created by instructor using Adobe Acrobat DC Pro.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Date Added:
06/04/2019
CHEM 1007- Chemistry in the Kitchen for Sustainability (Juszczak)
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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Course Goals and Learning Objectives. The goal of this course is to give the student a basic understanding of chemistry and physical processes in the context of food chemistry, metabolism and cooking. The course also necessarily makes connections to the future sustainability of food and water. We aim to prepare the student for the increasingly urgent and complex national dialogue on the interrelated topics of global climate change, energy, pollution, extinction and the food supply. The specific objectives of this course are to provide the student with the basic vocabulary of chemistry, and a basic understanding of the experimental process as it relates to food chemistry and cooking.

Subject:
Chemistry
Life Science
Nutrition
Physical Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
CUNY
Provider Set:
Brooklyn College
Author:
Emily Fairey
Laura Juszczak
Date Added:
06/16/2022
Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia deplete sugar alcohols in the cecum
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Gut microbe-mediated breakdown of intestinal contents is important for host nutrition and immunity, but the specific nutrients consumed by common gut microbes are unclear. To learn more, a recent study combined microbiota profiling and untargeted metabolomics to examine gut metabolites and microbes in mice. Microbiome disruption with an antibiotic (streptomycin) increased the levels of carbohydrates, particularly sugar acids and sugar alcohols, in the cecum and these increases were associated with depletion of Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia. Conversely, inoculation of microbe-free mice with a Clostridia/Erysipelotrichia mixture (CE17) reduced sugar acid and sugar alcohol levels. Transplantation of microbe-free mice with a complex normal-mouse microbiome (C57FMT) produced similar results, supporting the importance of Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia for digestion of these substances..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/13/2021
Consumer Nutrition
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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Short Description:
Consumer Nutrition is an OER textbook developed as an introductory nutrition resource.

Long Description:
Consumer Nutrition is an OER textbook developed as an introductory nutrition resource. It includes information on nutrients, alcohol, dietary guidelines, food safety, dietary supplements, energy balance, nutrition and fitness, food insecurity and waste, and nutrition through the lifecycle.

Word Count: 160128

(Note: This resource's metadata has been created automatically by reformatting and/or combining the information that the author initially provided as part of a bulk import process.)

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Textbook
Date Added:
01/26/2024
DFN 220 Ethnic and Therapeutic Meal Patterns
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CC BY-NC-SA
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An in-depth exploration of foods and foodways of diverse populations and cultures. Examination of the effect of ethnic, geographic, ecological and historical factors on foods, foodways, health and diet related diseases.
The full course site is available at https://culturalfoods.commons.gc.cuny.edu/.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Social Science
Material Type:
Syllabus
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
Lehman College
Author:
Burt, Katherine
Date Added:
06/16/2022
Detecting Genetically Modified Food by PCR
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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Genetic engineering is responsible for the so-called "second green revolution."  Genes that encode herbicide resistance, insect resistance, drought tolerance, frost tolerance, and other traits have been added to many plants of commercial importance. In 2003, 167 million acres of farmland worldwide were planted in genetically modified (GM) crops equal to one fourth of total land under cultivation.  The most widely planted GM crops are soybeans, corn, cotton, canola, and papaya. Two important transgenes have been widely introduced into crop plants.  The Bt gene, from Bacillus thuringiensis, produces a toxin that protects against caterpillars, reducing applications of insecticides and increasing yields. The glyphosate resistance gene protects food plants against the broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, which efficiently kills invasive weeds in the field. The major advantages of the "Roundup Ready®" system include better weed control, reduction of crop injury, higher yield, and lower environmental impact than traditional herbicide systems. Most Americans would probably be surprised to learn that more than 60% of fresh vegetables and processed foods sold in supermarkets today are genetically modified by gene transfer.  In 2004, approximately 85% of soy and 45% of corn grown in the U.S. were grown from Roundup Ready® seed.

