Author:
Georgia Boatman
Subject:
Education, Elementary Education, English Language Arts, Measurement and Data, Astronomy
Material Type:
Activity/Lab, Module, Reading
Level:
Lower Primary
Grade:
1
Tags:
  • ClimeTime
  • Data
  • Moon
  • Observation
  • Orbit
  • Patterns
  • Prediction
  • Sky
  • Space
  • Sun
  • climetime
  • wa-science
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Downloadable docs, Graphics/Photos, Text/HTML, Video

    Education Standards

    First Grade Elementary Science and Integrates Subjects-Sky Explorers

    First Grade Elementary Science and Integrates Subjects-Sky Explorers

    Overview

    The First Grade Elementary Framework for Science and Integrated Subjects, Sky Explorers uses observation of the sun and moon in the sky as a phenomena for exploring patterns of objects in the sky.  It is part of Elementary Framework for Science and Integrated Subjects project, a statewide Clime Time collaboration among ESD 123, ESD 105, North Central ESD, and the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Development of the resources is in response to a need for research- based science lessons for elementary teachers that are integrated with English language arts, mathematics and other subjects such as social studies. The template for Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects  can serve as an organized, coherent and research-based roadmap for teachers in the development of their own NGSS aligned science lessons.  Lessons can also be useful for classrooms that have no adopted curriculum as well as to serve as enhancements for  current science curriculum. The EFSIS project brings together grade level teams of teachers to develop lessons or suites of lessons that are 1) pnenomena based, focused on grade level Performance Expectations, and 2) leverage ELA and Mathematics Washington State Learning Standards.

    Introduction: Standards, Phenomena, Big Ideas, Routines

    First Grade

    Development Team:

    Alexis Emerson, Heidi Flake, Julie Fry

     

    Sky Explorers

    Frameworks for Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects are designed to be an example of how to develop a coherent lesson or suite of lessons that integrate other content areas such as English Language Arts, Mathematics and other subjects into science learning for students. The examples provide teachers with ways to think about all standards, identify anchoring phenomena, and plan for coherence in science and integrated subjects learning

    First Grade Disciplinary Core Ideas include PS4, LS1, LS3, and ESS1

    For ESS1 students are expected to develop an understanding of:

    • Observe, describe and predict some patterns of movement of objects in the sky

    The Crosscutting Concepts are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

    Crosscutting Concepts:

    • Patterns

    Students are expected to use the practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

    Science and Engineering Practices:

    • Planning and carrying out investigations
    • Analyzing and Interpreting Data

    Performance Expectation(s)

    1-ESS1-1. Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include that the sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; and stars other than our sun are visible at night but not during the day.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of star patterns is limited to stars being seen at night and not during the day.]

    Science and Engineering Practices

    Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and

    progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.

           (1-ESS1-2) Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons.

     

    Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.

     (1-ESS1-1) Use observations (firsthand or from media) to describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions.

    Crosscutting Concepts

    Which Crosscutting Concepts will be a focus for investigating this topic/phenomenon?

    (1-ESS1-1) (1-ESS1-2) Patterns - Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.

    English Language Arts (ELA) Standards

    How will I Integrate ELA Standards (which standard, what strategy…?)

    (RL.1.10)  With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

    (RI.1.1) Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (1-ESS1-1). (1-ESS1-2) (KLEWS or KWL chart, GLAD-Learning Log)

    (W.1.8) With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (1-ESS1-1). (1-ESS1-2)  (KLEWS  or KWL chart, Science Notebook, GLAD-Learning Log, Shared Writing)

    (SL.1.1)  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.  (Think, Pair, Share, GLAD-10/2, 5/2, Turn & Talk)

    (SL.1.5)  Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (Graphic Organizers, Science Notebook, GLAD-Learning Logs)

    (L.1.1)  Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (Science Notebook, GLAD-Learning Log, Shared Writing)

    (L.1.2)  Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. (Science Notebook, Shared Writing)

    Mathematics Standards

    How will I Integrate Mathematics Standards?

