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Open science challenges, benefits and tips in early career and beyond
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The movement towards open science is a consequence of seemingly pervasive failures to replicate previous research. This transition comes with great benefits but also significant challenges that are likely to affect those who carry out the research, usually early career researchers (ECRs). Here, we describe key benefits, including reputational gains, increased chances of publication, and a broader increase in the reliability of research. The increased chances of publication are supported by exploratory analyses indicating null findings are substantially more likely to be published via open registered reports in comparison to more conventional methods. These benefits are balanced by challenges that we have encountered and that involve increased costs in terms of flexibility, time, and issues with the current incentive structure, all of which seem to affect ECRs acutely. Although there are major obstacles to the early adoption of open science, overall open science practices should benefit both the ECR and improve the quality of research. We review 3 benefits and 3 challenges and provide suggestions from the perspective of ECRs for moving towards open science practices, which we believe scientists and institutions at all levels would do well to consider.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
PLOS Biology
Author:
Christopher Allen
David M. A. Mehler
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Peer Review: Decisions, decisions
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Journals are exploring new approaches to peer review in order to reduce bias, increase transparency and respond to author preferences. Funders are also getting involved. If you start reading about the subject of peer review, it won't be long before you encounter articles with titles like Can we trust peer review?, Is peer review just a crapshoot? and It's time to overhaul the secretive peer review process. Read some more and you will learn that despite its many shortcomings – it is slow, it is biased, and it lets flawed papers get published while rejecting work that goes on to win Nobel Prizes – the practice of having your work reviewed by your peers before it is published is still regarded as the 'gold standard' of scientific research. Carry on reading and you will discover that peer review as currently practiced is a relatively new phenomenon and that, ironically, there have been remarkably few peer-reviewed studies of peer review.

Subject:
Applied Science
Information Science
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
eLife
Author:
Peter Rodgers
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Peer Review Kit: A Resource for Educators
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The Peer Review Kit: A Resource for Educators was developed by learning designers at ed2go, a Cengage company. The kit provides portable peer review content that can be repurposed and revised by educators to suit their specific online course needs. This lesson explains what peer review is, why it's important, and how to practice peer review in an online setting (both asynchronous and synchronous). Content is specific to creative writing, but can be easily modified to fit other subject areas. Quick true or false self-assessments, a multiple-choice quiz, sample peer review assignments, rubrics, discussion prompts, and resources for further learning are also provided. Peer review is a valuable communication skill that employers seek out in potential employees. Strategies for how to apply this soft skill to the job hunt are discussed within the lesson.

Subject:
Business and Communication
Career and Technical Education
Communication
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Assessment
Lesson
Reading
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Author:
Jeanine Glatfelter
Amanda Stockholm
Date Added:
06/03/2021
Peer Review for International Students
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International students are often unsure of how to help each other with their writing within an American academic context.  They might feel they do not have the expertise in the format or the content to improve each other's work.  In this type of targeted lesson, students feel empowered to make comments based on what they hear, and they are not required to make so many comments that it seems overwhelming.  In addition, because of the reading and listening aspects of the lesson, students are engaged in practicing different types of skills in the activity.  The goal is for students to come away with enough constructive criticism from their peers to move forward with the next draft of their written work but in an environment that is supportive and practical for their purposes.  Created by Aimee Weinstein, INTO George Mason University with support from Mason 4-VA. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Aimee Weinstein
Date Added:
09/25/2017
The Post-Embargo Open Access Citation Advantage: It Exists (Probably), It’s Modest (Usually), and the Rich Get Richer (of Course)
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CC BY
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Many studies show that open access (OA) articles—articles from scholarly journals made freely available to readers without requiring subscription fees—are downloaded, and presumably read, more often than closed access/subscription-only articles. Assertions that OA articles are also cited more often generate more controversy. Confounding factors (authors may self-select only the best articles to make OA; absence of an appropriate control group of non-OA articles with which to compare citation figures; conflation of pre-publication vs. published/publisher versions of articles, etc.) make demonstrating a real citation difference difficult. This study addresses those factors and shows that an open access citation advantage as high as 19% exists, even when articles are embargoed during some or all of their prime citation years. Not surprisingly, better (defined as above median) articles gain more when made OA.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
PLOS ONE
Author:
Jim Ottaviani
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size
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Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology.

Subject:
Psychology
Social Science
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
PLOS ONE
Author:
Anton Kühberger
Astrid Fritz
Thomas Scherndl
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Reducing Volcanic Hazards to People and Property - An Assignment with Electronic Peer Review
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This electronic peer review exercise has students discuss the major volcanic hazards and risks to humans.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Assessment
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Laura Guertin
Date Added:
09/18/2022
Registered Reports Q&A
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CC BY
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This webinar addresses questions related to writing, reviewing, editing, or funding a study using the Registered Report format, featuring Chris Chambers and ...

