Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.
This lesson unit is intended to help you assess whether students recognize relationships of direct proportion and how well they solve problems that involve proportional reasoning. In particular, it is intended to help you identify those students who: use inappropriate additive strategies in scaling problems, which have a multiplicative structure; rely on piecemeal and inefficient strategies such as doubling, halving, and decomposition, and have not developed a single multiplier strategy for solving proportionality problems; and see multiplication as making numbers bigger, and division as making numbers smaller.
The CyberSquad tracks Digital position in time and then studies graphs to figure out what Hacker is scheming in this video from Cyberchase.
This lesson unit is intended to help assess how well students are able to interpret and use scale drawings to plan a garden layout. This involves using proportional reasoning and metric units.
This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to: solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion; choose an appropriate sampling method; and collect discrete data and record them using a frequency table.
- Measurement and Data
- Ratios and Proportions
- Material Type:
- Lecture Notes
- Lesson Plan
- Teaching/Learning Strategy
- Shell Center for Mathematical Education
- Provider Set:
- Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
- Date Added:
The CyberSquad tests which broom can travel the furthest in five seconds in this video from Cyberchase.
In this video segment from Cyberchase, Harry decides to train as a firefighter and uses line graphs to chart his physical fitness progress.
Four Representations of Constant of Proportionality help students use their knowledge of proportional relationships. Students identify the constant of proportionality from a word problem, an equation, a table, or a graph; and then use that knowledge to complete the other tasks.
In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students learn how to read and interpret a distance–time graph.
This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to interpret percent increase and decrease, and in particular, to identify and help students who have the following difficulties: translating between percents, decimals, and fractions; representing percent increase and decrease as multiplication; and recognizing the relationship between increases and decreases.
A team of middle school teachers developed an integrated unit spanning math, social studies and ELA, and focused the unit centering on the life of Galileo, including some of his investigations, his beliefs based on evidence, and his conflicts with the Catholic church.
Four full-year digital course, built from the ground up and fully-aligned to the Common Core State Standards, for 7th grade Mathematics. Created using research-based approaches to teaching and learning, the Open Access Common Core Course for Mathematics is designed with student-centered learning in mind, including activities for students to develop valuable 21st century skills and academic mindset.
Type of Unit: Introduction
Students should be able to:
Understand ratio concepts and use ratios.
Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world problems.
Identify and use the multiplication property of equality.
This unit introduces students to the routines that build a successful classroom math community, and it introduces the basic features of the digital course that students will use throughout the year.
An introductory card sort activity matches students with their partner for the week. Then over the course of the week, students learn about the routines of Opening, Work Time, Ways of Thinking, Apply the Learning (some lessons), Summary of the Math, Reflection, and Exercises. Students learn how to present their work to the class, the importance of students’ taking responsibility for their own learning, and how to effectively participate in the classroom math community.
Students then work on Gallery problems, to further explore the resources and tools and to learn how to organize their work.
The mathematical work of the unit focuses on ratios and rates, including card sort activities in which students identify equivalent ratios and match different representations of an equivalent ratio. Students use the multiplication property of equality to justify solutions to real-world ratio problems.
Students use ratio cards to find equivalencies and form partnerships for the week. As a class, students discuss and decide on classroom norms.Give each student a ratio card. Instruct students to find a classmate whose card has a ratio that is equivalent to theirs. Classmates with equivalent ratios are now partners for the week. With the class, discuss and decide on classroom norms, or rules. Tell students how to access the application they will use this year.Key ConceptsStudents understand that ratio relationships are multiplicative. They use ratio tables to show ratio relationships.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDistinguish between ratio tables and tables that do no show equivalent ratios.Understand how ratio tables are used to solve ratio problems.Use the basic features of the application.Create and understand the classroom norms.Use mathematical reasoning to justify an answer.
Students discuss classroom routines and expectations, work with partners to present their work matching different representations of a ratio situation, and then prepare math summaries.Introduce classroom routines and expectations prior to the full mathematics lesson. Ask students to discuss how to clearly present their work to their classmates. Model an example of partner work, and then have students work with their partners to match different representations of a ratio situation. Read and discuss a Summary of the Math, and then have students write Reflections about their wonderings.Key ConceptsStudents match a data card with its corresponding ratio, decimal, fraction, percent, and description of the relationship in words. Students construct viable arguments for their matches and critique the reasoning of their partner and other classmates.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDescribe the classroom routines and expectations.Consider how to present work clearly to classmates.Collaborate with a partner.Critique a partner’s reasoning.Connect different representations of a ratio situation.
Type of Unit: Concept
Students should be able to:
Understand what a rate and ratio are.