    (MP.2) Reason abstractly and quantitatively (1-ESS1-2)

    (MP.4) Model with mathematics (1-ESS1-2)

    (MP.5) Use appropriate tools strategically (1-ESS1-2)

    (1.MD.2)  Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. 

    (1.MD.C.4) Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. (1-ESS1-2)

    (1.NBT.2)  Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.

    (1.NBT.3)  Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >,=,<.

     

    Phenomena

    The phenomena starts in lesson 1 as students do a field investigation and observe the daytime sky.  Students are using their senses to notice, smell, feel, hear and think about the sky. The Teacher poses the questions:  What do you see right now?  Can we see the same things at night?  What do we see at night that might be different? Why do we see different things at different times? Teacher explains how scientists use observations to gather information to learn something new and make connections.

    How can we know when and where the Sun and Moon will be in the sky?

    Phenomena Resources:

    https://kcts9.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/buac18-k2-sci-ess-predictpatterns/predictable-patterns-in-the-sky/

     

    Communicating in Scientific Ways | OpenSciEd

    Big Ideas

    Which one of the ideas from the curriculum and the Standards now seems the most central - meaning they might help explain other ideas you’ve listed and explain a wide range of natural phenomena? You must use more than a name to express your idea, express it as a set of relationships. Explain your choice clearly enough so a colleague could understand why you made the choice you did.

    How are the Sun and the Moon’s movements patterns in the sky?

    • Students investigate patterns of the Sun and Moon in order to predict movements

    Open Sci Ed Routines

    Table of OpenSciEd Routines

                                                                                            Routines by OpenSciEd | CC BY

    Lesson 1: What do I notice about Day and Night?

    Anchoring Phenomenon Routine

    Materials

    • Projector/Promethean Board
    • Video
    • Sticky notes
    • pencil/coloring tools
    • Daytime Night time Model
    • Organizational charts KLEWS chart (OER Commons, Kate Katz, Carla Zembal-Saul)
    • Vocabulary words
    • Student Science Journal
    • Daytime and Night time model

    Preparation

    Make copies of Daytime and Night time Model (1 per student)Prepare a Chart to organize student information and resources to post in the classroom. For an example, use the KLEWS chart labeled - K (What we know), L (What we learned), E (What was our evidence), W (What we wonder), S (Science ideas and vocabulary).

    Sample of Day Time, Night Time T ChartSample Picture of KLEWS Chart

    Resources to find out more about KLEWS:

    KLEWS chart (OER Commons, Kate Katz, Carla Zembal-Saul) How to use the KLEWS chart: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W90hV9qiWyY

    Vocabulary

    • Sun
    • Moon
    • Scientist
    • Observation
    • Data

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Take a quick 5-10 minute field trip to the school yard. Find a safe place for class to sit or lay down next to an elbow buddy. Tell students to take a few quiet moments to watch the sky. As they look, talk about using their senses to learn information. Say “focus on sounds you hear...tell your elbow buddy what you notice.” Repeat with all senses (what do you smell, hear, feel, what do you think?) Tell students “the meaning of observe is to look closely and make connections.”In this activity you were observing.” “What have you been observing?”
    • The Teacher  poses the questions:  What do you see right now?  Can we see the same things at night?  What do we see at night that might be different? Why do we see different things at different times? Teacher explains how scientists use observations to gather information to learn something new and make connections. Students' response might be...clouds, birds, the sky, etc.
    • Use a gesture to help students remember the meaning of observe (round fingers and thumb to make an eye hole through both hands like a telescope). When we collect information, it’s called data. Use a gesture to help student remember the meaning of data (one hand flat like a piece of paper, other hand pretending to write)
    • Say, “Today we are starting a new science unit and really think about the sun and moon..
    • With an elbow buddy, have students turn and talk about what they already know about the sun and the moon. (SL.1.1) Ask” Did you and your partner know the same information? Ask “why?” Students may say that they've had different experiences. Add on, by saying how each idea is valuable and all ideas are welcome because that’s how we collaborate. Say, “Did you know that scientists have to collaborate? They do, but they also have to do their own thinking and research too.”