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Lesson
Provider:
Center for Open Science
Author:
Chris Chambers
david mellor
Date Added:
03/31/2021
Source Evaluation Using a Facebook Fight
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This activity walks through a real life Facebook Fight and walks through some processes of source evaluation. Using a familiar object such as Facebook, makes the source evaluation process relatable and tangible for students.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lecture
Date Added:
04/25/2018
Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence of Study Publication Bias and Outcome Reporting Bias — An Updated Review
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CC BY
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Background The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias and outcome reporting bias have been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable for decision making. Methodology/Principal Findings In this update, we review and summarise the evidence from cohort studies that have assessed study publication bias or outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials. Twenty studies were eligible of which four were newly identified in this update. Only two followed the cohort all the way through from protocol approval to information regarding publication of outcomes. Fifteen of the studies investigated study publication bias and five investigated outcome reporting bias. Three studies have found that statistically significant outcomes had a higher odds of being fully reported compared to non-significant outcomes (range of odds ratios: 2.2 to 4.7). In comparing trial publications to protocols, we found that 40–62% of studies had at least one primary outcome that was changed, introduced, or omitted. We decided not to undertake meta-analysis due to the differences between studies. Conclusions This update does not change the conclusions of the review in which 16 studies were included. Direct empirical evidence for the existence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias is shown. There is strong evidence of an association between significant results and publication; studies that report positive or significant results are more likely to be published and outcomes that are statistically significant have higher odds of being fully reported. Publications have been found to be inconsistent with their protocols. Researchers need to be aware of the problems of both types of bias and efforts should be concentrated on improving the reporting of trials.

Subject:
Applied Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
PLOS ONE
Author:
Carrol Gamble
Jamie J. Kirkham
Kerry Dwan
Paula R. Williamson
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Training | Assessing publication quality
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CC BY-ND
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In this training, students can practice assessing the quality of scholarly information in economics and business studies based on a set of established criteria. The interactive exercises cover the following topics: assessing scholarly journals and articles based on their citation, checking if an article has gone through a peer review process, assessing the quality of an online publication using the CRAAP-test.

Subject:
Business and Communication
Economics
Social Science
Material Type:
Interactive
Module
Author:
ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
EconBiz
Date Added:
10/13/2022
Unit 2: Application of Concepts to Case Studies
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In Unit 2, students apply and evaluate foundational concepts about storm hazards and risk in the context of two cases studies: Superstorm Sandy (2012) and the Storm of the Century (1993). Through different activities and assignments, students develop skills for finding, evaluating, and relating data to case studies and build an understanding of preparedness, response, and resilience. The activities include: an analysis of hazard mitigation plans for their local community, examination of storm-related geophysical processes in the context of societal risks, preparation of a press release for community preparedness, and a peer review and revision opportunity for the press releases. Instructors may also end this unit by having students revise their concept maps from Unit 1, applying lessons learned in Units 1 and 2.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Module
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Lisa Doner
Lorraine Motola
Patricia Stapleton
Date Added:
04/05/2022
Viewpoint on Causes of Global Warming - An Assignment Using Anonymous Electronic Peer Review With a Dropbox
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This is an anonymous electronic peer review exercise that utilizes a dropbox, where students detail and support their viewpoint on nonhuman-induced global warming.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Applied Science
Atmospheric Science
Biology
Environmental Science
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Assessment
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Laura Guertin
Date Added:
09/22/2022
Writing About Plate Tectonics: (Calibrated Peer Review)
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This is an example of a writing assignment focussed on the use of data to support the theory of plate tectonics.

(Note: this resource was added to OER Commons as part of a batch upload of over 2,200 records. If you notice an issue with the quality of the metadata, please let us know by using the 'report' button and we will flag it for consideration.)

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Material Type:
Assessment
Data Set
Homework/Assignment
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
Provider Set:
Teach the Earth
Author:
Bill Prothero
Date Added:
09/28/2022
Writing Unleashed
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Third revision, August 2017.

Welcome to Writing Unleashed, designed for use as a textbook in first-year college composition programs, written as an extremely brief guide for students, jam-packed with teachers’ voices, students’ voices, and engineered for fun.

This textbook was created by Dana Anderson, Ronda Marman, and Sybil Priebe - all first-year college composition instructors at the North Dakota State College of Science in Wahpeton, ND.

Download here: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1JoX94RjwS-WoPnGCyIZ9ZTQeX74iG9hS

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Languages
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
North Dakota State College of Science
Author:
S Priebe
Date Added:
06/26/2019
The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals
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To increase transparency in science, some scholarly journals are publishing peer review reports. But it is unclear how this practice affects the peer review process. Here, we examine the effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals involved in a pilot study at Elsevier. By considering 9,220 submissions and 18,525 reviews from 2010 to 2017, we measured changes both before and during the pilot and found that publishing reports did not significantly compromise referees’ willingness to review, recommendations, or turn-around times. Younger and non-academic scholars were more willing to accept to review and provided more positive and objective recommendations. Male referees tended to write more constructive reports during the pilot. Only 8.1% of referees agreed to reveal their identity in the published report. These findings suggest that open peer review does not compromise the process, at least when referees are able to protect their anonymity.

Subject:
Applied Science
Information Science
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Nature Communications
Author:
Bahar Mehmani
Emilia López-Iñesta
Flaminio Squazzoni
Francisco Grimaldo
Giangiacomo Bravo
Date Added:
08/07/2020