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AKT2 deficiency impairs formation of the BCR
signalosome
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Some proteins are central to many cell signaling processes. One of these key molecules is AKT2. An important kinase involved in cell survival, growth, and metabolism, it has ties to insulin-induced signaling and cancer. AKT2 has a critical role in immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages; however, although AKT2 is expressed in antibody-producing immune cells called B cells, its function in B cells isn’t clear. In a recent study, researchers sought to understand the role of AKT2 in B cells using AKT2-deficient mice. They found that mice lacking AKT2 had impaired B-cell differentiation. B cells from these mice were not able to form a cluster of molecules called a signalosome in response to B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, resulting in poor BCR signaling and impaired B cell activation and spreading. These results suggest that as a central orchestrator of signaling, AKT2 function is critical for proper BCR signaling and B cell development, ensuring a functional antibody-mediated immune response..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
06/23/2020
Are your ChIP antibodies skewing your data?
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"It’s a feared moment for every scientist: the discovery that years of painstaking research has led to results that can't be repeated. Many think that poorly characterized antibodies have contributed to this reproducibility crisis more than any other laboratory tool. A new study published in Molecular Cell supports this hypothesis, at least in the context of chromatin immunoprecipitation. Although accurate ChIP interpretation depends on near-perfect antibody specificity, the report shows that many of these reagents are far less capable than their advertising suggests, which calls into question several widely accepted paradigms on genomic regulation. The study focused on histone post-translational modifications; specifically all three methylation states of lysine 4 on histone H3. Through ChIP experiments, H3K4 methylation has been strongly linked to transcriptional control..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Chemistry
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/20/2019
Biology
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CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
08/22/2012
Buffer Exchange methods overview
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CC BY
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If the dialysis is the most know method used for buffer exchange, other methods less as desalting and tangential flow filtrations can be useful to speed up or scale up the buffer exchange process.

Subject:
Education
Educational Technology
Material Type:
Lecture
Author:
Manuele Martinelli
Date Added:
09/21/2021
Flares, prednisone tapers, and early disease control in a randomized trial of tocilizumab to treat giant cell arteritis
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Giant cell arteritis, or G-C-A, is a disease of the blood vessels, especially those on the side of the head. In G-C-A, inflammation can decrease blood flow, causing headaches and other symptoms, including blurry vision, which sometimes even leads to permanent blindness. The disease, which affects people over 50, is treated immediately with high doses of glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, to lessen inflammation and reduce the risk of vision loss. But patients often need to stay on these powerful drugs for years, and doctors don’t have good information about how well this strategy works. Now, researchers from around the world have completed the first large randomized clinical trial of a newer drug, tocilizumab, or T-C-Z, in combination with long-term prednisone tapers in patients with G-C-A. The results show that disease flares are common, even when patients are taking prednisone, although adding T-C-Z reduces that risk. In the trial, researchers evaluated four sets of patients..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
09/23/2019
Quantifying Antibodies Directed against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 Subunit
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"With the COVID-19 pandemic causing a global health crisis, accurate diagnosis is critical. Diagnosing acute disease relies on RT-PCR tests measuring the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sampled material but in patients with suspected COVID-19 with a negative RT-PCR result, measuring anti-viral antibodies can help clinicians identify infected individuals. Antibody testing can also determine if someone was previously infected and help to measure the prevalence of the virus in a community. A new study characterizes an assay measuring total antibodies – combined IgA, IgM, and IgG isotypes – against SARS-CoV-2. The assay, ECLIA, specifically measures antibodies against the S1 subunit of the viral spike, which carries the virus’s receptor binding domain. Researchers in Liechtenstein evaluated ECLIA in a population with 125 cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 1159 individuals without evidence of COVID-19. The results showed a test sensitivity of 97.6%, while the specificity was 99.8%..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
02/25/2021
Targeting AMPK to overcome resistance to anti-colorectal cancer drugs
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CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"Antibody treatments such as cetuximab are powerful against colorectal cancer, but colorectal cancer cells are known to develop resistance to these drugs in large part due to to overactivation or mutation of the gene KRAS. To understand how KRAS might give rise to cetuximab resistance, researchers treated two types of lab-grown cells with the antibody, normal cancer cells and cancer cells containing a mutated KRAS gene. They then monitored the effects on AMPK, an enzyme that is toxic to various cancer cells. KRAS mutation impaired this AMPK-based defense, enabling mutant cancer cells to outlive normal cancer. Exposing cells with drugs known to activate AMPK, such as metformin, recovered the anti-cancer defense, overcoming the centuximab resistance induced by a mutated KRAS gene. That same mechanism was observed in colorectal tumors grafted onto mice. The results indicate that targeting AMPK could be a powerful therapeutic strategy, possibly boosting anti-cancer defenses in patients with colorectal cancer..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
11/03/2020
Wearing shoes indoors might be linked to COVID-19 mortality rate
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This resource is a video abstract of a research paper created by Research Square on behalf of its authors. It provides a synopsis that's easy to understand, and can be used to introduce the topics it covers to students, researchers, and the general public. The video's transcript is also provided in full, with a portion provided below for preview:

"A new preprint reports one factor that might contribute to the deadliness of the COVID-19 pandemic: wearing shoes indoors. Researchers compared COVID-19 death rates between countries that follow the cultural practice of removing shoes indoors and those that do not and observed a distinct pattern. Those where removing shoes is customary showed a lower death rate on average. Interestingly, no significant differences were observed when countries were compared according to the number of COVID-19 cases. It could be that the lack of reliable, universal testing may obscure the true prevalence of the disease. More work is still needed to discount a number of confounding factors, such as differences in preventive measures enacted by different countries, but the correlation suggests that removing shoes indoors might help curb the devastation wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic..."

The rest of the transcript, along with a link to the research itself, is available on the resource itself.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Research Square
Provider Set:
Video Bytes
Date Added:
06/23/2020