    Procedure 2

    • Tell  students that the next part is independent seat work to gather pre-knowledge. Say “We’ll start our new learning with our own thinking. Close your eyes and and think for a moment about what you notice in the daytime sky. Put that picture in your head. Now what do you notice in the night time sky?) Open your eyes. You will get a page with a T-chart of Daytime and Night time. (Point to the parts on the page.) Use your drawing tools to draw pictures of what you notice in the daytime sky and Night time sky.”  Daytime and Night time Model
    • Remind students to think of as many things as they can. When 5-7 minutes is up, have students share with their table team or elbow buddy. They will be excited that some students drew the same ideas. Collect models and find patterns in their understanding so far.

    Student Work Sample

    Student sample of completed Day Time Night Time T Chart

    Procedure 3

    • Say “A Scientist who studies the sun, moon, planets, and stars is called an astronomer. Astronomers make observations and collect data. Today you are going to be astronomers.”
    • Pass out sticky notes
    • Say “Let’s focus on the word observation.” Have students repeat the word, clap the syllables in the word. Tell students the root word - Observe. Write down or post the word on the chart under the S. Ask, “What does observe mean? Tell students to write or draw their idea of observe on their sticky note. Gather the sticky note and place them under the word “observe” , and if there's time, students share their ideas to the class.
    • “Now  let’s focus on the word data” Have students repeat the word, clap the syllables in the word. Write down or post the word on the chart under the S. Ask, “What does data mean? Tell students to write or draw their idea of data on their sticky note. Gather the sticky note and place them under the word “data” , and if there's time, students share their ideas to the class.
    • Add meanings next to the words, Observe and Data
      • Observe - to look closely and make connections
      • Data - to gather information

    Procedure 4

    Tell students they will watch a short video clip and observe what they notice. Go to PBS website, Predictable Patterns in

    the Sky. Use a Promethean board to project the short video to show students the phenomena,

    https://kcts9.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/buac18-k2-sci-ess-predictpatterns/predictable-patterns-in-the-sky/

    Have students quietly watch, provide the sentence stem, I notice...After the short clip ask a few kids to share what they noticed.

    • Play the film again and prompt students to ask questions, “What do you wonder?”
    • Add each wondering on a sticky note and place under the W - in the KLEWS chart, put questions into categories as collaborative questions are developed
    • Review the lesson: “Today we found out we’ll be learning about the sun and moon. You made a model of what you know already, observed the sky and asked questions and this is how a scientist does research. Tomorrow we will do some investigations to find out more information.”

    Concepts:

    Students will share pre-knowledge of the sun and moon. They will understand that scientists use observations and collect data to learn. Students are naturally curious and will ask questions to deepen their understanding of new concepts.

    Formative Assessments:

    • Observing students share what they know about the sun and moon
    • Daytime and Night time model
    • Look for but don’t address right now:
      •  misconceptions about the sun only being in the sky during the day and the moon only being in the sky at night
      • The sun and moon staying in one place in the sky
      • the moon making its own light
      • the sun and or moon moving in the sky as opposed  to the Earth rotating and changing position in relation to the sun and moon

    Lesson 2: The Sun

    Investigation Routine

    Materials

    • Student Data Sheet
    • Science Notebook
    • Jumbo unifix cubes (optional)
    • Red crayon
    • Blue crayon
    • Thermometer
    • chalk
    • KLEWS chart (OER Commons, Kate Katz, Carla Zembal-Saul)

    Preparation

    • Identify a clear, sunny spot on the playground from which observations will be made
    • Plan to do observations near a pole (ex. flagpole or tetherball pole)
    • Create the chant (Beacon Learning Center) on chart paper

    Vocabulary

    • observe
    • arc
    • pattern

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Ask students to think about the sun in the sky.  “Is the sun visible right now?”  “Is the sun always visible in the sky?”  “Is the sun always in the same part of the sky?”  “How can we find out the answers to these questions?”
    • Say, “Today we are going to observe the sun in the sky.”  “We want to find out how the position of the sun and the temperature change during the day.”  Write the word “observe in the “S” section of the KLEWS chart with the definition.  Tell students, “When we make observations, we use our 5 senses to explore the world around us.  Today we will use our eyes to observe the sun.”  Be sure to warn students about the dangers of looking directly at the sun.

