Culturally Responsive Assessment in Teaching

Culturally Responsive Assessment in Teaching

Course Objectives

This course has three units:   

  • conceptualizing standards/objectives and learning targets
  • decomposing and deconstructing content standards
  • creating sound reasoning to employ digital and technological support. 

While engaging with this course, learners will have several outcomes: 

  • The learners will be able to list content standards relevant to their subject matter or teaching specialty.
  • The learners will be able to decompose and deconstruct content standards into 3 workable parts: process, content, and special conditions.
  • The learners will be able to apply Revised Bloom's Taxonomy to evaluate learning at different cognitive levels and write/reconstruct learning objectives suitable for all types of learners and at various levels. 


Help Koala Lou Finish The 2D Shape Patterns: Standards



Video Glossary of Terms

Watch the video as an introduction to concepts in this course.

Content and Performance Standards, Outcomes

 Time: 18 minutes

Introduction to the following concepts and terms: 

1. Content and Performance Standards

2. Types of Outcomes: Immediate Outcome Deferred Outcome

3. Learning Domains Cognitive (Knowledge) Affective (Attitude) Psychomotor (Skills)

4. Taxonomies

Unit 1: The Importance of Conceptualizing Content Standards/Objectives to Counteract Stereotypes and Incorporate Learner Contributions

Introduction to the unit:   The purpose of this unit is to determine what do we want students to know and be able to do. 

Audience: K-12 Educators who teach diverse learners,  Higher Education who teach diverse learners

Unit-level outcomes:  At the end of this lesson, you will know how to do the following:

  • Determine what a student should know and be able to do
  • Define content standards for various subjects (Social Studies, Science, Math, English Language Arts) in the State in which you teach. 
  • Classifying 6 types of learning targets (Skill, reasoning, products, disposition, knowledge)

Assessment and Evaluation

Making it Clear: What should a student know and be able to do (Content Standards)?


Participants will be able to list content standards relevant to subject matter or teaching discipline. 

The Standards
Content Standards


 Inquiry Questions

Define your process for determining what a student should know and be able to do? 

Define content standards for your State (Social Studies, Science, Math, English Language Arts)? 

Explain how are the content standards organized? 

Making Connections 

Listed below are some content standards. Look through the content standards listed below and select those appropriate for your STATE or subject matter. Answer the questions above.

American Council on the Teaching of a Foreign Language (ACTFL)

American Library Association (ALA) / American Association of School Librarians (AASL)

Association for Middle Level Education (AMLE)

American School Counselor Association (ASCA)

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

Council for Exceptional Children (NAGC/CEC)/Gifted Education Professionals (NAGC/CEC)

National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) - Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC)/National Educational Leadership Preparation (NELP) Standards

National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)

National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)

National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

SHAPE America-Health Education 

SHAPE America-Physical Education 

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

International Literacy Association (ILA)

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)


Building Instructional Math Muscles Balancing the Content and Process  Standards | W&M School of Education



Video: Goals, Objectives, and Outcomes 

 Time: 5 minutes


Goals, Objectives and Outcomes Time 5 minutes


Check for Understanding - Formative Assessment

Learning Objective: Participants will be able to list content standards relevant to subject matter or teaching discipline. 

Click Here and Submit Your Response to the following questions:

  1. How do you determine what students should know and be able to do?
  2. List content standards that you use in your classroom or course?
  3. Explain how the content standards are organized? 

Types of Learning Targets

One way to determine if your targets are clear and usable is to determine what kind of learning is being called for. Learning targets are classified into a framework that identifies five kinds of learning targets: knowledge, reasoning, skill, product, and disposition. 

Learning Target Types

Knowledge Targets

  • Knowledge targets represent the factual information, procedural knowledge, and conceptual understandings that underpin each discipline or subject matter. 
    • Math Example: Recognizes acute, obtuse, and right angles
    • ELA Example:   Identifies nouns and verbs
    • Science Example: Describes how organisms interact with each other to transfer energy and matter in an ecosystem. 