Subject:
Applied Science
Environmental Science
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Provider Set:
Dolan DNA Learning Center
Author:
Dolan DNA Learning Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Diabetes Management Case Study
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Public Domain
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This diabetes self-management case is being utilized in the dietetic internship program courses at Iowa State University: FSHN 554, 555, & 556 and was designed to increase student confidence in suggesting appropriate recommendations for the medication, blood sugar, and diet management aspects for someone with Type 2 diabetes. As a distance education program, the dietetic internship faculty have created various simulations and case studies for students to gain practice and confidence in providing appropriate patient care.
1. Complete the diabetes self-management case: https://rise.articulate.com/share/wycLssQVOP7tsDhoY2o-KQUWacAChpqH
2. Compare your responses to the expert feedback.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Case Study
Author:
Nicole Tramp
Date Added:
06/04/2020
Diet and gut microbiome interactions in irritable bowel syndrome
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. IBS can have profound effects on quality of life, and treatment options are limited. While several studies have found associations between dietary habits and the gut microbiome in healthy individuals, studies in patients with IBS are limited. To better understand this relationship in IBS, researchers studied food diary data and sequenced gut microbiota in 149 individuals with IBS and 52 healthy controls. They found that individuals with IBS tended to show a higher intake of poorer quality food during main meals. Covariation between gut microbiota and diet corresponded with IBS symptom severity, exhaled gas, glycan metabolism, and meat/plant ratio, and IBS severity was associated with altered gut microbiota hydrogen production, with changes seen in enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/15/2021
Dietary fiber deficiency causes cognitive impairment and synapse loss via the microbiota
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Nutrient-poor diets can increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, and diets poor in fiber are widespread, especially in industrialized nations. However, whether fiber deficiency—which alters the gut microbiota—impairs cognition through the gut–brain axis remains unclear. To find out, researchers recently analyzed mice fed a fiber-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Compared to normal mice, the fiber-deficient mice exhibited cognitive impairment and were unable to complete typical activities like nest organization. In addition, the synapses in the brain area regulating cognitive function were damaged, and neuroinflammation occurred. Immune cells called microglia (indicated by Iba1) engulfed synapses (indicated by PSD-95) in the fiber-deficient mice. Furthermore, the fiber-deficient mice exhibited gut microbiota disruption that was associated with, and possibly responsible for, the cognitive deficits..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
03/01/2022
Diet, obesity, and gut microbes: determinants of metabolic outcomes in non-human primates
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by diet as well as obesity, which can itself be diet-related, but the comparative influences of these factors are unclear. To explore the complex interactions among diet, obesity, and gut microbes, researchers examined female monkeys fed either a Western or Mediterranean diet. Metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples revealed that diet was the main contributor to gut bacterial diversity. Compared with the Western diet group, the Mediterranean diet group had greater overall diversity and different abundance of 54 bacterial species. Within each diet group, leaner and heavier monkeys also had subtly different microbiomes. Interestingly, the Western diet-fed group had more Prevotella copri and had high-P. copri and low-P. copri subgroups. High-P. copri monkeys had lower diversity than low-P. copri monkeys and different proportions of some microbes. Untargeted metabolomics of urine and plasma also suggested that the high-P..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/16/2021
Effects of caloric restriction on the gut microbiome are linked with immune senescence
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Diet has a strong influence on our gut microbiota, even stronger than that of host genetic background. Caloric restriction is a specific diet change that can delay the development of metabolic disorders and has been shown previously to delay immune senescence, which is the shift towards more immune memory cells with age. However, the interactions among caloric restriction, the microbiota, and the immune system are not well understood. To close this gap, researchers examined the impact of fecal microbiota transfer from a woman in a research diet trial to germ-free mice. The fecal samples were collected before (AdLib) and eight weeks into a very low-calorie formulated diet (CalRes). CalRes-microbiota recipients had a restructured gut microbial community compared to AdLib-microbiota recipients. These mice also had reduced body fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance compared to the AdLib-microbiota recipients..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
05/18/2022
Enzyme deficiency worsens fatty liver disease
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"SIRT3 is an enzyme vital to maintaining a balance between fat buildup and breakdown in the liver. Mice lacking the gene coding for SIRT3 show enhanced fatty liver disease when fed a high-fat diet, but it’s unknown how or whether SIRT3 can actively prevent fatty liver disease in such mice. A recent study examined the molecular effects of a standard diet and a high-fat diet in wild-type mice and in mice missing the gene coding for SIRT3. Feeding SIRT3-less mice a high-fat diet aggravated fatty liver disease and reduced the protective, fat-oxidizing effect of the molecule PPARα. Similarly, levels of LIPIN1, a protective protein that covers for the loss of SIRT3, were reduced when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the absence of SIRT3, exposure to a fatty diet promoted the production of proteins that absorb fats through the regulatory molecule NRF2..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/12/2020
Examining associations between habitual diet, metabolic disease, and the gut microbiota
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"The gut microbiome – comprising the microbes that reside inside our digestive systems – produces many metabolites that affect human physiology. The composition and diversity of gut microbes has been associated with diseases as diverse as GI disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and rheumatoid arthritis. To better understand the relationship between diet and gut microbiota, a recent study used a cross-sectional approach. By examining fecal microbiota from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, including 1,992 participants, researchers applied latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to identify 20 microbial subgroups within the population. They found that 8 of 20 subgroups were associated with dietary habits, while 9 of 20 were associated with the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
10/15/2021
Exogenous Ketone Supplements Improve Motor Performance in Rodents
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Motor impairment can be caused by injury or neurological degeneration. One treatment method – the ketogenic diet (KD) – has received attention from clinicians and the public alike. KD works by inducing nutritional ketosis, where the body burns fat and protein for energy due to extremely low carbohydrate consumption. Unfortunately, although KD effectively improves motor outcomes in many neurometabolic conditions, patient adherence to the diet is difficult due to strict nutritional requirements and potential side effects. Alternative methods of achieving ketosis are needed – and ketone supplements are a possible solution. Researchers at the University of South Florida and Savaria University, Hungary investigated the effect of ketone supplements on motor performance in mice and rats. By treating the rodents with a variety of ketone combinations prior to a rotarod test, the researchers found that motor performance was improved to various degrees by ketone supplementation..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Life Science
Nutrition
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/12/2020