    Procedure 2

    • Take students outside to observe the sun 3 times, morning, mid-day, and afternoon, each time from the same place.   Using a non-standard unit, like jumbo unifix cubes or handspans, measure the apparent distance from the ground to the sun each time. Pick a perpendicular horizon line like either a housetop, building roof or a fence if you cannot see the natural horizon from the playground.  Students can do this by holding the hand or cubes straight out, at arm’s length, placing one fist straight out and align the bottom of your hand to the chosen horizon line, count upwards, stacking your other fist on top of the first one.  Continuing to stack fists until you have reached the bottom of the Moon .  Agree on the collected data and show the children through modeling how this can be done.  If you have to use a ½ handspan, talk about how you estimated the fraction using half of your four fingers in your fist.  (This kind of measuring can be done using Unifix cubes or a ruler, depending on the time of year and your students’ fine motor skills or knowledge of measurement.)
    • Record measurements each time on a student data sheet or in a Science Notebook. (Students are collecting quantitative data (measured data) and recording the results in a science notebook.  This data/evidence will be used to facilitate discussions about students’ observations and discoveries). (1.MD.2) (1.MD.C4)
    • We want to see how the position of the sun affects shadows.  Using chalk, trace the shadow line of a flagpole or tetherball pole during each of the 3 visits.  Using “kid feet,” measure the length of the shadow each time and record the length on the student data sheet or in a Science Notebook. (1.MD.2) (1.MD.C4)
    • Next, we want to see if there is a connection between the position of the sun and the temperature throughout the day.  During each observation of the sun, record the temperature outside.  (This is an opportunity to compare two two-digit numbers based on the tens and ones digits). (1.NBT.3)
    • After the mid-day observation of the sun, have students predict where the sun will be in the afternoon sky, based on its movements so far.

    Formative Assessment: 

    • Note whether students were able to accurately make and record observations? 
    • Were the students able to record data?  Look for students who are struggling to record the data.  Provide support.

    Procedure 3

    • Students will organize and analyze the data collected during the investigation.  Record evidence collected during the investigation under the “E” section of the KLEWS chart. Ask, “How does the sun appear to move in the sky?”  Write the pattern of movement under the “E” section of the KLEWS chart.  “What time is the sun highest in the sky?”  “Did the shadow move?”  “Which way did the shadow move?”  “Do the shadow lengths change?”  “ How do we know?”  “What time are the shadow lengths shortest/longest?”  Using the data, find the highest temperature for each day and circle it in red.  Find the lowest temperature for each day and circle it in blue.  Analyze the data, ask, “When was the temperature warmest each day?  When was the temperature the coolest?”
    • As you discuss the data, make a connection to the pattern:  Shadows are shorter when the sun is high in the sky and longer when the sun is low in the sky.  Write this new understanding in the “L” section of the KLEWS chart.  Ask, “What causes shadows to change?”  Make a connection that shadows change length and position as the sun changes position in the sky.
    • Ask, “How did the position of the Sun and the temperature change each day?  What connection can we make between the Sun’s position in the sky and the temperature?  Is there an observable and predictable pattern?”

    Procedure 4

    • Read the story, “Sunrise, Sunset” with students (http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/WebLessons/SunriseSunset/rise01.htm). Have students pay attention to the position of the sun in the sky throughout the day and the direction it appears to move. Ask them questions throughout the story about about time of day and position of the sun. (RI.1.1)
    • Create the chant on chart paper.  Recite it with students.  Draw a large compass on the chart paper.  Add pictures to describe how the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.  Label the pictures. (RL1.10) (SL.1.5)
    • Tell students that one way to describe the shape of the sun’s path in the sky is to call it an arc.  Add “arc” and the meaning, “part of a circle” to the “S” section of the KLEWS chart.

    Procedure 5

    • In Science Notebooks, have students draw a model to show the placement of the sun at different times of the day.  Divide the page into 3 sections.  Label each section, “morning, noon, afternoon.”  Students draw to show where the sun is in the sky in relation to the ground.

    Formative Assessment. 