Reasoning Targets

  • Reasoning targets specify thought processes students are to learn to apply effectively (do well) within a range of subjects; e.g., solve problems, make inferences, draw conclusions, form, and defend judgment.
  • Students should develop the ability to apply knowledge in authentic contexts - that is, in contexts that transfer to work and life beyond school. This target requires students to engage in reasoning using their knowledge.
  • Reasoning processes can be thought of as falling into one of six overall patterns of reasoning: inference, analysis, comparison, classification, evaluation, and synthesis. 
  • Together, the six patterns of reasoning represent those most commonly found among taxonomies, content standards documents, and assessments. 
  • To test reasoning proficiency, the key is to determine "Who is doing the reasoning?" Are the students doing something more than remembering the answers?

      Six Patterns of Reasoning

  • Inference: Making a reasonable guess based on information or clues
  • Analysis: Examining the components or structure of something
  • Comparison: Describing similarities and differences between two or more items
  • Classification: Sorting things into categories based on certain characteristics
  • Evaluation: Expressing and defending an opinion, a point of view, a judgment, or a decision
  • Synthesis: Combining discrete elements to create something new

    Examples of Reasoning Targets

  • Math Reasoning Target - Uses data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest
  • ELA Reasoning Target - With prompt and support, describes the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear.
  • Social Studies Reasoning Target -  Compares and contrasts points of view from a historical event
  • Science Reasoning Target - Draws conclusions from experiment results
  • Health/PE Reasoning Target - Uses criteria to set goals for improving health and fitness practice
  • The Arts - Compares purposes of chosen musical examples (Music)
  • The Arts - Evaluates the quality of own work to refine it (Visual Arts)

Skill Targets

  • Skill targets are those learning targets where a real-time demonstration or physical performance is the heart of learning. 
  • Subjects such as physical education, fine arts, performing arts, and world languages, have skill development as the core of their discipline.

Examples of Skill Targets 

  • Math Skill Target - Measures the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements
  • ELA Skill Target - Pronounces, blends, and segments syllables in spoken words
  • Social Studies Skill Target - Participates in civic discussions
  • Science Skill Target - Uses laboratory equipment safely
  • Health/Physical Education Skill Target - Dribbles to keep the ball away from an opponent; passes and receives on the move
  • The Arts Skill Target - Integrates voice into character development (Theater)

Product Targets 

  • Product targets specification for qualities of a good product are the focus.
  • Product examples include " creates tables, graphs, scatter plots, and box plots to display data effectively.   
  • Curricula generally include far fewer product targets than knowledge and reasoning targets. 
  • Term papers, research reports, and lab reports are product targets when the curriculum guide, calls for students to create them. 
  • When products are assessed it yields evidence of the intended learning because the creation of the product is the stated learning.
  • Does the content standard call for the creation of a product? If so, it's a product target.
  • Confusing the activity with the learning target can cause difficulties when classifying product targets.
  • If the learning target does not call for the creation of a product, but you want to classify it as a product target, it is possible that you are including the task or activity students will engage in. 
  • The key question is " What is the intended learning" not "How will students demonstrate it?"

Examples of Product Targets

  • Math Product Target - Draws a bar graph to represent a data set with up to four categories.
  • ELA Product Target - Writes opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • Social Studies Product Target - Creates a timeline to show the order of early explorations and settlements.
  • Science Product Target -Makes pictographs to describe observations and draw conclusions.
  • Health/PE Product Target - Develops a personal health-related fitness plan.
  • The Arts Product Target - Creates drawings demonstrating one- and two-point perspectives (Visual Arts). 

Disposition Targets

  •  Disposition targets reflect attitudes and feelings. 
  • Disposition targets represent important affective goals we hold for students as byproducts of their educational experience and not assessed for the purpose of grading.
  • Although dispositions are nonacademic, they hold students accountable.

Examples of Disposition Targets

  • ELA Disposition Target - Look forward to group discussions
  • Math Disposition Target - Sees mathematics as important to learn
  • Social Studies Disposition Target - Respects individual worth and human dignity
  • Science Disposition Target - Seeks opportunities to understand how things work.
  • Health/PE Disposition Target - Enjoys playing a sport
  • The Arts Disposition Target - Values practice for its own sake.

