Cocaine afflicts many individuals and is potently addictive. Originally hailed as a wonder-drug in the late 19th century, cocaine is now considered an illegal substance. Cocaine’s addictive properties can be attributed to changes in the dopamine reward pathway of the Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra, Prefrontal Cortex, Dorsal Striatum, Nucleus Accumbens, Amygdala, Globus Pallidus, and Hippocampus. This drug affects the brain in two processes: binge and crave. The binge process highlights cocaine’s ability to block dopamine reuptake from the synapse resulting in hyperstimulation of the postsynaptic neuron in the dopamine reward pathway. The crave process promotes drug-seeking behavior through conditional and contextual cues. Understanding the effects of cocaine in the brain may grant insight in creating future medication and therapies to treat individuals addicted to this drug.
Precise modification of faulty genes for repair has been one of the most important goals in medicine. It is now finally within the realm of possibility thanks to the gene editing tool CRISPR. This microbial adaptive immune system can copy and cut specific DNA sequences. This animation provides a visual introduction of this revolutionary genetic tool.
This animation describes Endochondral Ossification which is a process of long, short and irregular bone formation using byline template.
This animation describes the formation of endocrine glands starting with the mitosis of mesenchymal tissues, eventually leading to the formation of the secretory portion of the gland by differentiation.
This animation describes the formation of exocrine glands starting with the mitosis of mesenchymal tissues, eventually leading to the formation of the secretory portion of the gland by differentiation.
This animation describes the process of cartilage formation starting with separation from the mesenchymal tissue to the formation of an isogenous cell group via mitosis.
This animation describes Intramembranous ossification which is a process of bone formation.
This is a guide for faculty who are interested in converting their courses to OER. It briefly defines OER, and provides resources for finding OER materials.
This animation describes the process of WBC formation from myeloblast.
Gene insertion of opsin, light-activated cell-membrane channels, into neurons of interest allows researchers to manipulate light to either excite or inhibit neuronal activity to gain a better understanding of brain function and dysfunction, and explore therapeutic applications.
This animation describes the formation of red blood cells from proerythroblast.
Neurons communicate with each other and relay information to the brain through synapse. Influx of calcium through ion channels acts as a trigger for starting the neurotransmission cascade, which upon reaching action potential, leads to the release of neurotransmitters, propagating the signal from the pre-synaptic membrane to the post-synaptic membrane.