    • The student drawings should reflect their learning that the Sun appears to move across the sky.
    •  This gives all students an opportunity to explain the phenomena moving from their concrete experience to a visual representation, which will eventually support them in constructing ideas and writing about more abstract concepts.
    • Ask, “Will the sun appear to move in the same way tomorrow?”  “How can we prove or verify your predictions?”
    • The next day, observe the sun’s position in the sky, the temperature, and the shadows throughout the day.  Compare the data with the diagram and data from the day before.
    • Discuss:  “What is the same?”  “What is different?”  “Do we notice a pattern?”  “What pattern in the sky does the diagram show?”  Add the word “pattern” and the meaning, “something that repeats and is predictable” to the “S” section of the KLEWS chart.  Add new learning about the pattern of movement to the “L” section of the KLEWS chart.
    • In Student Notebooks, students write using the sentence stems:  First, I thought…   Now I think… My evidence is ...  (W.1.8)

    Formative Assessment:

    • this is an opportunity for students  to  examine and revise their thinking as well as monitor their own learning progress. 
    • Look for students to provide evidence of their learning by using the data collected regarding sun movement, shadow movement/length, and temperature) Were students able to analyze the data and reach a conclusion?

    Lesson 3: The Moon (Day 1)

    Investigation Routine

    *This lesson sequence should be planned at a time when the Moon is visible during the school day.  Use the website (http://timeanddate.com/worldclock/moonrise.html) to plan accordingly.  Late May/Early June usually experiences Moonrise and Moonset during school hours. 

    Materials

    Preparation

    • Make sure you can view the moonrise and moonset during the next few days of school.
    • Make copies of the Moon Observation Blackline for each student. 

    Vocabulary

    • observe
    • pattern
    • arc
    • orbit

    Integration Points

    • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    • Ask students to think about what they know about the Moon.  Have students do a ‘turn and talk’ with a partner(s), remembering to give each partner time to share.  Elicit responses from the children; scribing them verbatim on the ‘K’(Know) section of the KLEWS chart.  If the discussion doesn’t get off the ground, probe the students with questions such as:
    • When can you see the Moon?  Does it change in any way? 
    • Can you see the Moon during the day?  I heard it was made out of cheese.  Do you agree with that statement?  Why or why not?  Why would someone think that? (We try and make sense of what we see by using explanations.  Let’s use evidence we gather to explain our thinking about how the Sun, Earth and Moon all interact together in the sky.) (SL.1.1)
    • Fold prepared copies of Moon Observation Blackline lengthwise showing the word ‘Moon’ vertically. Have them cut on the end lines and between each section to create 3 flaps that can be lifted up.  Have them think about observing the Moon at 3 different consecutive times during the day such as morning, noon and afternoon.  Have them use a crayon, marker or pen to draw what they think they would see at the first viewing of the moon under the first flap.  For the second flap, think about what the Moon might look like a few hours later and again in the afternoon for the third flap. (The students are creating an initial thinking model that may get revised after their learning experience.  It is important to value students’ initial thinking even if it is a clear misconception and scientifically incorrect because the evidence will hopefully change it.  Make sure they record it with something that cannot be erased.)

    Collect their initial thinking models to use again in Procedure 3.

    Procedure 2

    • Say, “Today we are going to go outside and observe the Moon.”  Write the word ‘observe’ in the ‘S’ section of the KLEWS chart.  Remind students, “When we make observations, we use our 5 senses to explore and gather information in our brains.  You can add simple drawings of eyes, ears, nose, mouth and a hand and ask them what senses they think we will use during the observations today.

    Take students outside where the Moon is visible and observe it 3 times during the day; morning, midday and afternoon.  Each time, gather data on where it is, what shape it is and how many handspans (or other unit of measure) high it is in the sky.  (By afternoon, the children should be pretty convinced about its shape and begin to notice the arc pathway of its travel across the sky.)