Unit 2 Composing and Decomposing Learning Objectives

When you encounter a complex or unclear standard, the process of deconstruction is recommended. Deconstructing standards is the process of breaking a broad standard, goal, or benchmark into smaller, more explicit learning targets that can be used to guide daily classroom instruction. 

During the deconstruction process:

Step 1: Determine the target type (knowledge, reasoning, skill, disposition, or product). To determine this, consider whether the content standards are the acquisition of knowledge, the development of reasoning capabilities, the demonstration of physical skill, or the creation of a product. 

Step 2: Identify the prerequisite or the underlying knowledge, reasoning, and/or skills. At this step, consider the following questions: 

  • What does a student need to know and understand to attain mastery of this standard?
  • What patterns of reasoning, if any, are required to attain mastery of this standard?
  • What skills, if any, are required for mastery of this standard?
  • What products, if any, would students need to be proficient in creating to master this standard?

Step 3: Check your work for alignment and reasonableness. Check for alignment means checking to be sure that all of the learning targets you have listed are truly necessary to accomplish the ultimate target.  Checking for reasonableness means paying attention to how many enabling targets you have listed. 

Components of a Learning Objective/Target

Learning objectives/Targets contain a verb (an action) and content ( usually a noun) and often contain special conditions (how).

  • The verb refers to the cognitive level of understanding needed to master the standard (remember, infer, construct, contrast, justify, predict, etc.). 
  • The content describes the subject matter or concepts (knowledge) that students are expected to learn (math, fractions, poem, civil war, life cycle, etc.). 
  • The special conditions refer to how the learning objective will be accomplished  ( ... by tens, prompting, using manipulatives, etc,).


Checking for Understanding

Using the attached Decomposing Chart, complete the assessment and use the linked  Unpacking Document or  for support. 


Revised Blooms Taxonomy 



How to Write Learning Objectives Using Revise Bloom's Taxonomy Time: 11 minutes

How to Write Learning Objectives Using Bloom's Taxonomy Time: 11:00 minutes

In this video, we will discuss how to write specific, measurable, and observable learning objectives using Bloom's Taxonomy.


Video: The A B C D of Writing Learning Objectives   Time 16:22

A B C D of Writing Learning Objectives

A - Audience

Example: The student will be able to...

B - Behavior (Revised Blooms Taxonomy) (Verb)

               Example: classify, label, list, compare, justify, create

C - Condition (special conditions - explains how and to what degree)

               Example: by using manipulatives, by tens, by using an array 

D - Degree of Proficiency 

                Example: 80%, without error,  7 out of 10, 

Putting it all together

You are a 3rd-grade teacher at Smalltown Elementary School, using the A B C D method, write one learning objective from each subject that you teach. Use the content standards that were identified in section 1 to write learning objectives. 

A - Audience

Example: The student will be able to...

B - Behavior (Revised Blooms Taxonomy) (Verb)

               Example: classify, label, list, compare, justify, create

C - Condition (special conditions - explains how and to what degree)

               Example: by using manipulatives, by tens, by using an array 

D - Degree of Proficiency 

                Example: 80%, without error,  7 out of 10, 

Unit 3: Focus on Diversity of Learners

Workshops and Speaker Series | University of Phoenix Research Hub

Use the following as a guide when evaluating cognitive levels (Revised Blooms) and writing learning objectives suitable for all types of learners at various levels. 

What changes would you make to the learning objectives to promote higher-order thinking? Please explain.

Using revised Bloom Taxonomy, redesign one learning objective from your content standards for the following:

  1. students who have limited English  
  2. students with disabilities
  3. students that are low achievers 
  4. students with learning disabilities
  5. students that are high achievers
  6. students of poverty
  7. male students of African American race


What influence will you have on providing a clear path or road map to learning? 

What do you think  the connections are between standards and assessments? 


Please answer the following questions and POST THEM IN THE COMMENTS SECTION OF THE ORIGINAL TEMPLATE OER. 

Reflection questions for template continous improvement:

1. What worked well for you when using this template?


2. What did not work well when using this template?


3. What changes would you make to this template the next time you use it?


4. Would you recommend this template to other educators? Why? Why not?