Make a ratio table.
Make a graph using values from a ratio table.
Students start the unit by predicting what will happen in certain situations. They intuitively discover they can predict the situations that are proportional and might have a hard time predicting the ones that are not. In Lessons 2–4, students use the same three situations to explore proportional relationships. Two of the relationships are proportional and one is not. They look at these situations in tables, equations, and graphs. After Lesson 4, students realize a proportional relationship is represented on a graph as a straight line that passes through the origin. In Lesson 5, they look at straight lines that do not represent a proportional relationship. Lesson 6 focuses on the idea of how a proportion that they solved in sixth grade relates to a proportional relationship. They follow that by looking at rates expressed as fractions, finding the unit rate (the constant of proportionality), and then using the constant of proportionality to solve a problem. In Lesson 8, students fine-tune their definition of proportional relationship by looking at situations and determining if they represent proportional relationships and justifying their reasoning. They then apply what they have learned to a situation about flags and stars and extend that thinking to comparing two prices—examining the equations and the graphs. The Putting It Together lesson has them solve two problems and then critique other student work.
Gallery 1 provides students with additional proportional relationship problems.
The second part of the unit works with percents. First, percents are tied to proportional relationships, and then students examine percent situations as formulas, graphs, and tables. They then move to a new context—salary increase—and see the similarities with sales taxes. Next, students explore percent decrease, and then they analyze inaccurate statements involving percents, explaining why the statements are incorrect. Students end this sequence of lessons with a formative assessment that focuses on percent increase and percent decrease and ties it to decimals.
Students have ample opportunities to check, deepen, and apply their understanding of proportional relationships, including percents, with the selection of problems in Gallery 2.
Students analyze the graph of a proportional relationship in order to find the approximate constant of proportionality, to write the related formula, and to create a table of values that lie on the graph.Key ConceptsThe constant of proportionality determines the steepness of the straight-line graph that represents a proportional relationship. The steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality.On the graph of a proportional relationship, the constant of proportionality is the constant ratio of y to x, or the slope of the line.A proportional relationship can be represented in different ways: a ratio table, a graph of a straight line through the origin, or an equation of the form y = kx, where k is the constant of proportionality.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify the constant of proportionality from a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Write a formula for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Make a table for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Relate the constant of proportionality to the steepness of a graph that represents a proportional relationship (i.e., the steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality).
Students connect percent to proportional relationships in the context of sales tax.Key ConceptsWhen there is a constant tax percent, the total cost for items purchase—including the price and the tax—is proportional to the price.To find the cost, c , multiply the price of the item, p, by (1 + t), where t is the tax percent, written as a decimal: c = p(1 + t).The constant of proportionality is (1 + t) because of the structure of the situation:c = p + tp = p(1 + t).Because of the distributive property, multiplying the price by (1 + t) means multiplying the price by 1, then multiplying the price by t, and then taking the sum of these products.Goals and Learning ObjectivesFind the total cost in a sales tax situation.Understand that a proportional relationship only exists between the price of an item and the total cost of the item if the sales tax is constant.Find the constant of proportionality in a sales tax situation.Make a graph of an equation showing the relationship between the price of an item and the total amount paid.
Students create equations, tables, and graphs to show the proportional relationships in sales tax situations.Key ConceptsThe quantities—price, tax, and total cost—can each be known or unknown in a given situation, but if you know two quantities, you can figure out the missing quantity using the structure of the relationship among them.If either the price or the total cost are unknown, you can write an equation of the form y = kx, with k as the known value (1 + tax), and solve for x or y.If the tax is the unknown value, you can write an equation of the form y = kx and solve for k, and then subtract 1 from this value to find the tax (as a decimal value).Building a general model for the relationship among all three quantities helps you sort out what you know and what you need to find out.Goals and Learning ObjectivesMake a table to organize known and unknown quantities in a sales tax problem.Write and solve an equation to find an unknown quantity in a sales tax problem.Make a graph to represent a table of values.Determine the unknown amount—either the price of an item, the amount of the sales tax, or the total cost—in a sales tax situation when given the other two amounts.
Lesson OverviewStudents calculate the constant of proportionality for a proportional relationship based on a table of values and use it to write a formula that represents the proportional relationship.Key ConceptsIf two quantities are proportional to one another, the relationship between them can be defined by a formula of the form y = kx, where k is the constant ratio of y-values to corresponding x-values. The same relationship can also be defined by the formula x=(1k)y , where 1k is now the constant ratio of x-values to y-values.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDefine the constant of proportionality.Calculate the constant of proportionality from a table of values.Write a formula using the constant of proportionality.