    When measuring with handspans, pick a perpendicular horizon line like either a housetop, building roof or a fence if you cannot see the natural horizon from the playground.  Place one of your fists straight out and align the bottom of your hand to the chosen horizon line.  Then, count upwards, stacking your other fist on top of the first one.  Continue stacking a fist until you have reached the bottom of the Moon.  Agree on the collected data and show the children through modeling how this can be done.  If you have to use a ½ handspan, talk about how you estimated the fraction using half of your four fingers in your fist.  (This kind of measuring can be done using Unifix cubes or a ruler, depending on the time of year and your students’ fine motor skills or knowledge of measurement.)

    • After each measuring session which can be coincided with recesses, put the data in the ‘E’ section of the KLEWS chart.  Example data is below:

    Example of entries in Moon Flipbook

    After the last measurement, write the data into greater than/less than configuration:  1<3<5 or 5>3>1 in the “E’ column. (1.NBT.3)

    Ask Students,

    • How much higher is the third measurement than the first one?(1.NBT.3)
    • “If you could stay after school and make another observation in 1-2 hours, where do you think the Moon would be?” 
    • “Could you predict where it might be at 7:00 pm based on it’s path in the sky right now?” (SL.1.1)

    Lesson 3: The Moon (Day 2)

    Procedure 3

    • Help students analyze the data collected during the exploration on the KLEWS chart.  Help them see the following patterns: The Moon changes place in the sky during the day.  The Moon begins low and moves higher.  As the Moon rises, it moves across the sky in an arc.  Image #2 Provides teacher background information on the pattern of the moon movement across the sky

     

    • Pass out their initial thinking models from Procedure 1.  Have students open their first flap and add the gathered evidence from the KLEWS chart into their initial thinking model with another color or a pencil; illustrating a horizon line, the Moon with its proper shape and the handspans up to it.  Have them do the same under the next flap, making sure they draw the second observation a little bit over to the right; beginning to show the arc pattern.  Repeat with the third set of data.  Remind them that if their initial model is different from the actual evidence, it means they are learning something new, not necessarily that they had a“wrong answer” before.  Sometimes, learning is about changing our thinking because of new evidence we see.  Remind them of when we learned about the Sun and we said,  First, I thought…   Now I know…

    Formative Assessment:

    • Look for students to draw an arc as the horizon line like pattern from the first moon on the left through the middle moon and over to the final moon on the right.  Students could also explain, trace with their fingers the pattern of the path of the sun and the moon. (use image #2 as a teacher guide)

     

    • When completed, have students open all three flaps and while looking at the data, ask,
      • “How does the Moon appear to move across the sky?” 
      • “How is this pattern similar to what we discovered about the Sun?” Remind students about the meaning of the word, ‘pattern’, and how we can use patterns we see to make predictions into the future.
      • “Is it possible to use this data to predict where the Moon might be in a few hours?
      • Will this happen again tomorrow?  Next year? (SL.1.1)
    • Explain that since the Moon’s lighted side is changing ever so slightly every day, it is hard to see the small change with our eyes so we can view a photograph or a time lapse video showing how the lighted side grows bigger and shrinks smaller during the month.  Show students Phases of the Moon  image #1 of the phases of the Moon and explain that as it travels around the Earth, only part of it catches the Sun’s light at certain times of each month. Post this vocabulary word and image in the ‘S’ section of the KLEWS chart.

     

    • Watch the link to NSTA for Kid’s author of “Next Time You See the Moon”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wz01pTvuMa0  or do a similar activity in the classroom with students.  This movement is called an orbit and it is a common pattern of movement in space.  Add the vocabulary word, orbit, to the ‘S’ section of the KLEWS chart as well as Example of Moon orbiting Earth, image  #3.
    •  
    • For further viewing, watch a time lapse of the Moon’s phases:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzbIlev4Z-4  and

    a time lapse of moonrise and moonset that happens in one day.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD7jN2hkTdY

    • After the videos, ask:
      • How is the moonrise and sunrise the same? 
      • How are they different?
      • Do they follow a similar pattern?  What is the pattern?
      • Could Moonrise ever happen at the same time as Sunrise? (Yes, during an eclipse!)
    • Finally, have students glue their Moon Flapbook into their science notebooks.  Ask students to use their Moon evidence and their Sun evidence to respond in writing and/or with drawn models and oral explanations. using one of two sentence stems: “Moonrise and sunrise are the same because…” Or “Moonrise and sunrise are different because…”  (W.1.8)

    Formative Assessment:

    • Look for students to say that the pattern of rising or lower in the east, being higher up at mid-day, and setting or lower in the west.  They could also draw a model of this with the sun and moon lower at the left side of the paper, at the top mid-day and lower at the right side later in the day. 
    • Look for students to respond that the two are different because the moon seems to change shape during a month and the sun does not.

     

    Lesson 3: The Moon (Day 3)

    Procedure 4

    Gather in a whole group near the KLEWS chart, focus on the Evidence and ask: 

    • Since we can predict roughly where the Moon will be in the sky in a few hours time, can we predict roughly when we will see a full moon in the sky based on how the lighted side increases or decreases? 
    • How about a half-moon or a new moon?  (Refer to image #1 of the phases of the Moon.)

     

    Move to the ‘L’ section of the chart and write:

    1. “There are patterns in the Moon’s movement and shape.  Patterns help us predict where it will move in the sky and what shape the lighted side will have.”
    2. “The Moon moves in an arc across in the sky, starting low and moving across the sky as it gets higher.” 
    3. Add “arc” to the ‘S’ section as well with the definition: The shape of the pattern of low to high across the sky and image #2.

     

    • Read or view the story, “Papa, Please Get the Moon for Me” by Eric Carle.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sGqAw7UM6qo Talk about how the Moon changed in the story while referring to the phases of the moon (image #1).  Note how the story started with a full moon.  Then the author painted the waning gibbous moon to gradually get skinnier to the left, disappear in the middle, begin to form a waxing gibbous to the right and then become a full moon again in the end.  Discuss why the full Moon made two appearances and what was really going on when, “it disappeared altogether”.  Ask students key questions throughout the book to understand if they are getting the details of the book (R1.1.1)

    Lesson 4: What We Have Learned About the Moon and the Sun

     

    Materials:

    • Student’s Science Notebook
    • KLEWS Chart

    Procedures

    Procedure 1

    Finally, ask students to get out their notebooks and while looking at their data and the whole KLEWS chart, use the evidence provided to answer the essential question: “How can we predict where the Moon or the Sun will be in a few hours time?”  Use the sentence stem:  “I can predict where the Moon/Sun will be in a few hours time because…” Or, “I can predict when there will be a sunset/sunrise/full moon/new moon because…”

    Summative Assessment:

    Use the items below as a rubric for assessing student understanding of the patterns of movement of the sun and moon at different times of day. 

    • the sun  and moon appear to move across the sky
    • shadows us figure out the position of the sun
    • there is a pattern to the apparent movement of the sun and moon that looks something like an arc.
    • the sun and the moon can be seen in the lower eastern sky in the morning, high in the sky mid-day, and lower in the west near sunset
    • the moon can often be seen during the day

     

    Appendix: Lesson Resources

    Article 1:  KLEWS-science.pdf.  https://ctsciencecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/KLEWS-science.pdf

    Story 1:  Sunrise, Sunset  http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/WebLessons/SunriseSunset/rise01.htm

    Video 1: KLEWS chart 101. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W90hV9qiWyY

    Video 2: Demonstration of the phases of the Moon.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wz01pTvuMa0

    Video 3:Time lapse of the Moon’s phases:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzbIlev4Z-4

     

    Video 4: Time lapse of moonrise and moonset:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD7jN2hkTdY

     

    Video 5: Story read aloud:“Papa, Please Get the Moon for Me” by Eric Carle.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sGqAw7UM6qo

     

    Attribution

    Cover photo:  https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Flighthouse.mq.edu.au%2Farticle%2Fplease-explain%2Fseptember-2019%2Fwhy-can-you-see-the-sun-and-the-moon-at-the-same-time&psig=AOvVaw3iMWdXV8kLvddij7ya6xq8&ust=1620169715775000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=2ahUKEwiguqzU0K7wAhUJS1MKHbdjCggQr4kDegUIARDGAQ  

    NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press | Public License

    Common Core State Standards © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved | Public License

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